לוֹד וְאוֹנוֹ וְגֵיא הַחֲרָשִׁים — מוּקָּפוֹת חוֹמָה מִימוֹת יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בִּן נוּן הֲווֹ. The cities Lod, and Ono, and Gei HeḤarashim are cities that have been surrounded by walls since the days of Joshua, son of Nun.
וְהָנֵי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בְּנַנְהִי? וְהָא אֶלְפַּעַל בְּנַנְהִי, דִּכְתִיב: ״[וּ]בְנֵי אֶלְפַּעַל עֵבֶר וּמִשְׁעָם וָשָׁמֶר הוּא בָּנָה אֶת אוֹנוֹ וְאֶת לוֹד וּבְנוֹתֶיהָ״! וּלְטַעְמָיךְ, אָסָא בְּנַנְהִי, דִּכְתִיב: ״וַיִּבֶן (אָסָא אֶת עָרֵי הַבְּצוּרוֹת אֲשֶׁר לִיהוּדָה)״. The Gemara asks: Did Joshua, son of Nun, really build these cities? Didn’t Elpaal build them at a later date, as it is written: “And the sons of Elpaal: Eber, and Misham, and Shemed, who built Ono and Lod, with its hamlets” (I Chronicles 8:12)? The Gemara counters: According to your reasoning, that this verse proves that these cities were built later, you can also say that Asa, king of Judah, built them, as it is written: “And he, Asa, built fortified cities in Judah” (see II Chronicles 14:5). Therefore, it is apparent that these cities were built more than once.
אָמַר רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר: הָנֵי מוּקָּפוֹת חוֹמָה מִימוֹת יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בִּן נוּן הֲווֹ. חֲרוּב בִּימֵי פִּילֶגֶשׁ בְּגִבְעָה, וַאֲתָא אֶלְפַּעַל בְּנַנְהִי. הֲדוּר אִינְּפוּל, אֲתָא אָסָא שַׁפְּצִינְהוּ. Rabbi Elazar said: These cities were surrounded by a wall since the days of Joshua, son of Nun, and they were destroyed in the days of the concubine in Gibea, as they stood in the tribal territory of Benjamin, and in that war all of the cities of Benjamin were destroyed (see Judges, chapters 19–21). Elpaal then came and built them again. They then fell in the wars between Judah and Israel, and Asa came and restored them.
דַּיְקָא נָמֵי, דִּכְתִיב: ״וַיֹּאמֶר לִיהוּדָה נִבְנֶה אֶת הֶעָרִים הָאֵלֶּה״, מִכְּלָל דְּעָרִים הֲווֹ מֵעִיקָּרָא. שְׁמַע מִינַּהּ. The Gemara comments: The language of the verse is also precise according to this explanation, as it is written with regard to Asa: “And he said to Judah: Let us build these cities” (II Chronicles 14:6), which proves by inference that they had already been cities at the outset, and that he did not build new cities. The Gemara concludes: Indeed, learn from this that it is so.
וְאָמַר רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן לֵוִי: נָשִׁים חַיָּיבוֹת בְּמִקְרָא מְגִילָּה, שֶׁאַף הֵן הָיוּ בְּאוֹתוֹ הַנֵּס. וְאָמַר רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן לֵוִי: פּוּרִים שֶׁחָל לִהְיוֹת בְּשַׁבָּת, שׁוֹאֲלִין וְדוֹרְשִׁין בְּעִנְיָנוֹ שֶׁל יוֹם. § And Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi also said: Women are obligated in the reading of the Megilla, as they too were significant partners in that miracle. And Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi also said: When Purim occurs on Shabbat, one asks questions and expounds upon the subject of the day.
מַאי אִרְיָא פּוּרִים? אֲפִילּוּ יוֹם טוֹב נָמֵי! דְּתַנְיָא: מֹשֶׁה תִּיקֵּן לָהֶם לְיִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁיְּהוּ שׁוֹאֲלִין וְדוֹרְשִׁין בְּעִנְיָנוֹ שֶׁל יוֹם: הִלְכוֹת פֶּסַח בַּפֶּסַח, הִלְכוֹת עֲצֶרֶת בָּעֲצֶרֶת, וְהִלְכוֹת חַג בֶּחָג! The Gemara raises a question with regard to the last halakha: Why was it necessary to specify Purim? The same principle applies also to the Festivals, as it is taught in a baraita: Moses enacted for the Jewish people that they should ask questions about and expound upon the subject of the day: They should occupy themselves with the halakhot of Passover on Passover, with the halakhot of Shavuot on Shavuot, and with the halakhot of the festival of Sukkot on the festival of Sukkot.
