Megillah 29b:19מגילה כ״ט ב
The William Davidson Talmudתלמוד מהדורת ויליאם דוידסון
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29bכ״ט ב

ועל הכלאים

And a public announcement is made concerning the need to uproot any instances of diverse kinds that have grown in the fields.

בשלמא על הכלאים דזמן זריעה היא אלא על השקלים מנלן

The Gemara asks: Granted, an announcement is made concerning the need to uproot diverse kinds, as the beginning of the month of Adar is a time of sowing. Instances of diverse kinds are already noticeable, and therefore it is a fitting time to deal with the matter. But with regard to the announcement concerning the half-shekels, from where do we derive that it should be made at this point in the year?

אמר ר' טבי אמר רבי יאשיה דאמר קרא (במדבר כח, יד) זאת עולת חודש בחדשו אמרה תורה חדש והבא קרבן מתרומה חדשה

Rabbi Tavi said that Rabbi Yoshiyya said: It is as the verse states: “This is the burnt-offering of each New Moon in its renewal throughout the months of the year” (Numbers 28:14). The Torah says: There is a month in which you must begin to renew and bring the daily and additional offering from animals purchased with the new collections of half-shekels collected that year. Each year a collection is made with which to finance the purchase of communal offerings for the following year. Offerings during that year may be purchased only from collections made for that year.

וכיון דבניסן בעי אקרובי מתרומה חדשה קדמינן וקרינן באחד באדר כי היכי דליתו שקלים למקדש

Elsewhere it is derived through a verbal analogy that the yearly cycle begins with the month of Nisan. And since starting from and during the month of Nisan the offerings must be brought from the new collections of half-shekels, it is necessary to make the collection in the preceding month, i.e., in Adar. Therefore, they advance the reading of Shekalim, and they read it on the first of Adar, in order that the people will be reminded to bring the half-shekels to the Temple in good time.

כמאן דלא כרבן שמעון בן גמליאל דאי רבן שמעון בן גמליאל האמר שתי שבתות דתניא שואלין בהלכות הפסח קודם לפסח שלשים יום רבן שמעון בן גמליאל אומר שתי שבתות

The Gemara asks: In accordance with whose opinion is the mishna taught? It is not in accordance with the opinion of Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel, for if someone would suggest that it is in accordance with the opinion of Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel, one could counter: Didn’t he say that two weeks is a sufficient period of preparation? As it is taught in a baraita: We begin to inquire into the halakhot of Passover thirty days before Passover. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: We begin to inquire only two weeks before Passover. As such, it should be sufficient to announce the collection of half-shekels from two weeks before Nisan, and there should be no need to advance the announcement to the beginning of Adar, as stated in the mishna.

אפילו תימא רבן שמעון בן גמליאל כיון דאמר מר בחמשה עשר בו שולחנות יושבין במדינה ובכ"ה יושבין במקדש משום שולחנות קדמינן וקרינן

Even if you say that the mishna is in accordance with the opinion of Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel, it is possible that even he agrees that the announcement concerning the collection of the half-shekels should be made on the first of Adar, since the Master said: On the fifteenth of Adar money-changing tables for collecting the half-shekels are set up throughout the country, and on the twenty-fifth of Adar they are set up in the Temple. Because of the possibility to donate the half-shekels at the tables already from the fifteenth, they advance the reading of Shekalim to inform people of that possibility and read it two weeks earlier, on the first of Adar.

מאי פרשת שקלים רב אמר (במדבר כח, ב) צו את בני ישראל ואמרת אליהם את קרבני לחמי ושמואל אמר (שמות ל, יב) כי תשא

§ The Gemara clarifies which passage is read: What is this portion of Shekalim? Rav said: It is the portion of “Command the children of Israel, and say to them: My offering, the provision of My offerings made by fire” (Numbers 28), which details the daily and additional offerings. And Shmuel said: It is the portion of “When you take the count” (Exodus 30:11–16).

בשלמא למאן דאמר כי תשא היינו דקרי לה פרשת שקלים דכתיב בה שקלים אלא למאן דאמר את קרבני לחמי הכא מידי שקלים כתיבי התם אין טעמא מאי כדר' טבי

Granted, according to the one who said that it is the portion of “When you take the count,” this is the reason that it is called the portion of Shekalim, for the obligation to give half-shekels is written in that portion. However, according to one who said that it is the portion of “My offering, the provision of My offerings,” why should that portion be read? Is there anything written about the half-shekels here? The Gemara answers: Yes. What is the reason that they are collected in Adar? As per the explanation of Rabbi Tavi, the half-shekels are collected to be used for the coming year’s daily and additional offerings. Therefore, reading the portion concerning those offerings will serve well as a reminder for people to donate.

בשלמא למ"ד צו את בני ישראל משום דכתיבי קרבנות התם כדר' טבי אלא למ"ד כי תשא קרבנות מי כתיבי שקלים לאדנים כתיבי

Granted, according to the one who said that it is the portion of “Command the children of Israel: My offering, the provision of My offerings,” it is logical to read that portion, because the offerings that will be purchased with the half-shekels are written there, as per the explanation of Rabbi Tavi. However, according to one who said that it is the portion of “When you take the count,” why should that portion be read? Is anything about the offerings written in that portion? The collection of half-shekels for use in the construction of the sockets of the Tabernacle are the only thing written in that portion. What does that have to do with the collection of half-shekels for the purchase of offerings that is held in the month of Adar?

כדתני רב יוסף שלש תרומות הן של מזבח למזבח ושל אדנים לאדנים ושל בדק הבית לבדק הבית

The Gemara answers: The selection of that portion is in accordance with the explanation of the portion that Rav Yosef taught: The three instances of the word: Contribution, in that portion teach that there were three contributions of half-shekels: The contribution of the altar is for the purchase of communal offerings to be sacrificed on the altar; and the contribution of the sockets is for constructing the sockets; and the contribution of the Temple maintenance is for the Temple maintenance. Therefore, according to Rav Yosef, it is understandable why the portion of “When you take the count” is read. It deals explicitly with the collection of half-shekels.

בשלמא למאן דאמר כי תשא היינו דשני האי ראש חדש משאר ראשי חדשים

The Gemara asks further: Granted, according to the one who said that it is the portion of “When you take the count,” this is what is different about this New Moon of Adar and other New Moons when they occur on Shabbat. On the New Moon of Adar, “When you take the count” is read because it describes the collection of half-shekels. On other New Moons, when they occur on Shabbat, the portion of “Command the children of Israel” is read because it mentions the additional offerings brought on Shabbat and the New Moon.

אלא למ"ד צו את קרבני מאי שני שני דאילו ראשי חדשים קרו שיתא בעניינא דיומא וחד בדראש חודש ואילו האידנא כולהו בדראש חודש

However, according to the one who said that “Command the children of Israel, and say to them: My offering,” what is different about the portion read on the New Moon of Adar and the portion read on other New Moons when they occur on Shabbat, for the same portion is read in all cases? The Gemara answers: They are different: For on other New Moons, when they occur on Shabbat, six people read from the regular weekly portion of the matter of the day and one reads from the portion for the New Moon, whereas now, on the New Moon of Adar, if it occurs on Shabbat, all seven read from the portion of the New Moon.

הניחא למאן דאמר לסדר פרשיות הוא חוזר

The Gemara asks: This answer works out well according to the one who said that when the mishna states that on the fifth Shabbat, we resume the regular order of readings. The intention is that one resumes the regular weekly order of Torah portions. This implies that on the previous four Shabbatot, the regular portion was not read at all. Rather, only the special portions delineated in the mishna were read. Therefore, it makes sense to say that all seven people read from the special portion.

אלא למאן דאמר לסדר הפטרות הוא חוזר ופרשתא דיומא קרינן מאי שני

However, according to the one who says that the mishna’s intention is that one resumes the regular order of concluding readings from the Prophets [haftarot], and on the previous Shabbatot one also reads from the regular portion of the matter of the day, then the original question stands: What is different about the portion read on the New Moon of Adar and the portion read on other New Moons when they occur on Shabbat?

שני דאילו ראשי חדשים קרו שיתא בעניינא דיומא וחד קרי בדראש חודש ואילו האידנא קרו תלתא בעניינא דיומא וארבעה קרו בדראש חודש

The Gemara answers: They are different: For whereas on other New Moons, when they occur on Shabbat, six people read from the regular weekly portion of the matter of the day and one reads from the portion for the New Moon, now, on the New Moon of Adar, if it occurs on Shabbat, three people read from the regular weekly portion of the matter of the day and four read from the portion for the New Moon.

מיתיבי ר"ח אדר שחל להיות בשבת קורין בפרשת שקלים ומפטירין ביהוידע הכהן בשלמא למ"ד כי תשא היינו דמפטירין ביהוידע הכהן דדמי ליה דכתיב (מלכים ב יב, ה) כסף נפשות ערכו

The Gemara raises an objection from the Tosefta (Megilla 3:1): When the New Moon of Adar occurs on Shabbat, they read the Torah portion of Shekalim, and they read as the haftara the story involving Jehoiada the priest (II Kings 12:1–17). Granted, according to the one who said that Shekalim is the portion of “When you take the count,” this is the reason that they read as the haftara the story involving Jehoiada the priest: Because it is comparable in content to the Torah reading, as it is written in the story of Jehoiada: “The money of his assessment of persons” (II Kings 12:5), which is referring to his collection of the half-shekels, and the haftara should always contain a theme similar to the Torah reading.

אלא למ"ד את קרבני לחמי מי דמי דמי כדר' טבי

However, according to the one who said that “My offering, the provision of My offerings” is read as the portion of Shekalim, is the haftara comparable to that portion? It is comparable, as per the explanation of Rabbi Tavi: It is appropriate to read the portion about offerings because the collection of half-shekels is for that purpose.

מיתיבי חל להיות בפרשה הסמוכה לה בין מלפניה ובין מלאחריה קורין אותה וכופלין אותה

The Gemara raises an objection from a baraita: If the New Moon of Adar occurs on the Shabbat on which the portion to be read for the regular weekly reading is adjacent to the portion read as Shekalim, whether on the Shabbat preceding the Shabbat on which Shekalim will be read as part of the weekly reading or following it, then they read and repeat Shekalim on both Shabbatot, one time as the special portion Shekalim and the other as part of the regular order.

בשלמא למ"ד כי תשא היינו דמתרמי בההוא זימנא

Granted, according to the one who said that the portion of “When you take the count” is read as Shekalim, this is how it is possible: That portion could occur at that time in the yearlong cycle of the order of readings. In the regular order of reading, “When you take the count” is often read during the beginning of Adar.

אלא למ"ד צו את קרבני מי מתרמי בההוא זימנא אין לבני מערבא דמסקי לדאורייתא בתלת שנין

However, according to the one who said that the portion of “Command the children of Israel, and say to them, My offering” is read as Shekalim, does that portion ever occur at that time of the year? That portion usually occurs much later in the year, in the summer. The Gemara answers: Yes, it sometimes occurs that this portion is read during the beginning of Adar, for the people of the West, i.e., Eretz Yisrael, who complete the cycle of reading the Torah not in one year but in three years.

תניא כוותיה דשמואל ר"ח אדר שחל להיות בשבת קורין כי תשא ומפטירין ביהוידע הכהן

It is taught in a baraita in accordance with the opinion of Shmuel: When the New Moon of Adar occurs on Shabbat, they read the portion of “When you take the count,” and they read as the haftara the story involving Jehoiada the priest.

א"ר יצחק נפחא ר"ח אדר שחל להיות בשבת מוציאין שלש תורות וקורין בהן אחד בעניינו של יום ואחד בשל ר"ח ואחד בכי תשא וא"ר יצחק נפחא ר"ח טבת שחל להיות בשבת מביאין שלש תורות וקורין בהן אחד בעניינו של יום ואחד בדראש חודש ואחד בחנוכה

§ Rabbi Yitzḥak Nappaḥa said: When the New Moon of Adar occurs on Shabbat, the congregation takes out three Torah scrolls from the ark and reads from them. From the first one, they read the portion of the regular weekly reading of the matter of the day; and from the second one they read the portion for the New Moon; and from the third one they read Shekalim, which begins with “When you take the count.” And Rabbi Yitzḥak Nappaḥa further said: When the New Moon of Tevet, which always falls during Hanukkah, occurs on Shabbat, they bring three Torah scrolls and read from them. From the first one, they read the portion of the regular cycle of reading of the matter of the day; and from the second one, they read the portion for the New Moon; and from the third one, they read the portion for Hanukkah.

וצריכא דאי איתמר בהא בהא קאמר ר' יצחק אבל בהך כרב ס"ל דאמר פרשת שקלים את קרבני לחמי ובשתי תורות סגי קמ"ל

The Gemara comments: And it is necessary for Rabbi Yitzḥak Nappaḥa to state the halakha in both cases, as, if it had been stated only with regard to the New Moon of Tevet, one could have mistakenly thought that only with regard to that case does Rabbi Yitzḥak Nappaḥa state that three Torah scrolls are used. But with regard to the New Moon of Adar, one might think that he holds in accordance with the opinion of Rav, who said that the portion of Shekalim is the portion of “My offering, the provision of My offerings,” and two Torah scrolls will therefore suffice, since the same portion is used both for the portion for the New Moon and for the portion of Shekalim. Therefore, he teaches us that three Torah scrolls are used even on the New Moon of Adar.

ולימא הא ולא בעיא הך חדא מכלל חבירתה איתמר

The Gemara asks: But, based on that logic, let Rabbi Yitzḥak just say the halakha with respect to this case of the New Moon of Adar, and there would be no need to state that case of the New Moon of Tevet. The Gemara answers: Indeed, one was stated from the other by inference, i.e., Rabbi Yitzḥak Nappaḥa stated the halakha explicitly only with regard to the New Moon of Adar, and it was inferred that the same is true of the New Moon of Tevet.

איתמר ר"ח טבת שחל להיות בחול א"ר יצחק קרו תלתא בר"ח וחד בחנוכה ורב דימי דמן חיפא אמר קרו תלתא בחנוכה וחד בר"ח

§ An amoraic dispute was stated: When the New Moon of Tevet occurs on a weekday, what Torah portion is read? Rabbi Yitzḥak Nappaḥa said: Three people read from the portion for the New Moon, and one reads from the portion for Hanukkah. And Rav Dimi of Haifa said: Three read from the portion for Hanukkah, and one reads from the portion for the New Moon.

אמר ר' מני כוותיה דרבי יצחק נפחא מסתברא דתדיר ושאינו תדיר תדיר קודם

Rabbi Mani said: It stands to reason to rule in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yitzḥak Nappaḥa, for it is already an established principle that when a frequent practice and an infrequent practice conflict, the frequent practice takes precedence over the infrequent practice. Since the portion for the New Moon is read more frequently than the portion for Hanukkah, it should be given greater prominence.

א"ר אבין כוותיה דרב דימי מסתברא מי גרם לרביעי שיבא ר"ח הלכך רביעי בר"ח בעי מיקרי

Rabbi Avin said: It stands to reason to rule in accordance with the opinion of Rav Dimi, for the following reason: What caused the fourth person to come and read from the Torah? The New Moon, as on the other days of Hanukkah only three people read from the Torah. Therefore, it is only logical that the fourth person should read from the portion for the New Moon.

מאי הוי עלה רב יוסף אמר אין משגיחין בראש חודש ורבה אמר אין משגיחין בחנוכה והלכתא אין משגיחין בחנוכה ור"ח עיקר

The Gemara asks: What halakhic conclusion was reached about this matter? Rav Yosef said: We do not concern ourselves with making the portion for the New Moon the primary reading. Rather, three people read from the portion for Hanukkah, and only the fourth reads the portion for the New Moon. And Rabba said: We do not concern ourselves with making the portion for Hanukkah the primary reading. Rather, three people read from the portion for the New Moon, and only the fourth reads the portion for Hanukkah. The Gemara concludes: And the halakha is that we do not concern ourselves with making the portion for Hanukkah the primary reading, and therefore the portion for the New Moon is primary.

איתמר חל להיות בואתה תצוה אמר רבי יצחק נפחא קרו שיתא מואתה תצוה עד כי תשא וחד מכי תשא עד ועשית אמר אביי

§ An amoraic dispute was stated: If the Shabbat on which the portion of Shekalim is to be read occurs on the Shabbat in which the regular weekly portion is “And you shall command” (Exodus 27:20–30:10), what should be done? Rabbi Yitzḥak Nappaḥa said: Six people read from the portion “And you shall command,” until but not including the weekly portion of “When you take the count” (Exodus 27:20–30:10), and one person reads the portion of Shekalim from “When you take the count,” until but not including the verse: “And you shall make a copper laver” (Exodus 30:11–16). Abaye said: