Megillah 30b:2מגילה ל׳ ב:ב
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30bל׳ ב

ואיזו היא שבת רביעית כל שחל ר"ח ניסן להיות בתוכה ואפילו בע"ש:

And which is the fourth Shabbat? The Shabbat of whichever week during which the New Moon of Nisan occurs, and this is the case even if it occurs on Friday.

בחמישית חוזרין לכסדרן וכו': לסדר מאי ר' אמי אמר לסדר פרשיות הוא חוזר ר' ירמיה אמר לסדר הפטרות הוא חוזר

§ The mishna states: On the fifth Shabbat, we resume the regular weekly order. The Gemara clarifies the mishna’s intent: To the order of what does one resume? Rabbi Ami said: One resumes the regular weekly order of Torah portions. Rabbi Ami holds that on the weeks on which the special portions are read, the regular weekly Torah portion is not read at all, and therefore the cycle is resumed only on the fifth Shabbat. Rabbi Yirmeya said: One resumes the regular weekly order of the haftarot. Rabbi Yirmeya holds that even on the Shabbatot on which the special portions are read, the regular weekly portion is still read; the special portion is read by the last reader as the maftir. However, the haftara of the regular cycle is entirely replaced with a portion from the Prophets that parallels the special portion. As such, it is the cycle of haftarot that is resumed on the fifth Shabbat.

אמר אביי כוותי' דר' אמי מסתברא דתנן לכל מפסיקין לראשי חדשים לחנוכה ולפורים לתעניות ולמעמדות וליוה"כ

Abaye said: It stands to reason that one should rule in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Ami, as we learned in the mishna: For all special days, we interrupt the regular order of readings, and a special portion relating to the character of the day is read. This applies to the New Moons, to Hanukkah, and to Purim, to fast days, and to non-priestly watches, and to Yom Kippur.

בשלמא למ"ד לסדר פרשיות הוא חוזר היינו דאיכא פרשה בחול אלא למ"ד לסדר הפטרות הוא חוזר הפטרה בחול מי איכא

Abaye explains his proof: Granted, according to the one who said that one resumes the regular weekly order of Torah portions, this statement in the mishna is referring to the fact that there is a reading of the weekly Torah portion on weekdays. If one of the special days listed in the mishna occurs on Monday or Thursday, the weekly Torah reading is replaced by the special portion for that day. However, according to one who said that one resumes the regular weekly order of haftarot, what could the mishna mean when it says that the regular cycle is interrupted? Is there a haftara on weekdays? The mishna therefore supports Rabbi Ami’s opinion.

ואידך הא כדאיתא והא כדאיתא

And the other one, Rabbi Yirmeya, would counter: This case is as it is, and that case is as it is. On days when there is a haftara, the reference in the mishna is to the order of the haftarot. On weekdays, when there is no haftara, the reference is to the order of the Torah readings. Therefore, no proof can be deduced from the mishna.

ובתעניות למה לי הפסקה ליקרי מצפרא בענינא דיומא ובמנחה בתעניתא מסייע ליה לר"ה דאמר ר"ה מצפרא כינופיא

The Gemara asks: But on fast days, why do I need to have any interruption of the regular order of Torah readings? Let us read in the morning the regular weekly portion of the matter of the day, and in the afternoon service let us read the portion of a fast day. The Gemara comments: This supports the statement of Rav Huna, for Rav Huna said: From the morning of communal fasts, a gathering is held in the synagogue. The community leaders examine the conduct of the townspeople and admonish those whose behavior is found wanting. Therefore, there is no time in the morning to read the Torah portion for fast days.

היכי עבדינן אמר אביי מצפרא לפלגיה דיומא מעיינינן במילי דמתא מפלגיה דיומא לפניא ריבעא דיומא קרא ומפטרי וריבעא דיומא בעו רחמי שנאמר (נחמיה ט, ג) ויקראו בספר תורת ה' אלהיהם רביעית היום ורביעית (היום) מתוודים ומשתחוים

The Gemara asks: What does the community do on a public fast day? Abaye said: From the morning until the middle of the day, the community gathers in the synagogue, and the leaders examine the affairs of the town to determine whether and how the people’s conduct needs to be improved. From the middle of the day until the evening, a quarter of the day is spent reading from the Torah and reading the haftara, and a quarter of the day is spent praying, as it is stated: “And they read in the book of the Torah of the Lord their God one quarter of the day, and a quarter of the day they confessed, and they prostrated themselves before the Lord their God” (Nehemiah 9:3).

ואיפוך אנא לא ס"ד דכתיב (עזרא ט, ד) ואלי יאספו כל חרד בדברי אלהי ישראל על מעל הגולה ואני יושב משומם עד למנחת הערב וכתיב ובמנחת הערב קמתי מתעניתי:

The Gemara objects: But perhaps I should reverse the order, and the first half of the day should be spent reading from the Torah and praying, and the second half of the day should be spent examining the affairs of the townspeople. The Gemara answers: It should not enter your mind to say this, as it is written: “Then everyone who trembled at the words of the God of Israel due to the transgression of the exiles gathered around me, and I sat appalled until the evening offering” (Ezra 9:4), and it is written in the next verse: “And at the evening offering I arose from my fast, and having rent my garment and my mantle; I fell on my knees, and I spread out my hands to the Lord my God” (Ezra 9:5). This indicates that the first half of a public fast should be dedicated to an inspection of the community’s behavior, and the rest of the day should be devoted to prayer.

מתני׳ בפסח קורין בפרשת מועדות של תורת כהנים בעצרת (דברים טז, ט) שבעה שבועות בראש השנה (ויקרא כג, כד) בחדש השביעי באחד לחדש ביוה"כ (ויקרא טז, א) אחרי מות ביו"ט הראשון של חג קורין בפרשת מועדות שבתורת כהנים ובשאר כל ימות החג בקרבנות החג

MISHNA: On the first day of Passover, the congregation reads from the portion of the Festivals of Leviticus (Leviticus 22:26–23:44). On Shavuot they read the portion of “Seven weeks” (Deuteronomy 16:9–12). On Rosh HaShana they read the portion of “And on the seventh month on the first of the month” (Leviticus 23:23–25). On Yom Kippur they read the portion of “After the death” (Leviticus 16). On the first Festival day of Sukkot they read from the portion of the Festivals of Leviticus (Leviticus 22:26–23:44), and on the other days of Sukkot they read selections from the portion of the offerings of Sukkot (Numbers 29:12–39).

בחנוכה (במדבר ז, ב) בנשיאים בפורים (שמות יז, ח) ויבא עמלק בראשי חדשים (במדבר כח, יא) ובראשי חדשיכם במעמדות במעשה בראשית בתעניות

On each day of Hanukkah they read selections from the portion of the dedication of the altar by the tribal princes (Numbers 7). On Purim they read the portion of “And Amalek came” (Exodus 17:8–16). On the New Moon they read the portion of “And in the beginnings of your months” (Numbers 28:11–15). And in the non-priestly watches they read the act of Creation (Genesis 1:1–2:3). The Jewish people were divided into twenty-four watches. Each week, it would be the turn of a different watch to send representatives to Jerusalem to be present in the Temple to witness the sacrificial service. Those remaining behind would fast during the week, from Monday to Thursday, offer special prayers, and read the account of Creation from the Torah. On fast days,