Megillah 30aמגילה ל׳ א
The William Davidson Talmudתלמוד מהדורת ויליאם דוידסון
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30aל׳ א

אמרי אוקומי הוא דקא מוקמי התם

Since Shekalim is read from the portion in the Torah immediately following the regular weekly Torah reading, people will mistakenly say that they merely extended the regular reading and then halted there, and they will not realize that the last reading was actually for the sake of Shekalim.

אלא אמר אביי קרו שיתא מואתה תצוה עד ועשית וחד תני וקרי מכי תשא עד ועשית

Rather, Abaye said: Six people read from “And you shall command” until but not including “And you shall make a copper laver,” which concludes with the portion used for Shekalim. And then one person repeats and reads Shekalim from “When you take the count” until but not including “And you shall make a copper laver.” The repetition of this portion serves to highlight the fact it was read for the sake of Shekalim.

מיתיבי חל להיות בפרשה הסמוכה לה בין מלפניה בין מלאחריה קורין אותה וכופלין אותה

The Gemara raises an objection from a baraita: If the Shabbat on which Shekalim is to be read occurs on the Shabbat on which the portion to be read for the regular weekly reading is adjacent to Shekalim, whether on the Shabbat preceding that Shabbat or following it, then they read and repeat Shekalim.

בשלמא לאביי ניחא אלא לר' יצחק נפחא קשיא

Granted, according to the opinion of Abaye, it works out well, for the conclusion of the baraita, that we repeat Shekalim, supports his opinion. But according to the opinion of Rabbi Yitzḥak Nappaḥa, it is difficult.

אמר לך ר' יצחק נפחא ולאביי מי ניחא תינח לפניה לאחריה היכי משכחת לה

The Gemara answers: Rabbi Yitzḥak Nappaḥa could have said to you: And according to Abaye, does it really work out well? The reference of the baraita to a case where the Shabbat on which Shekalim is read precedes the Shabbat on which that portion will be read as part of the weekly reading works out well, since it can indeed occur. However, with regard to the reference to that Shabbat following the Shabbat on which that portion is read as part of the weekly reading, under what circumstances can this case be found? It never occurs like that.

אלא מאי אית לך למימר כופלה בשבתות הכא נמי כופלה בשבתות

Rather, perforce, what have you to say? That when the baraita refers to repeating Shekalim when the Shabbat on which Shekalim is read follows the Shabbat on which it is read as the regular weekly reading, it means that one repeats it by reading it on two successive Shabbatot. Similarly, here too, when the baraita refers to repeating Shekalim when the Shabbat on which Shekalim is read precedes the Shabbat on which it is read as the regular weekly reading, it means that one repeats it by reading it on two successive Shabbatot.

חל להיות בכי תשא עצמה א"ר יצחק נפחא קרו שיתא מן ועשית עד ויקהל וחד קרי מכי תשא עד ועשית

The Gemara considers a similar case: If the Shabbat on which Shekalim is to be read occurs on the Shabbat on which the regular portion itself begins with “When you take the count,” what should be done? Rabbi Yitzḥak Nappaḥa said: Six people read from “And you shall make a copper laver” until but not including the portion of “And he assembled” (Exodus 30:17–34:35). This is the entire regular weekly portion of “When you take the count” without the opening passage, which is also the portion of Shekalim. And then one person goes back and reads the portion of Shekalim from “When you take the count” until but not including “And you shall make a copper laver.”

מתקיף לה אביי השתא אמרי למפרע הוא דקרי אלא אמר אביי קרו שיתא עד ויקהל וחד תני וקרי מכי תשא עד ועשית

Abaye strongly objects to this: Now people will mistakenly say that they are reading the regular weekly portion out of sequence, and they will not realize that the last reading was actually for the sake of the portion of Shekalim. Rather, Abaye said: Six people read the entire portion of “When you shall count” until but not including the portion of “And he assembled” (Exodus 30:11–34:35), and then one person repeats and reads the portion of Shekalim from “When you take the count” until but not including “And you shall make a copper laver.”

