Megillah 32aמגילה ל״ב א
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32aל״ב א

משום דאפכי להו

The Gemara answers: Because there are those who reversed the names in the baraita and attributed the position of Rabbi Yehuda to Rabbi Meir, and vice versa. Therefore, in order to avoid any lack of clarity, Rabbi Zeira stated the halakha explicitly.

ת"ר פותח ורואה גולל ומברך וחוזר ופותח וקורא דברי רבי מאיר רבי יהודה אומר פותח ורואה ומברך וקורא

The Sages taught in a baraita: When a person reads from the Torah, he should open the scroll and see the place from where he will read, furl it so that it is closed, and recite the blessing, and then he should again open the scroll, and read. This is the statement of Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Yehuda said: He should open the scroll, and see the place from where he will read, and, without closing it again, he should recite the blessing, and read.

מאי טעמא דרבי מאיר כדעולא דאמר עולא מפני מה אמרו הקורא בתורה לא יסייע למתורגמן כדי שלא יאמרו תרגום כתוב בתורה הכא נמי כדי שלא יאמרו ברכות כתובין בתורה

The Gemara asks: What is the reason for Rabbi Meir’s opinion that the blessing is not recited over an open scroll? The Gemara answers: His reasoning is in accordance with the statement of Ulla, as Ulla said: For what reason did the Sages say that one who reads from the Torah should not assist the translator, but rather the translation should be exclusively said by the translator? In order that people should not say that the translation is written in the Torah. Here too, the scroll should be closed when reciting the blessings, in order that people should not say that the blessings are written in the Torah.

ורבי יהודה תרגום איכא למיטעי ברכות ליכא למיטעי

And Rabbi Yehuda is not concerned about this, as he claims that with regard to the translation, there is the possibility of people erring in this way, but with regard to the blessings, there is no concern about people erring. People will realize the blessings are not actually part of the Torah’s text because they are recited by each person who reads.

אמר רבי זירא אמר רב מתנה הלכה פותח ורואה ומברך וקורא ולימא הלכה כר' יהודה משום דאפכי להו

Rabbi Zeira said that Rav Mattana said: The halakha is that he should open the scroll, see the place from which he will read, and, without closing it again, he should recite the blessing and read. The Gemara asks: If so, let him simply say: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda. Why did he have to explicitly state the whole halakha? The Gemara answers: Because there are those who reversed the names in the baraita and attributed the position of Rabbi Yehuda to Rabbi Meir and vice versa. In order to avoid any lack of clarity, Rabbi Zeira stated the halakha explicitly.

אמר ר' זירא אמר רב מתנה הלוחות והבימות אין בהן משום קדושה

Rabbi Zeira said that Rav Mattana said: The boards, i.e., the empty margins of a Torah scroll, and the platforms from which the Torah is read do not have any sanctity.

אמר ר' שפטיה אמר ר' יוחנן הגולל ספר תורה צריך שיעמידנו על התפר

§ Rabbi Shefatya said that Rabbi Yoḥanan said: When one furls a Torah scroll, he needs to position it so that it closes on the seam between two sheets of parchment. Once closed, the seam should be between the two rolls of the scroll, so that if it is mishandled or overly tightened, it will come apart along the seam and not be torn across the writing.

ואמר ר' שפטיה א"ר יוחנן הגולל ספר תורה גוללו מבחוץ ואין גוללו מבפנים

And Rabbi Shefatya said that Rabbi Yoḥanan said: When one rolls a Torah scroll from one section to another, he should roll it from the outside, i.e., he should position the scroll so the two rollers are parallel to him and then roll the scroll by rotating the roller farthest away from him by rotating it toward himself, and he should not roll it from the inside, by rotating the roller nearest to him away from himself. If one does this and loses control, the scroll could roll away from him onto the floor.

וכשהוא מהדקו מהדקו מבפנים ואינו מהדקו מבחוץ

And when one tightens the scroll, after he has found the new section, he should tighten it from the inside, by rotating the roller nearest to him, and not from the outside, by rotating the roller furthest away from him, in order not to extend his arms over the text of the Torah and obscure the view of the community, for it is a mitzva for them to be able to see the text.

ואמר ר' שפטיה א"ר יוחנן עשרה שקראו בתורה הגדול שבהם גולל ספר תורה הגוללו נוטל שכר כולן דאמר ר' יהושע בן לוי עשרה שקראו בתורה הגולל ספר תורה קיבל שכר כולן שכר כולן סלקא דעתך אלא אימא קיבל שכר כנגד כולן

And Rabbi Shefatya said that Rabbi Yoḥanan said: If ten people read from the Torah, the greatest among them should furl the Torah scroll, for this is the most distinguished honor. And the one who furls it takes the reward of all of them, as Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: If ten people read from the Torah, the one who furls it receives the reward of all of them. The Gemara asks: Can it enter your mind to say that he actually receives the reward of all of them? Why should all the others forfeit their reward? Rather, say instead: He receives a reward equivalent to that of all of them.