פּוּרִים אִיצְטְרִיכָא לֵיהּ, מַהוּ דְּתֵימָא: נִגְזוֹר מִשּׁוּם דְּרַבָּה, קָא מַשְׁמַע לַן. The Gemara answers: It was necessary for Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi to mention Purim, lest you say that when Purim falls on Shabbat we should decree that it is prohibited to expound upon the halakhot of the day due to the concern of Rabba, who said that the reason the Megilla is not read on a Purim that falls on Shabbat is due to a concern that one carry the Megilla in the public domain. Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi therefore teaches us that expounding the halakhot of the day is not prohibited as a preventive measure lest one read the Megilla on Shabbat.
וְאָמַר רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן לֵוִי: חַיָּיב אָדָם לִקְרוֹת אֶת הַמְּגִילָּה בַּלַּיְלָה וְלִשְׁנוֹתָהּ בַּיּוֹם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: ״אֱלֹהַי אֶקְרָא יוֹמָם וְלֹא תַעֲנֶה וְלַיְלָה וְלֹא דוּמִיָּה לִי״. And Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi further said with regard to Purim: A person is obligated to read the Megilla at night and then to repeat it [lishnota] during the day, as it is stated: “O my God, I call by day but You do not answer; and at night, and there is no surcease for me” (Psalms 22:3), which alludes to reading the Megilla both by day and by night.
סְבוּר מִינָּה לְמִקְרְיַיהּ בְּלֵילְיָא וּלְמִיתְנֵא מַתְנִיתִין דִּידַהּ בִּימָמָא. אֲמַר לְהוּ רַבִּי יִרְמְיָה: לְדִידִי מִיפָּרְשָׁא לִי מִינֵּיהּ דְּרַבִּי חִיָּיא בַּר אַבָּא, כְּגוֹן דְּאָמְרִי אִינָשֵׁי: אֶעֱבוֹר פָּרַשְׁתָּא דָּא וְאֶתְנְיַיהּ. Some of the students who heard this statement understood from it that one is obligated to read the Megilla at night and to study its relevant tractate of Mishna by day, as the term lishnota can be understood to mean studying Mishna. Rabbi Yirmeya said to them: It was explained to me personally by Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba himself that the term lishnota here has a different connotation, for example, as people say: I will conclude this section and repeat it, i.e., I will review my studies. Similarly, Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi’s statement means that one must repeat the reading of the Megilla by day after reading it at night.
אִיתְּמַר נָמֵי, אָמַר רַבִּי חֶלְבּוֹ אָמַר עוּלָּא בִּירָאָה: חַיָּיב אָדָם לִקְרוֹת אֶת הַמְּגִילָּה בַּלַּיְלָה וְלִשְׁנוֹתָהּ בַּיּוֹם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: ״לְמַעַן יְזַמֶּרְךָ כָבוֹד וְלֹא יִדּוֹם ה׳ אֱלֹהַי לְעוֹלָם אוֹדֶךָּ״. The Gemara notes that this ruling was also stated by another amora, as Rabbi Ḥelbo said that Ulla Bira’a said: A person is obligated to read the Megilla at night and then repeat it during the day, as it is stated: “So that my glory may sing praise to You and not be silent; O Lord, my God, I will give thanks to You forever” (Psalms 30:13). The dual formulation of singing praise and not being silent alludes to reading the Megilla both by night and by day.
אֶלָּא שֶׁהַכְּפָרִים מַקְדִּימִין לְיוֹם הַכְּנִיסָה. אָמַר רַבִּי חֲנִינָא: חֲכָמִים הֵקֵילּוּ עַל הַכְּפָרִים לִהְיוֹת מַקְדִּימִין לְיוֹם הַכְּנִיסָה כְּדֵי שֶׁיְּסַפְּקוּ מַיִם וּמָזוֹן לַאֲחֵיהֶם שֶׁבַּכְּרַכִּין. § We learned in the mishna that residents of unwalled towns read the Megilla on the fourteenth of Adar; however, residents of villages may advance their reading to the day of assembly, the Monday or Thursday preceding Purim. Rabbi Ḥanina said: The Sages were lenient with the villages and allowed them to advance their reading of the Megilla to the day of assembly, so that they could be free to provide water and food to their brethren in the cities on the day of Purim. If everyone would be busy reading the Megilla on the fourteenth, the residents of the cities would not have enough to eat.