תניא כוותיה דאביי חל להיות בכי תשא עצמה קורין אותה וכופלין אותה:

The Gemara notes: It is taught in a baraita in accordance with the opinion of Abaye: If the Shabbat on which Shekalim is to be read occurs on the Shabbat on which the regular portion itself is “When you take the count,” the first part of that portion is read once as part of the weekly reading and then repeated as the portion of Shekalim.

חל להיות בתוך השבת מקדימין לשבת שעברה: איתמר ר"ח אדר שחל להיות בערב שבת רב אמר מקדימין ושמואל אמר מאחרין

§ The mishna states: If the New Moon of Adar occurs during the middle of the week, the congregation advances the reading of Shekalim to the previous week. With regard to this, an amoraic dispute was stated: With regard to when the New Moon of Adar occurs on Friday, Rav said: The congregation advances the reading of the portion to the previous week. And Shmuel said: They defer the reading of the portion to the following day, and it is read on the coming Shabbat.

רב אמר מקדימין דאם כן בצרי להו יומי שולחנות ושמואל אמר מאחרין אמר לך סוף סוף חמיסר במעלי שבתא מיקלע ושולחנות לא נפקי עד חד בשבא הלכך מאחרין

The Gemara explains the two opinions: Rav said: They advance the reading to the previous week, as, if one would read the portion only on the following day, there will be less than the required number of days, i.e., two weeks, that the announcement needs to precede the setting up of the money-changing tables on the fifteenth. And Shmuel said: They defer the reading of the portion to the following day. As for Rav’s argument, Shmuel could have said to you: Ultimately, in such a year the fifteenth of Adar also occurs on a Friday, and therefore the money-changing tables will not be brought out until Sunday. Consequently, there will still be a full two weeks between the announcement and the setting of the tables. Therefore, they can defer the reading to the following day.

תנן חל להיות בתוך השבת מקדימין לשעבר ומפסיקין לשבת אחרת מאי לאו אפילו בע"ש לא בתוך השבת דוקא

The Gemara offers various proofs for Rav’s opinion: We learned in the mishna: If the New Moon occurs during the middle of the week, they advance the reading of that portion to the previous Shabbat, and in such a case they interrupt the reading of the four portions on the following Shabbat. The Gemara explains the proof: What; is it not that this is referring even to a case when the New Moon occurs on Friday? This would prove Rav’s opinion. No; it is referring specifically to a case where it occurs during the middle of the week.

ת"ש איזו היא שבת ראשונה כל שחל ר"ח אדר להיות בתוכה ואפילו בערב שבת מאי לאו אפילו בע"ש דומיא דתוכה מה תוכה מקדימין אף ע"ש מקדימין

Come and hear another proof from a baraita: Which is the first Shabbat of the four Shabbatot on which the special portions are read? The Shabbat of whichever week during which the New Moon of Adar occurs, and this is the case even if it occurs on Friday. The Gemara explains the proof: What, is it not that the baraita teaches that the case when it occurs even on Friday is similar to the case where it occurs during the middle of the week, and just as when it occurs during the middle of the week, they advance the reading to the previous Shabbat, so too, when it occurs on Friday, they advance the reading to the previous Shabbat? This would therefore prove Rav’s opinion.

אמר שמואל בה וכן תנא דבי שמואל בה

Shmuel said: The baraita should be emended, and instead of saying: During which the New Moon occurs, it should say: On which the New Moon occurs, i.e., on Shabbat itself. And so the school of Shmuel taught: On which the New Moon occurs.

