Megillah 31a:9מגילה ל״א א
The William Davidson Talmudתלמוד מהדורת ויליאם דוידסון
Toggle Reader Menu Display Settings
31aל״א א

ברכות וקללות אין מפסיקין בקללות אלא אחד קורא את כולן

they read the portion of blessings and curses (Leviticus, chapter 26). One should not interrupt the reading of the curses by having two different people read them. Rather, one person reads all of them.

בשני ובחמישי בשבת במנחה קורין כסדרן ואין עולים להם מן החשבון

On Mondays, and on Thursdays, and on Shabbat during the afternoon service, they read in accordance with the regular weekly order, i.e., they proceed to read the first section of the Torah portion that follows the portion that was read on the previous Shabbat morning. However, these readings are not counted as a progression in the reckoning of reading the Torah portions, i.e., they do not proceed on Monday to read the section that immediately follows the section read on Shabbat during the afternoon, and then the following section on Thursday. Rather, until the reading on the following Shabbat morning, they return to and read the same first section of the Torah portion that follows the portion that was read on the previous Shabbat morning.

שנאמר (ויקרא כג, מד) וידבר משה את מועדי ה' אל בני ישראל מצותן שיהו קורין כל אחד ואחד בזמנו:

On Festivals and holidays, they read a portion relating to the character of the day, as it is stated: “And Moses declared to the children of Israel the appointed seasons of the Lord” (Leviticus 23:44), which indicates that part of the mitzva of the Festivals is that the people should read the portion relating to them, each one in its appointed time.

גמ׳ ת"ר בפסח קורין בפרשת מועדות ומפטירין בפסח (יהושע ה, י) גלגל והאידנא דאיכא תרי יומי יומא קמא בפסח גלגל ולמחר בפסח (מלכים ב כג, טז) יאשיהו

GEMARA: The Sages taught in a baraita: On the first day of Passover, the congregation reads from the portion of the Festivals (Leviticus 22:26–23:44), and they read as the haftara the account of the Passover celebrated at Gilgal (Joshua 5:2–14). The Gemara comments: And nowadays, in the Diaspora, when there are two Festival days of Passover, on the first day they read as the haftara the account of the Passover celebrated at Gilgal, and on the next day they read from the account of the Passover observed by Josiah (II Kings 23).

ושאר ימות הפסח מלקט וקורא מענינו של פסח מאי היא אמר רב פפא מאפ"ו סימן

The baraita continues: And on the other days of Passover, one collects and reads from various Torah portions of matters relating to Passover. The Gemara asks: What are these portions? Rav Pappa said: A mnemonic for them is mem, alef, peh vav. Each letter stands for a different reading: Mem for the portion of: “Draw out [mishkhu] and take your lambs” (Exodus 12:21–51); alef for the portion of “If [im] you lend money to any of My people” (Exodus 22:24–23:19); peh for the portion of “Hew [pesol] for yourself” (Exodus 34:1–26); and vav for the portion “And the Lord spoke [vaydabber]” (Numbers 9:1–14).

יום טוב האחרון של פסח קורין (שמות יג, יז) ויהי בשלח ומפטירין (שמואל ב כב, א) וידבר דוד ולמחר (דברים טו, יט) כל הבכור ומפטירין (ישעיהו י, לב) עוד היום

The baraita continues: On the last Festival day of Passover, they read the portion of “And it came to pass, when Pharaoh let the people go” (Exodus 13:17–15:26), because it includes the account of the splitting of the Red Sea, and they read as the haftara the portion “And David spoke” (II Samuel 22), which is the song of David. And in the Diaspora, on the next day, the eighth day of Passover, they read the portion “All the firstborns” (Deuteronomy 15:19–16:17), and they read as the haftara the portion of “This very day” (Isaiah 10:32–12:6), because it discusses the downfall of Sennacherib, which occurred on the night of Passover.

אמר אביי והאידנא נהוג עלמא למיקרי משך תורא קדש בכספא פסל במדברא שלח בוכרא

Abaye said: And nowadays, on the eight days of Passover in the Diaspora, everyone is accustomed to read portions that are indicated by the mnemonic phrase: Draw the bull, sanctify with money, hew in the wilderness, send the firstborn. This alludes to the following portions: “Draw out and take your lambs” (Exodus 12:21–51) and “A bull or a sheep” (Leviticus 22:26–23:44); “Sanctify to Me all the firstborn” (Exodus 13:1–16) and “If you lend money to any of My people” (Exodus 22:24–23:19); “Hew for yourself” (Exodus 34:1–26) and “And the Lord spoke to Moses in the wilderness of Sinai” (Numbers 9:1–14); “And it came to pass, when Pharaoh let the people go” (Exodus 13:17–15:26) and “All the firstborns” (Deuteronomy 15:19–16:17).

