Megillah 2bמגילה ב׳ ב
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2bב׳ ב
1 א

ומוקים לה לברייתא כר' יוסי בר יהודה

and he establishes the baraita in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yosei bar Yehuda, rather than Rabbi Yehuda.

2 ב

ומי אמר ר"י בזמן הזה הואיל ומסתכלין בה אין קורין אותה אלא בזמנה ורמינהי א"ר יהודה אימתי מקום שנכנסין בשני ובחמישי אבל מקום שאין נכנסין בשני ובחמישי אין קורין אותה אלא בזמנה

The Gemara explains the apparent contradiction: And did Rabbi Yehuda actually say that nowadays, since people look to the reading of the Megilla and use it to calculate when Passover begins, one may read the Megilla only in its designated time? The Gemara raises a contradiction from a mishna (5a): Rabbi Yehuda said: When is one permitted to read the Megilla from the eleventh of Adar? In a place where the villagers generally enter town on Monday and Thursday. However, in a place where they do not generally enter town on Monday and Thursday, one may read the Megilla only in its designated time, the fourteenth of Adar.

3 ג

מקום שנכנסין בשני ובחמישי מיהא קרינן ואפילו בזמן הזה ומוקים לה לברייתא כרבי יוסי בר יהודה

The mishna indicates that, at least in a place where the villagers enter town on Monday and Thursday, one may read the Megilla from the eleventh of Adar even nowadays. And due to this contradiction, Rav Ashi establishes the baraita in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yosei bar Yehuda.

4 ד

ומשום דקשיא ליה דרבי יהודה אדר' יהודה מוקים לה לברייתא כרבי יוסי בר יהודה

The Gemara expresses surprise: Because Rav Ashi poses a difficulty due to the apparent contradiction between the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda in the baraita and the opinion cited in a mishna in the name of Rabbi Yehuda, he establishes the baraita in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yosei bar Yehuda? How could he have emended the text just because he had a difficulty that he did not know how to resolve?

5 ה

רב אשי שמיע ליה דאיכא דתני לה כרבי יהודה ואיכא דתני לה כרבי יוסי בר יהודה ומדקשיא ליה דרבי יהודה אדרבי יהודה אמר מאן דתני לה כרבי יהודה לאו דווקא מאן דתני לה כרבי יוסי בר יהודה דווקא:

The Gemara explains: Rav Ashi heard that there were those who taught the baraita in the name of Rabbi Yehuda, and there were those who taught it in the name of Rabbi Yosei bar Yehuda. And since he had a difficulty with the apparent contradiction between one ruling of Rabbi Yehuda and another ruling of Rabbi Yehuda, he said: The one who taught it in the name of Rabbi Yehuda is not precise, whereas the one who taught it in the name of Rabbi Yosei bar Yehuda is precise, and in this way he eliminated the contradiction.

6 ו

כרכים המוקפים חומה מימות יהושע בן נון קורין בחמשה עשר וכו': מנהני מילי אמר רבא דאמר קרא (אסתר ט, יט) על כן היהודים הפרזים היושבים בערי הפרזות וגו' מדפרזים בארבעה עשר מוקפין בחמשה עשר

§ We learned in the mishna: Cities that have been surrounded by a wall since the days of Joshua, son of Nun, read the Megilla on the fifteenth of Adar. The Gemara asks: From where are these matters derived, as they are not stated explicitly in the Megilla? Rava said: It is as the verse states: “Therefore the Jews of the villages, who dwell in the unwalled towns, make the fourteenth day of the month of Adar a day of gladness and feasting” (Esther 9:19). From the fact that the unwalled towns celebrate Purim on the fourteenth, it may be derived that the walled cities celebrate Purim on the fifteenth.

7 ז

ואימא פרזים בארבעה עשר מוקפין כלל כלל לא ולאו ישראל נינהו ועוד מהודו ועד כוש כתיב

The Gemara challenges this answer: Say that the unwalled towns celebrate Purim on the fourteenth, as indicated in the verse, and the walled cities do not celebrate it at all. The Gemara expresses astonishment: And are they not Jews? And furthermore: It is written that the kingdom of Ahasuerus was “from Hodu until Cush” (Esther 1:1), and the celebration of Purim was accepted in all of the countries of his kingdom (Esther 9:20–23).

8 ח

ואימא פרזים בארביסר מוקפין בארביסר ובחמיסר כדכתיב (אסתר ט, כא) להיות עושים את יום ארבעה עשר לחדש אדר ואת יום חמשה עשר [בו] בכל שנה

Rather, the following challenge may be raised: Say that the unwalled towns celebrate Purim on the fourteenth and the walled cities celebrate it on the fourteenth and on the fifteenth, as it is written: “That they should keep the fourteenth day of the month of Adar and the fifteenth day of the same, in every year” (Esther 9:21). This verse can be understood to mean that there are places where Purim is celebrated on both days.