כתנאי מסרגין לשבתות דברי ר' יהודה הנשיא ר"ש בן אלעזר אומר אין מסרגין אמר ר"ש בן אלעזר אימתי אני אומר אין מסרגין בזמן שחל להיות בע"ש אבל בזמן שחל להיות בתוך השבת מקדים וקורא משבת שעברה אע"פ שהוא שבט:

The Gemara suggests: This dispute between the amora’im is like a dispute between tanna’im, as it is taught in a baraita: With regard to the reading of the four special portions, they interrupt the flow of Shabbatot, i.e., there is a Shabbat in which no special portion is read; this is the statement of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi. Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar said: They do not interrupt the flow of Shabbatot. Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar said: When do I say that they do not interrupt the flow of Shabbatot? When the New Moon of Adar occurs on Friday, since I hold that in that case Shekalim is read on the following day, and therefore the four portions are read on four consecutive weeks. However, when the New Moon of Adar occurs during the week, one advances and reads Shekalim on the previous Shabbat, although it is still the month of Shevat, and therefore on one of the Shabbatot in Adar there will be no reading. It would appear, then, that Shmuel holds in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar, whereas Rav holds in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi.

בשנייה זכור וכו': איתמר פורים שחל להיות בע"ש רב אמר מקדימין פרשת זכור ושמואל אמר מאחרין

§ The mishna states: On the second Shabbat of Adar, the Shabbat prior to Purim, they read the portion of “Remember [zakhor] what Amalek did” (Deuteronomy 25:17–19). The portion of Zakhor is associated with Purim because according to tradition, Haman was a descendant of Amalek, and so the victory over him and his supporters was a victory against Amalek. With regard to this, an amoraic dispute was stated: With regard to when Purim occurs on a Friday, Rav said: The congregation advances the reading of the portion of Zakhor to the previous Shabbat. And Shmuel said: They defer it to the Shabbat following Purim.

רב אמר מקדימין כי היכי דלא תיקדום עשיה לזכירה ושמואל אמר מאחרין אמר לך כיון דאיכא מוקפין דעבדי בחמיסר עשיה וזכירה בהדי הדדי קא אתיין

The Gemara explains the two opinions: Rav said: They advance it to the previous Shabbat, in order that the observance of Purim should not precede the remembrance of the destruction of Amalek, which is achieved through reading the portion of Zakhor. And Shmuel said: They defer its reading. And as for Rav’s argument, Shmuel could have said to you: Since there are the walled cities that observe Purim on the fifteenth, at least with regard to them, the observance and the remembrance come together on the same day, and that is sufficient.

תנן בשניה זכור והא כי מיקלע ריש ירחא בשבת מיקלע פורים בערב שבת וקתני בשניה זכור אמר רב פפא מאי שניה שניה להפסקה

The Gemara offers various proofs for Rav’s opinion: We learned in the mishna: On the second Shabbat they read the portion of Zakhor. The Gemara suggests: Is it not the case that when the New Moon of Adar occurs on Shabbat, Purim occurs on Friday, and yet the mishna teaches: On the second Shabbat they read the portion of Zakhor? This supports Rav’s opinion that in all cases the portion is read before Purim. Rav Pappa said: There is no proof, because one could argue as follows: What is the intention of the mishna when it is referring to the second Shabbat? It could mean the second Shabbat on which a special portion is read, which, if Purim occurs on Friday, occurs only after the interruption of the previous Shabbat, during which no portion was read.

תא שמע איזו שבת שניה כל שחל פורים להיות בתוכה ואפילו בערב שבת מאי לאו ערב שבת דומיא דתוכה מה תוכה מקדימין אף ערב שבת מקדימין

Come and hear another proof from a baraita: Which is the second Shabbat on which a special portion is read? The Shabbat of whichever week during which Purim occurs, and this is the case even if it occurs on Friday. The Gemara explains the proof: What, is it not that the baraita teaches that even if Purim occurs on Friday, the case is similar to the case when it occurs during the middle of the week, and therefore, just as when it occurs during the middle of the week we advance the reading to the previous Shabbat, so too, when it occurs on Friday, we should advance the reading to the previous Shabbat? This baraita would therefore prove Rav’s opinion.

אמר שמואל בה וכן תנא דבי שמואל בה

Shmuel said: The baraita should be emended, and instead of saying: During which Purim occurs, it should say: On which Purim occurs, i.e., on Shabbat itself. And so the school of Shmuel taught: On which Purim occurs.