ואמר ר' שפטיה אמר ר' יוחנן מנין שמשתמשין בבת קול שנאמר (ישעיהו ל, כא) ואזניך תשמענה דבר מאחריך לאמר והני מילי דשמע קל גברא במתא וקל איתתא בדברא והוא דאמר הין הין והוא דאמר לאו לאו

And Rabbi Shefatya said that Rabbi Yoḥanan said: If one was deliberating about whether to do a certain action, and a Divine Voice indicated what he should do, from where is it derived that one may make use of a Divine Voice and rely upon it? As it is stated: “And your ears shall hear a word behind you saying: This is the way, walk in it” (Isaiah 30:21). The Gemara comments: This applies only when one heard a male voice in the city, which is unusual, for men are usually found in the fields, or when one heard a female voice in the fields, for women are generally not found there. Since the voice is unusual, one need not doubt it and may rely upon it. And that applies when the voice repeated its message and said: Yes, yes. And that also applies when the voice said: No, no.

ואמר ר' שפטיה אמר ר' יוחנן כל הקורא בלא נעימה ושונה בלא זמרה עליו הכתוב אומר (יחזקאל כ, כה) וגם אני נתתי להם חוקים לא טובים וגו'

And Rabbi Shefatya said that Rabbi Yoḥanan said: Concerning anyone who reads from the Torah without a melody or studies the Mishna without a song, the verse states: “So too I gave them statutes that were not good, and judgments whereby they should not live” (Ezekiel 20:25), as one who studies Torah through song demonstrates that he is fond of his learning. Furthermore, the tune helps him remember what he has learned.

מתקיף לה אביי משום דלא ידע לבסומי קלא (יחזקאל כ, כה) משפטים לא יחיו בהם קרית ביה אלא כדרב משרשיא דאמר שני תלמידי חכמים היושבים בעיר אחת ואין נוחין זה את זה בהלכה עליהם הכתוב אומר וגם אני נתתי להם חוקים לא טובים ומשפטים לא יחיו בהם

Abaye strongly objects to this: Just because one does not know how to make his voice pleasant, you read concerning him: “And judgments whereby they should not live”? Rather, the verse should be understood in accordance with the statement of Rav Mesharshiyya, who said: Concerning two Torah scholars who dwell in the same city and are not pleasant to one other in matters of halakha, and they quarrel and stir up controversy, the verse states: “So too I gave them statutes that were not good, and judgments whereby they should not live.”

אמר רבי פרנך אמר רבי יוחנן כל האוחז ספר תורה ערום נקבר ערום ערום סלקא דעתך אלא אימא נקבר ערום בלא מצות

Rabbi Parnakh said that Rabbi Yoḥanan said: Anyone who holds onto an uncovered Torah scroll, i.e., holds the parchment directly without anything intervening, will be punished by being buried uncovered. The Gemara asks: Can it enter your mind to say that he will be actually be buried uncovered? Why should he be buried in such a disgraceful manner? Rather, say that he will be buried metaphorically uncovered, i.e., without the merit of having performed mitzvot.

בלא מצות סלקא דעתך אלא אמר אביי נקבר ערום בלא אותה מצוה

The Gemara again asks: Can it enter your mind to say that he will be buried without the merit of having performed mitzvot? Why should he forfeit the merit of all the mitzvot that he performed during his lifetime? Rather, Abaye said: He will be buried metaphorically uncovered, i.e., without the merit of that mitzva. He forfeits the reward of the mitzva he performed while holding directly onto the parchment.

אמר רבי ינאי בריה דרבי ינאי סבא משמיה דרבי ינאי רבה מוטב תיגלל המטפחת ואל יגלל ספר תורה:

Rabbi Yannai, son of Rabbi Yannai the Elder, said in the name of Rabbi Yannai the Great: It is proper that the cloth cover of a Torah scroll be rolled around the scroll, while holding the scroll stationary, and one should not roll the Torah scroll itself in the cloth in order to cover it.

(ויקרא כג, מד) וידבר משה את מועדי ה' אל בני ישראל מצותן שיהיו קורין אותן כל אחד ואחד בזמנו: ת"ר משה תיקן להם לישראל שיהו שואלין ודורשין בענינו של יום הלכות פסח בפסח הלכות עצרת בעצרת הלכות חג בחג:

§ The mishna states: The verse “And Moses declared to the children of Israel the appointed seasons of the Lord” (Leviticus 23:44) indicates that part of the mitzva of the Festivals is that they should read the portion relating to them, each one in its appointed time. The Sages taught in a baraita: Moses enacted for the Jewish people that they should make halakhic inquiries and expound upon the matter of the day. They should occupy themselves with the halakhot of Passover on Passover, with the halakhot of Shavuot on Shavuot, and with the halakhot of Sukkot on Sukkot.



הדרן עלך בני העיר וסליקא לה מסכת מגילה

May we return to you chapter “The people of the city” and this is the completion of Tractate Megillah.