בעצרת (דברים טז, ט) שבעה שבועות ומפטירין (חבקוק ג, א) בחבקוק אחרים אומרים (שמות יט, א) בחדש השלישי ומפטירין (יחזקאל א, א) במרכבה והאידנא דאיכא תרי יומי עבדינן כתרוייהו ואיפכא

The baraita continues: On Shavuot they read the portion of “Seven weeks,” and they read as the haftara from Habakkuk, chapter 2, since it mentions the giving of the Torah at Sinai. Others say: They read the portion of “In the third month” (Exodus 19:1–20:23), which describes the giving of the Torah, and they read as the haftara from the account of the Divine Chariot (Ezekiel 1). The Gemara comments: And nowadays, in the Diaspora, when there are two days of Shavuot, we act in accordance with both opinions, but in the reverse order. On the first day they read the portion of “In the third month,” and on the second day they read the portion of “Seven weeks.”

בראש השנה (במדבר כט, א) בחדש השביעי ומפטירין (ירמיהו לא, כ) הבן יקיר לי אפרים ויש אומרים (בראשית כא, א) וה' פקד את שרה ומפטירין (שמואל א ב, א) בחנה

The baraita continues: On Rosh HaShana they read the portion of “On the seventh month on the first of the month” (Numbers 29:1–6) and they read as the haftara “Is Ephraim My dear son?” (Jeremiah 31:1–20), as it contains the verse: “I earnestly remember him still,” which recalls God’s love for His people. And some say that they read “And the Lord visited Sarah” (Genesis 21), which describes how God blessed her that she should have a child, and, according to tradition, God blessed her on Rosh HaShana. And they read as the haftara from the account of Hannah (I Samuel 1:1–2:10), who, according to tradition, was also blessed on Rosh HaShana that she should have a child.

והאידנא דאיכא תרי יומי יומא קמא כיש אומרים למחר (בראשית כב, א) והאלהים נסה את אברהם ומפטירין הבן יקיר

The Gemara comments: And nowadays, when there are two days of Rosh HaShana, on the first day they read Genesis 21 in accordance with the opinion cited as: Some say. And on the next day they read “And God tested Abraham” (Genesis 22), in order to mention the merit of the binding of Isaac on the day of God’s judgment, and they read as the haftara “Is Ephraim My dear son?”

ביוה"כ קורין (ויקרא טז, א) אחרי מות ומפטירין (ישעיהו נז, טו) כי כה אמר רם ונשא ובמנחה קורין בעריות ומפטירין ביונה

The baraita continues: On Yom Kippur they read the portion of “After the death” (Leviticus 16), and they read as the haftara the portion of “For thus says the High and Lofty One” (Isaiah 57:14–58:14), which deals with fasting and repentance. And during the afternoon service they read from the portion detailing forbidden sexual relations (Leviticus 18) to convey the severity of these transgressions, so that if anyone transgressed any of these prohibitions he will repent on Yom Kippur. And they read as the haftara the book of Jonah, which mentions the repentance of the people of Nineveh.

אמר ר' יוחנן כל מקום שאתה מוצא גבורתו של הקב"ה אתה מוצא ענוותנותו דבר זה כתוב בתורה ושנוי בנביאים ומשולש בכתובים

Having mentioned the haftara read on Yom Kippur, the Gemara cites that which Rabbi Yoḥanan said: Wherever you find a reference in the Bible to the might of the Holy One, Blessed be He, you also find a reference to His humility adjacent to it. Evidence of this fact is written in the Torah, repeated in the Prophets, and stated a third time in the Writings.

כתוב בתורה (דברים י, יז) כי ה' אלהיכם הוא אלהי האלהים ואדוני האדונים וכתיב בתריה עושה משפט יתום ואלמנה שנוי בנביאים (ישעיהו נז, טו) כה אמר רם ונשא שוכן עד וקדוש וגו' וכתיב בתריה ואת דכא ושפל רוח משולש בכתובים דכתיב (תהלים סח, ה) סולו לרוכב בערבות ביה שמו וכתיב בתריה אבי יתומים ודיין אלמנות

It is written in the Torah: “For the Lord your God is the God of gods and the Lord of lords” (Deuteronomy 10:17), and it is written immediately afterward: “He executes the judgment of the fatherless and widow” (Deuteronomy 10:18), displaying his humility in caring for even the weakest parts of society. It is repeated in the Prophets: “For thus says the High and Lofty One that inhabits eternity, Whose name is sacred” (Isaiah 57:15), and it is written immediately afterward: “In the high and holy place I dwell with him that is of a contrite and humble spirit, to revive the spirit of the humble, and to revive the heart of the contrite ones” (Isaiah 57:15). It is stated a third time in the Writings, as it is written: “Extol Him Who rides upon the clouds, Whose name is the Lord” (Psalms 68:5), and it is written immediately afterward: “A father of the fatherless, and a judge of widows” (Psalms 68:6).