חל להיות בשבת עצמה אמר ר"ה לדברי הכל אין מקדימין ורב נחמן אמר עדיין היא מחלוקת איתמר נמי א"ר חייא בר אבא אמר רבי אבא אמר רב פורים שחל להיות בשבת מקדים וקורא בשבת שעברה זכור:

With regard to when Purim occurs on Shabbat itself, Rav Huna said: Everyone agrees, i.e., both Rav and Shmuel, that they do not advance the reading of the portion of Zakhor to the previous Shabbat, but it is read on that Shabbat. And Rav Naḥman said: Even in this case there is still a dispute, for Rav maintains that in all cases the remembrance of the destruction of Amalek, which is achieved through reading the portion of Zakhor, must always precede the observance of Purim. It was also stated that Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba said that Rabbi Abba said that Rav said: If Purim occurs on Shabbat, one advances and reads the portion of Zakhor on the previous Shabbat, as Rav Naḥman understood Rav’s opinion.

בשלישית פרה אדומה וכו': תנו רבנן איזו היא שבת שלישית כל שסמוכה לפורים מאחריה איתמר ר' חמא בר' חנינא אמר שבת הסמוכה לר"ח ניסן

§ The mishna states: On the third Shabbat, they read the portion of the Red Heifer [Para] (Numbers 19:1–22). The Sages taught in a baraita: Which is the third Shabbat? Whichever Shabbat occurs immediately after Purim. It was also stated: Rabbi Ḥama, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, said: The Shabbat that is immediately after the New Moon of Nisan.

ולא פליגי הא דאיקלע ר"ח ניסן בשבת הא דאיקלע באמצע שבת:

The Gemara comments: And these two statements do not disagree, as they refer to different cases: This statement of Rabbi Ḥama, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, is referring to a case where the New Moon of Nisan occurs on Shabbat itself. In that case, the portion of HaḤodesh is read then, and therefore the reading of Para is deferred to the following Shabbat. And that statement of the baraita is referring to a case where the New Moon of Nisan occurs during the middle of the week. Therefore, HaḤodesh is read on the Shabbat immediately preceding the New Moon, and Para is read on the Shabbat before that one, which is the Shabbat that is adjacent to Purim and after it.

ברביעית (שמות יב, ב) החדש הזה לכם: תנו רבנן ר"ח אדר שחל להיות בשבת קורין כי תשא ומפטירין ביהוידע ואי זו היא שבת ראשונה כל שחל ר"ח אדר להיות בתוכה ואפילו בערב שבת בשניה זכור ומפטירין (שמואל א טו, ב) פקדתי ואי זו היא שבת שניה כל שחל פורים להיות בתוכה ואפילו בערב שבת

§ The mishna states: On the fourth Shabbat, they read the portion of “This month [haḥodesh] shall be for you” (Exodus 12:1–20). The Sages taught in a baraita: When the New Moon of Adar occurs on Shabbat, they read “When you take the count” as the portion of Shekalim. And they read as the haftara the story involving Jehoiada the priest (II Kings 12:1–27). And which is the first Shabbat? The Shabbat of whichever week during which the New Moon of Adar occurs, and this is the case even if it occurs on Friday. On the second Shabbat, they read the portion of Zakhor, and they read as the haftara of “I remembered that which Amalek did” (I Samuel 15:1–34). And which is the second Shabbat? The Shabbat of whichever week during which Purim occurs, and this is the case even if it occurs on Friday.

בשלישית פרה אדומה ומפטירין (יחזקאל לו, כה) וזרקתי עליכם ואי זו היא שבת שלישית כל שסמוכה לפורים מאחריה ברביעית החדש הזה ומפטירין (יחזקאל מה, ט) כה אמר ה' [אלהים] בראשון באחד לחדש

On the third Shabbat, they read the portion of the Red Heifer [Para], and they read as the haftara the portion of “Then will I sprinkle clean water upon you” (Ezekiel 36:25–38). And which is the third Shabbat? That which is adjacent to Purim and after it. On the fourth Shabbat, they read the portion of “This month [haḥodesh] shall be for you,” and they read as the haftara the portion of “Thus says the Lord God: In the first month, on the first day of the month” (Ezekiel 45:18–46:18).