9 ט

אי הוה כתב את יום ארבעה עשר וחמשה עשר כדקאמרת השתא דכתיב את יום ארבעה עשר ואת יום חמשה עשר אתא את ופסיק הני בארבעה עשר והני בחמשה עשר

The Gemara rejects this argument: If it had been written in the verse: The fourteenth day and [ve] the fifteenth, it would be as you originally said. However, now that it is written: The fourteenth day and [ve’et] the fifteenth day, the particle et used here to denote the accusative comes and interrupts, indicating that the two days are distinct. Therefore, residents of these locations celebrate Purim on the fourteenth, and residents of those locations celebrate it on the fifteenth.

10 י

ואימא פרזים בארביסר מוקפין אי בעו בארביסר אי בעו בחמיסר אמר קרא בזמניהם זמנו של זה לא זמנו של זה

The Gemara suggests: Say that residents of unwalled towns celebrate Purim on the fourteenth, as stated in the verse, and with regard to residents of walled cities, if they wish they may celebrate it on the fourteenth, and if they wish they may celebrate it on the fifteenth. The Gemara responds: The verse states: “In their times” (Esther 9:31), indicating that the time when the residents of this place celebrate Purim is not the time when the residents of that place celebrate Purim.

11 יא

ואימא בתליסר כשושן

The Gemara raises another challenge: Say that the walled cities should celebrate Purim on the thirteenth of Adar and not on the fifteenth. The Gemara answers: It stands to reason that the residents of walled cities, who do not celebrate Purim on the fourteenth, celebrate it as it is celebrated in Shushan, and it is explicitly stated that Purim was celebrated in Shushan on the fifteenth.

12 יב

אשכחן עשייה זכירה מנלן אמר קרא (אסתר ט, כח) והימים האלה נזכרים ונעשים איתקש זכירה לעשייה

The Gemara comments: We found a source for observing the holiday of Purim on the fourteenth of Adar in unwalled towns and on the fifteenth of Adar in walled cities; from where do we derive that remembering the story of Purim through the reading of the Megilla takes place on these days? The Gemara explains that the verse states: “That these days should be remembered and observed” (Esther 9:28), from which it is derived that remembering is compared to observing.

13 יג

מתני' דלא כי האי תנא דתניא רבי יהושע בן קרחה אומר כרכין המוקפין חומה מימות אחשורוש קורין בחמשה עשר

§ The Gemara notes that the mishna is not in accordance with the opinion of this tanna, as it is taught in the Tosefta (1:1) that Rabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa says: Cities that have been surrounded by a wall since the days of Ahasuerus read the Megilla on the fifteenth. According to the Tosefta, the status of walled cities is determined based upon whether they were walled in the time of Ahasuerus rather than the time of Joshua.

14 יד

מ"ט דרבי יהושע בן קרחה כי שושן מה שושן מוקפת חומה מימות אחשורוש וקורין בחמשה עשר אף כל שמוקפת חומה מימות אחשורוש קורין בחמשה עשר

The Gemara asks: What is the reason for the opinion of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa? The Gemara explains that the Megilla is read on the fifteenth in cities that are like Shushan: Just as Shushan is a city that was surrounded by a wall since the days of Ahasuerus, and one reads the Megilla there on the fifteenth, so too every city that was walled since the days of Ahasuerus reads the Megilla on the fifteenth.

15 טו

ותנא דידן מ"ט יליף פרזי פרזי כתיב הכא (אסתר ט, יט) על כן היהודים הפרזים וכתיב התם (דברים ג, ה) לבד מערי הפרזי הרבה מאד מה להלן מוקפת חומה מימות יהושע בן נון אף כאן מוקפת חומה מימות יהושע בן נון

The Gemara asks: What is the reason for the opinion of the tanna of our mishna? The Gemara explains: It is derived through a verbal analogy between one instance of the word unwalled and another instance of the word unwalled. It is written here: “Therefore the Jews of the villages, who dwell in the unwalled towns” (Esther 9:19), and it is written there, in Moses’ statement to Joshua before the Jewish people entered Eretz Yisrael: “All these cities were fortified with high walls, gates and bars; besides unwalled towns, a great many” (Deuteronomy 3:5). Just as there, in Deuteronomy, the reference is to a city that was surrounded by a wall from the days of Joshua, son of Nun, so too here it is referring to a city that was surrounded by a wall from the days of Joshua, son of Nun.

16 טז

בשלמא רבי יהושע בן קרחה לא אמר כתנא דידן דלית ליה פרזי פרזי אלא תנא דידן מ"ט לא אמר כר' יהושע בן קרחה

The Gemara continues: Granted that Rabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa did not state his explanation in accordance with the opinion of the tanna of our mishna because he did not hold that a verbal analogy can be established between one verse that employs the word unwalled and the other verse that employs the word unwalled. However, what is the reason that the tanna of our mishna did not state his explanation in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa?