יו"ט הראשון של חג קורין בפרשת מועדות שבתורת כהנים ומפטירין (זכריה יד, א) הנה יום בא לה' והאידנא דאיכא תרי יומי למחר מיקרא ה"נ קרינן אפטורי מאי מפטירין (מלכים א ח, ב) ויקהלו אל המלך שלמה

The baraita continues: On the first Festival day of Sukkot, they read from the portion of the Festivals found in Leviticus (Leviticus 22:26–23:44), and they read as the haftara the portion of “Behold the day of the Lord comes” (Zechariah 14), which mentions the festival of Sukkot. The Gemara comments: And nowadays, in the Diaspora, when there are two Festival days of Sukkot, on the next day, they read the same Torah portion. But what do they read as the haftara? They read the portion of “And all the men of Israel assembled themselves to King Solomon” (I Kings 8:2–21), which describes events that took place on the festival of Sukkot.

ושאר כל ימות החג קורין בקרבנות החג יו"ט האחרון קורין כל הבכור מצות וחוקים ובכור ומפטירין (מלכים א ט, א) ויהי ככלות שלמה למחר קורין וזאת הברכה ומפטירין (מלכים א ח, כב) ויעמד שלמה

The baraita continues: And on all the other days of Sukkot, they read selections from the portion of the offerings of Sukkot found in the book of Numbers, chapter 29. On the last Festival day of Sukkot, i.e., the Eighth Day of Assembly, they read the portion of “All the firstborns,” starting with the portion of “You shall tithe,” since it includes many mitzvot and statutes relating to gifts for the poor, who should be helped during this period of rejoicing, and it concludes with the halakhot governing firstborns (Deuteronomy 14:22–16:17). And they read as the haftara the portion of “And it was so, that when Solomon had made an end of praying” (I Kings 8:54–9:1), which occurred on that day. On the next day, the second day of the Eighth Day of Assembly in the Diaspora, they read the portion of “And this is the blessing” (Deuteronomy, chapters 33–34) until the end of the Torah, and they read as the haftara “And Solomon stood” (I Kings 8:22–53).

אמר רב הונא אמר רב שבת שחל להיות בחולו של מועד בין בפסח בין בסוכות מקרא קרינן (שמות לג, יב) ראה אתה אפטורי בפסח (יחזקאל לז, ד) העצמות היבשות ובסוכות (יחזקאל לח, יח) ביום בא גוג

Rav Huna said that Rav said: When Shabbat occurs on one of the intermediate days of a Festival, whether on Passover or on Sukkot, they read the Torah portion of “See, You say to me” (Exodus 33:12–34:26), as it includes the halakhot of the Festivals and the intermediate days. They read as the haftara, on Passover, from the portion of the dry bones (Ezekiel 37:1–14), which portrays redemption from servitude, and on Sukkot they read “And it shall come to pass on that day when Gog shall come” (Ezekiel 38:18–39:16), which speaks of the future redemption.

בחנוכה בנשיאים ומפטירין (זכריה ב, יד) בנרות דזכריה ואי מיקלעי שתי שבתות קמייתא בנרות דזכריה בתרייתא (מלכים א ז, מ) בנרות שלמה

The baraita continues: On each day of Hanukkah they read a selection from the portion of the dedication of the altar by the tribal princes (Numbers 7), and they read as the haftara from the portion of the lamps of Zechariah (Zechariah 2:14–4:7). The Gemara comments: And if it occurs that there are two Shabbatot during Hanukkah, on the first Shabbat they read from the portion of the lamps of Zechariah, and on the latter one they read from the portion of the lamps of Solomon (I Kings 7:40–50), which discusses the lamps in the Temple.

בפורים (שמות יז, ח) ויבא עמלק בראשי חדשים (במדבר כח, יא) ובראשי חדשיכם ראש חדש שחל להיות בשבת מפטירין (ישעיהו סו) והיה מדי חדש בחדשו חל להיות באחד בשבת מאתמול מפטירין (שמואל א כ) ויאמר לו יהונתן מחר חדש

The baraita continues: On Purim they read the portion of “And Amalek came” (Exodus 17:8–16). On the New Moon they read the portion of “And in the beginnings of your month” (Numbers 28:11–15). When the New Moon occurs on Shabbat, they read as the haftara the portion that concludes with “And it shall come to pass that every New Moon, and every Shabbat, shall all flesh come to bow down on the ground before Me” (Isaiah 66), as it mentions both Shabbat and the New Moon. When the New Moon occurs on Sunday, on the previous day, i.e., Shabbat, they read as the haftara the portion of “And Jonathan said to him: Tomorrow is the New Moon” (I Samuel 20:18–42), which describes events that took place on the eve of the New Moon.

אמר רב הונא

Rav Huna said: