מְבַטְּלִין תַּלְמוּד תּוֹרָה לְהוֹצָאַת הַמֵּת, וּלְהַכְנָסַת הַכַּלָּה. אָמְרוּ עָלָיו עַל רַבִּי יְהוּדָה בְּרַבִּי אִילְעַאי שֶׁהָיָה מְבַטֵּל תַּלְמוּד תּוֹרָה לְהוֹצָאַת הַמֵּת וּלְהַכְנָסַת הַכַּלָּה. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים — בְּשֶׁאֵין שָׁם כׇּל צוֹרְכּוֹ, אֲבָל יֵשׁ שָׁם כׇּל צוֹרְכּוֹ — אֵין מְבַטְּלִין. One interrupts his Torah study to carry out the dead for burial and to escort a bride to her wedding. They said about Rabbi Yehuda, son of Rabbi Elai, that he would interrupt his Torah study to carry out the dead for burial and to escort a bride to her wedding. The Gemara qualifies this ruling: In what case is this statement said? Only where there are not sufficient numbers of other people available to perform these mitzvot and honor the deceased or the bride appropriately. However, when there are sufficient numbers, additional people should not interrupt their Torah study to participate.
וְכַמָּה כׇּל צוֹרְכּוֹ? אָמַר רַב שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר אִינְיָא מִשְּׁמֵיהּ דְּרַב: תְּרֵיסַר אַלְפֵי גַּבְרֵי, וְשִׁיתָּא אַלְפֵי שִׁיפּוּרֵי. וְאָמְרִי לַהּ: תְּרֵיסַר אַלְפֵי גַּבְרֵי, וּמִינַּיְיהוּ שִׁיתָּא אַלְפֵי שִׁיפּוּרֵי. עוּלָּא אָמַר: כְּגוֹן דְּחָיְיצִי גַּבְרֵי מֵאֲבוּלָּא עַד סִיכְרָא. The Gemara asks: And how many people are considered sufficient? Rav Shmuel bar Inya said in the name of Rav: Twelve thousand men and another six thousand men to blow horns as a sign of mourning. And some say a different version: Twelve thousand men, among whom are six thousand men with horns. Ulla said: For example, enough to make a procession of people all the way from the town gate [abbula] to the place of burial.
רַב שֵׁשֶׁת אָמַר: כִּנְתִינָתָהּ כָּךְ נְטִילָתָהּ. מָה נְתִינָתָהּ בְּשִׁשִּׁים רִיבּוֹא, אַף נְטִילָתָהּ בְּשִׁשִּׁים רִיבּוֹא. הָנֵי מִילֵּי לְמַאן דְּקָרֵי וְתָנֵי, אֲבָל לְמַאן דְּמַתְנֵי — לֵית לֵיהּ שִׁיעוּרָא. Rav Sheshet said: As the Torah was given, so it should be taken away, i.e., the same honor that was provided when the Torah was given at Mount Sinai should be provided when the Torah is taken through the passing away of a Torah scholar. Just as the Torah was given in the presence of six hundred thousand men, so too its taking should be done in the presence of six hundred thousand men. The Gemara comments: This applies to someone who read the Bible and studied halakhot for himself. But for someone who taught others, there is no limit to the honor that should be shown to him.
תַּנְיָא, רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן יוֹחַי אוֹמֵר: בּוֹא וּרְאֵה כַּמָּה חֲבִיבִין יִשְׂרָאֵל לִפְנֵי הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, שֶׁבְּכָל מָקוֹם שֶׁגָּלוּ — שְׁכִינָה עִמָּהֶן. גָּלוּ לְמִצְרַיִם — שְׁכִינָה עִמָּהֶן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: ״הַנִּגְלֹה נִגְלֵיתִי לְבֵית אָבִיךָ בִּהְיוֹתָם בְּמִצְרַיִם וְגוֹ׳״. גָּלוּ לְבָבֶל — שְׁכִינָה עִמָּהֶן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: ״לְמַעַנְכֶם שֻׁלַּחְתִּי בָבֶלָה״. וְאַף כְּשֶׁהֵן עֲתִידִין לִיגָּאֵל — שְׁכִינָה עִמָּהֶן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: ״וְשָׁב ה׳ אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֶת שְׁבוּתְךָ״. ״וְהֵשִׁיב״ לֹא נֶאֱמַר, אֶלָּא ״וְשָׁב״. מְלַמֵּד שֶׁהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא שָׁב עִמָּהֶן מִבֵּין הַגָּלִיּוֹת. § It is taught in a baraita: Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai says: Come and see how beloved the Jewish people are before the Holy One, Blessed be He. As every place they were exiled, the Divine Presence went with them. They were exiled to Egypt, and the Divine Presence went with them, as it is stated: “Did I reveal myself to the house of your father when they were in Egypt?” (I Samuel 2:27). They were exiled to Babylonia, and the Divine Presence went with them, as it is stated: “For your sake I have sent to Babylonia” (Isaiah 43:14). So too, when, in the future, they will be redeemed, the Divine Presence will be with them, as it is stated: “Then the Lord your God will return with your captivity” (Deuteronomy 30:3). It does not state: He will bring back, i.e., He will cause the Jewish people to return, but rather it says: “He will return,” which teaches that the Holy One, Blessed be He, will return together with them from among the various exiles.
בְּבָבֶל הֵיכָא? אָמַר אַבָּיֵי: בְּבֵי כְּנִישְׁתָּא דְּהוּצָל, וּבְבֵי כְּנִישְׁתָּא דְּ״שַׁף וִיתֵיב״ בִּנְהַרְדְּעָא. וְלָא תֵּימָא הָכָא וְהָכָא, אֶלָּא זִמְנִין הָכָא וְזִמְנִין הָכָא. אָמַר אַבָּיֵי: תֵּיתֵי לִי, דְּכִי מְרַחַיקְנָא פַּרְסָה, עָיֵילְנָא וּמְצַלֵּינָא הָתָם. אֲבוּהּ דִּשְׁמוּאֵל [וְלֵוִי] הֲווֹ יָתְבִי בִּכְנִישְׁתָּא דְּשַׁף וִיתֵיב בִּנְהַרְדְּעָא. אֲתַאי שְׁכִינָה, שְׁמַעוּ קוֹל רִיגְשָׁא [קָמוּ וּנְפַקוּ. The Gemara asks: Where in Babylonia does the Divine Presence reside? Abaye said: In the ancient synagogue of Huzal and in the synagogue that was destroyed and rebuilt in Neharde’a. And do not say that the Divine Presence resided here and there, i.e., in both places simultaneously. Rather, at times it resided here in Huzal and at times there in Neharde’a. Abaye said: I have a blessing coming to me, for whenever I am within a distance of a parasang from one of those synagogues, I go in and pray there, due to the special honor and sanctity attached to them. It was related that the father of Shmuel and Levi were once sitting in the synagogue that was destroyed and rebuilt in Neharde’a. The Divine Presence came and they heard a loud sound, so they arose and left.
רַב שֵׁשֶׁת הֲוָה יָתֵיב בְּבֵי כְּנִישְׁתָּא דְּשַׁף וִיתֵיב בִּנְהַרְדְּעָא, אֲתַאי שְׁכִינָה] וְלָא נְפַק. אֲתוֹ מַלְאֲכֵי הַשָּׁרֵת וְקָא מְבַעֲתוּ לֵיהּ. אָמַר לְפָנָיו: רִבּוֹנוֹ שֶׁל עוֹלָם, עָלוּב וְשֶׁאֵינוֹ עָלוּב, מִי נִדְחֶה מִפְּנֵי מִי? אֲמַר לְהוּ: שִׁבְקוּהוּ. It was further related that Rav Sheshet was once sitting in the synagogue that was destroyed and rebuilt in Neharde’a, and the Divine Presence came but he did not go out. The ministering angels came and were frightening him in order to force him to leave. Rav Sheshet turned to God and said before Him: Master of the Universe, if one is wretched and the other is not wretched, who should defer to whom? Shouldn’t the one who is not wretched give way to the one who is? Now I am blind and wretched; why then do you expect me to defer to the angels? God then turned to the angels and said to them: Leave him.
״וָאֱהִי לָהֶם לְמִקְדָּשׁ מְעַט״, אָמַר רַבִּי יִצְחָק: אֵלּוּ בָּתֵּי כְנֵסִיּוֹת וּבָתֵּי מִדְרָשׁוֹת שֶׁבְּבָבֶל. וְרַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר אָמַר: זֶה בֵּית רַבֵּינוּ שֶׁבְּבָבֶל. The verse states: “Yet I have been to them as a little sanctuary in the countries where they have come” (Ezekiel 11:16). Rabbi Yitzḥak said: This is referring to the synagogues and study halls in Babylonia. And Rabbi Elazar said: This is referring to the house of our master, i.e., Rav, in Babylonia, from which Torah issues forth to the entire world.
דָּרֵשׁ רָבָא, מַאי דִּכְתִיב: ״ה׳ מָעוֹן אַתָּה הָיִיתָ לָּנוּ״, אֵלּוּ בָּתֵּי כְנֵסִיּוֹת וּבָתֵּי מִדְרָשׁוֹת. אָמַר אַבָּיֵי: מֵרֵישׁ הֲוַאי גָּרֵיסְנָא בְּבֵיתָא וּמְצַלֵּינָא בְּבֵי כְנִישְׁתָּא, כֵּיוָן דִּשְׁמַעִית לְהָא דְּקָאָמַר דָּוִד: ״ה׳ אָהַבְתִּי מְעוֹן בֵּיתֶךָ״, הֲוַאי גָּרֵיסְנָא בְּבֵי כְנִישְׁתָּא. Rava interpreted a verse homiletically: What is the meaning of that which is written: “Lord, You have been our dwelling place in all generations” (Psalms 90:1)? This is referring to the synagogues and study halls. Abaye said: Initially, I used to study Torah in my home and pray in the synagogue. Once I heard and understood that which King David says: “Lord, I love the habitation of Your house” (Psalms 26:8), I would always study Torah in the synagogue, to express my love for the place in which the Divine Presence resides.
תַּנְיָא, רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר הַקַּפָּר אוֹמֵר: עֲתִידִין בָּתֵּי כְנֵסִיּוֹת וּבָתֵּי מִדְרָשׁוֹת שֶׁבְּבָבֶל שֶׁיִּקָּבְעוּ בְּאֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: ״כִּי כְּתָבוֹר בֶּהָרִים וּכְכַרְמֶל בַּיָּם יָבֹא״, וַהֲלֹא דְּבָרִים קַל וָחוֹמֶר: וּמָה תָּבוֹר וְכַרְמֶל שֶׁלֹּא בָּאוּ אֶלָּא לְפִי שָׁעָה לִלְמוֹד תּוֹרָה, נִקְבָּעִים בְּאֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל, בָּתֵּי כְנֵסִיּוֹת וּבָתֵּי מִדְרָשׁוֹת שֶׁקּוֹרִין וּמַרְבִּיצִין בָּהֶן תּוֹרָה — עַל אַחַת כַּמָּה וְכַמָּה. It is taught in a baraita: Rabbi Elazar HaKappar says: In the future, the synagogues and the study halls in Babylonia will be transported and reestablished in Eretz Yisrael, as it is stated: “Surely, like Tabor among the mountains, and like Carmel by the sea, so shall he come” (Jeremiah 46:18). There is a tradition that these mountains came to Sinai at the giving of the Torah and demanded that the Torah should be given upon them. And are these matters not inferred through an a fortiori argument: Just as Tabor and Carmel, which came only momentarily to study Torah, were relocated and established in Eretz Yisrael in reward for their actions, all the more so should the synagogues and study halls in Babylonia, in which the Torah is read and disseminated, be relocated to Eretz Yisrael.
דָּרֵשׁ בַּר קַפָּרָא, מַאי דִּכְתִיב: ״לָמָּה תְּרַצְּדוּן הָרִים גַּבְנוּנִּים״, יָצְתָה בַּת קוֹל וְאָמְרָה לָהֶם: לָמָּה תִּרְצוּ דִּין עִם סִינַי? כּוּלְּכֶם בַּעֲלֵי מוּמִים אַתֶּם אֵצֶל סִינַי. כְּתִיב הָכָא: ״גַּבְנוּנִים״, וּכְתִיב הָתָם: ״אוֹ גִבֵּן אוֹ דַק״. אָמַר רַב אָשֵׁי: שְׁמַע מִינַּהּ הַאי מַאן דִּיהִיר — בַּעַל מוּם הוּא. Bar Kappara interpreted a verse homiletically: What is the meaning of that which is written: “Why do you look askance [teratzdun], O high-peaked mountains, at the mountain that God has desired for His abode” (Psalms 68:17)? A Divine Voice issued forth and said to all the mountains that came and demanded that the Torah be given upon them: Why do you seek [tirtzu] to enter into a legal dispute [din] with Mount Sinai? You are all blemished in comparison to Mount Sinai, as it is written here: “High-peaked [gavnunnim]” and it is written there, with regard to the blemishes that disqualify a priest: “Or crookbacked [gibben] or a dwarf” (Leviticus 21:20). Rav Ashi said: Learn from this that one who is arrogant is considered blemished. The other mountains arrogantly insisted that the Torah should be given upon them, and they were therefore described as blemished.
אֵין עוֹשִׂין אוֹתוֹ קַפֶּנְדַּרְיָא מַאי ״קַפֶּנְדַּרְיָא״? אָמַר רָבָא: קַפֶּנְדַּרְיָא כִּשְׁמָהּ. מַאי כִּשְׁמָהּ? כְּמַאן דְּאָמַר: אַדְּמַקֵּיפְנָא אַדָּרֵי, אֵיעוּל בְּהָא. § The mishna teaches that even if a synagogue fell into ruin, it may not be made into a kappendarya. The Gemara asks: What is meant by kappendarya? Rava said: A shortcut, as implied by its name. The Gemara clarifies: What do you mean by adding: As implied by its name? It is like one who said: Instead of going around the entire row of houses [makkifna addari] to get to the other side, thereby lengthening my journey, I will enter this house and walk through it to the other side. The word kappendarya sounds like a contraction of makkifna addari. This is what Rava meant by saying: As implied by its name.
אָמַר רַבִּי אֲבָהוּ: אִם הָיָה שְׁבִיל מֵעִיקָּרָא — מוּתָּר. Rabbi Abbahu said: If a public path had initially passed through that location, before the synagogue was built, it is permitted to continue to use it as a shortcut, for the honor due to a synagogue cannot annul the public’s right of access to the path.
אָמַר רַב נַחְמָן בַּר יִצְחָק: הַנִּכְנָס עַל מְנָת שֶׁלֹּא לַעֲשׂוֹת קַפֶּנְדַּרְיָא — מוּתָּר לַעֲשׂוֹתוֹ קַפֶּנְדַּרְיָא. וְאָמַר רַבִּי חֶלְבּוֹ אָמַר רַב הוּנָא: הַנִּכְנָס לְבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת לְהִתְפַּלֵּל — מוּתָּר לַעֲשׂוֹתוֹ קַפֶּנְדַּרְיָא, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: ״וּבְבֹא עַם הָאָרֶץ לִפְנֵי ה׳ בַּמּוֹעֲדִים הַבָּא דֶּרֶךְ שַׁעַר צָפוֹן לְהִשְׁתַּחֲווֹת יֵצֵא דֶּרֶךְ שַׁעַר נֶגֶב״. Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: With regard to one who enters a synagogue without intending to make it into a shortcut, when he leaves he is permitted to make it into a shortcut for himself, by leaving through the exit on the other side of the building. And Rabbi Ḥelbo said that Rav Huna said: With regard to one who enters a synagogue to pray, he is permitted to make it into a shortcut for himself by leaving through a different exit, and it is fitting to do so, as it is stated: “And when the people of the land shall come before the Lord in the appointed seasons, he that enters by way of the north gate to bow down shall go forth by the way of the south gate” (Ezekiel 46:9). This indicates that it is a show of respect not to leave through the same entrance through which one came in; it is better to leave through the other side.
עָלוּ בּוֹ עֲשָׂבִים — לֹא יִתְלוֹשׁ, מִפְּנֵי עׇגְמַת נֶפֶשׁ. וְהָתַנְיָא: אֵינוֹ תּוֹלֵשׁ וּמַאֲכִיל, אֲבָל תּוֹלֵשׁ וּמַנִּיחַ! כִּי תְּנַן נָמֵי מַתְנִיתִין — תּוֹלֵשׁ וּמַאֲכִיל תְּנַן. § The mishna teaches: If grass sprang up in a ruined synagogue, although it is not befitting its sanctity, one should not pick it, due to the anguish that it will cause to those who see it. It will remind them of the disrepair of the synagogue and the need to rebuild it. The Gemara asks: But isn’t it taught in a baraita: One may not pick the grass and feed it to one’s animals, but he may pick it and leave it there? The Gemara answers: When we learned the prohibition against picking the grass in the mishna as well, we learned only that it is prohibited to pick it and feed it to one’s animals, but it is permitted to leave it there.
תָּנוּ רַבָּנַן: בֵּית הַקְּבָרוֹת, אֵין נוֹהֲגִין בָּהֶן קַלּוּת רֹאשׁ. אֵין מַרְעִין בָּהֶן בְּהֵמָה, וְאֵין מוֹלִיכִין בָּהֶן אַמַּת הַמַּיִם, וְאֵין מְלַקְּטִין בָּהֶן עֲשָׂבִים. וְאִם לִיקֵּט — שׂוֹרְפָן בִּמְקוֹמָן, מִפְּנֵי כְּבוֹד מֵתִים. The Sages taught in a baraita: In a cemetery, one may not act with frivolity; one may not graze an animal on the grass growing inside it; and one may not direct a water channel to pass through it; and one may not gather grass inside it to use the grass as feed for one’s animals; and if one gathered grass for that purpose, it should be burnt on the spot, out of respect for the dead.
אַהֵיָיא? אִילֵּימָא אַסֵּיפָא — כֵּיוָן שֶׁשּׂוֹרְפָן בִּמְקוֹמָן מַאי כְּבוֹד מֵתִים אִיכָּא? אֶלָּא אַרֵישָׁא. The Gemara clarifies: With regard to the phrase: Out of respect for the dead, to which clause of the baraita does it refer? If we say it is referring to the last clause, that if one gathered grass that it should be burnt out of respect for the dead, then one could ask: Since the grass is burnt on the spot, and not publicly, what respect for the dead is there in this act? Rather, the phrase must be referring to the first clause of the baraita, and it explains why it is prohibited to act with frivolity.
מַתְנִי׳ רֹאשׁ חֹדֶשׁ אֲדָר שֶׁחָל לִהְיוֹת בַּשַּׁבָּת, קוֹרִין בְּפָרָשַׁת שְׁקָלִים. חָל לִהְיוֹת בְּתוֹךְ הַשַּׁבָּת — מַקְדִּימִין לְשֶׁעָבַר, וּמַפְסִיקִין לְשַׁבָּת אַחֶרֶת. MISHNA: On four Shabbatot during and surrounding the month of Adar, a Torah portion of seasonal significance is read. When the New Moon of Adar occurs on Shabbat, the congregation reads the portion of Shekalim on that Shabbat. If the New Moon occurs during the middle of the week, they advance the reading of that portion to the previous Shabbat, and, in such a case, they interrupt the reading of the four portions on the following Shabbat, which would be the first Shabbat of the month of Adar, and no additional portion is read on it.
בַּשְּׁנִיָּה ״זָכוֹר״. בַּשְּׁלִישִׁית פָּרָה אֲדוּמָּה. בָּרְבִיעִית ״הַחוֹדֶשׁ הַזֶּה לָכֶם״. בַּחֲמִישִׁית חוֹזְרִין לִכְסִדְרָן. On the second Shabbat, the Shabbat prior to Purim, they read the portion: “Remember what Amalek did” (Deuteronomy 25:17–19), which details the mitzva to remember and destroy the nation of Amalek. On the third Shabbat, they read the portion of the Red Heifer [Para] (Numbers 19:1–22), which details the purification process for one who became ritually impure through contact with a corpse. On the fourth Shabbat, they read the portion: “This month [haḥodesh] shall be for you” (Exodus 12:1–20), which describes the offering of the Paschal lamb. On the fifth Shabbat, they resume the regular weekly order of readings and no special portion is read.
לַכֹּל מַפְסִיקִין: בְּרָאשֵׁי חֳדָשִׁים, בַּחֲנוּכָּה וּבְפוּרִים, בְּתַעֲנִיּוֹת וּבְמַעֲמָדוֹת, וּבְיוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים. For all special days, the congregation interrupts the regular weekly order of readings, and a special portion relating to the character of the day is read. This applies on the New Moons, on Hanukkah, and on Purim, on fast days, and on the non-priestly watches, and on Yom Kippur.
גְּמָ׳ תְּנַן הָתָם: בְּאֶחָד בַּאֲדָר מַשְׁמִיעִין עַל הַשְּׁקָלִים, GEMARA: We learned in a mishna there (Shekalim 1:1): On the first of Adar they make a public announcement concerning the forthcoming collection of half-shekels. The money is used for the communal offerings in the Temple in the coming year.