17 יז

מ"ט דהא אית ליה פרזי פרזי הכי קאמר אלא שושן דעבד' כמאן לא כפרזים ולא כמוקפין

The Gemara expresses astonishment: What is the reason? Isn’t it because he holds that it is derived from the verbal analogy between one usage of the word unwalled and the other usage of the word unwalled? The Gemara explains: This is what he said, i.e., this was the question: According to the tanna of our mishna, in accordance with whom does Shushan observe Purim? Shushan is not like the unwalled towns and not like the walled cities, as residents of Shushan celebrate Purim on the fifteenth, but the city was not surrounded by a wall since the days of Joshua.

18 יח

אמר רבא ואמרי לה כדי שאני שושן הואיל ונעשה בה נס

Rava said, and some say it unattributed to any particular Sage: Shushan is different since the miracle occurred in it on the fifteenth of Adar, and therefore Purim is celebrated on that day. However, other cities are only considered walled cities and read the Megilla on the fifteenth of Adar if they were walled since the days of Joshua.

19 יט

בשלמא לתנא דידן היינו דכתיב (אסתר ט, כח) מדינה ומדינה ועיר ועיר מדינה ומדינה לחלק בין מוקפין חומה מימות יהושע בן נון למוקפת חומה מימות אחשורוש

The Gemara asks: Granted, according to the tanna of our mishna, this is the meaning of what is written: “And these days should be remembered and observed throughout every generation, every family, every province, and every city” (Esther 9:28). The phrase “every province [medina]” is expressed in the verse using repetition, so that it reads literally: Every province and province, and therefore contains a superfluous usage of the word province, is meant to distinguish between cities that were surrounded by a wall since the days of Joshua, son of Nun, where the Megilla is read on the fifteenth, and a city that was surrounded by a wall since the days of Ahasuerus, where the Megilla is read on the fourteenth.

20 כ

עיר ועיר נמי לחלק בין שושן לשאר עיירות אלא לרבי יהושע בן קרחה בשלמא מדינה ומדינה לחלק בין שושן לשאר עיירות אלא עיר ועיר למאי אתא

The phrase “every city,” which is similarly expressed through repetition and contains a superfluous usage of the word city, also serves to distinguish between Shushan and other cities, as Purim is celebrated in Shushan on the fifteenth despite the fact that it was not walled since the time of Joshua. However, according to Rabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa, granted that the phrase “every province” comes to distinguish between Shushan and other cities that were not walled since the days of Ahasuerus; but what does the phrase “every city” come to teach?

21 כא

אמר לך רבי יהושע בן קרחה ולתנא דידן מי ניחא כיון דאית ליה פרזי פרזי מדינה ומדינה למה לי אלא קרא לדרשה הוא דאתא וכדרבי יהושע בן לוי הוא דאתא דאמר רבי יהושע בן לוי כרך וכל הסמוך לו וכל הנראה עמו נידון ככרך

The Gemara explains that Rabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa could have said to you: According to the tanna of our mishna, does it work out well? Since he holds that it is derived from the verbal analogy between one verse that employs the word unwalled and the other verse that employs the word unwalled, why do I need the phrase “every province”? Rather, the verse comes for a midrashic exposition, and it comes to indicate that the halakha is in accordance with the ruling issued by Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi. As Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: A walled city, and all settlements adjacent to it, and all settlements that can be seen with it, i.e., that can be seen from the walled city, are considered like the walled city, and the Megilla is read there on the fifteenth.

22 כב

עד כמה אמר רבי ירמיה ואיתימא רבי חייא בר אבא כמחמתן לטבריא מיל ולימא מיל הא קא משמע לן דשיעורא דמיל כמה הוי כמחמתן לטבריא

The Gemara asks: Up to what distance is considered adjacent? Rabbi Yirmeya said, and some say that it was Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba who said: The limit is like the distance from the town of Ḥamtan to Tiberias, a mil. The Gemara asks: Let him say simply that the limit is a mil; why did he have to mention these places? The Gemara answers that the formulation of the answer teaches us this: How much distance comprises the measure of a mil? It is like the distance from Ḥamtan to Tiberias.

23 כג

ואמר רבי ירמיה ואיתימא רבי חייא בר אבא מנצפ"ך צופים אמרום

§ Having cited a statement of Rabbi Yirmeya, which some attribute to Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba, the Gemara cites other statements attributed to these Sages. Rabbi Yirmeya said, and some say that it was Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba who said: The Seers, i.e., the prophets, were the ones who said that the letters mem, nun, tzadi, peh, and kaf [mantzepakh], have a different form when they appear at the end of a word.

24 כד

ותסברא והכתיב (ויקרא כז, לד) אלה המצות שאין נביא רשאי לחדש דבר מעתה ועוד האמר רב חסדא מ"ם וסמ"ך שבלוחות

The Gemara asks: And how can you understand it that way? Isn’t it written: “These are the commandments that the Lord commanded Moses for the children of Israel in Mount Sinai” (Leviticus 27:34), which indicates that a prophet is not permitted to initiate or change any matter of halakha from now on? Consequently, how could the prophets establish new forms for the letters? And furthermore, didn’t Rav Ḥisda say: The letters mem and samekh in the tablets of the covenant given at Sinai