Megillah 24aמגילה כ״ד א
The William Davidson Talmudתלמוד מהדורת ויליאם דוידסון
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24aכ״ד א

ובנביא שלשה היו שלשתן שלש פרשיות קורין אחד אחד

And with regard to the Prophets, one may read to the translator three verses at a time. With respect to the Torah, an incorrect translation might lead to an error in practice, but this concern does not apply to the Prophets. If the three verses constitute three separate paragraphs, that is to say, if each verse is a paragraph in itself, one must read them to the translator one by one.

מדלגין בנביא ואין מדלגין בתורה ועד כמה הוא מדלג עד כדי שלא יפסוק המתורגמן:

One may skip from one place to another while reading the Prophets, but one may not skip from one place to another while reading the Torah. How far may he skip? As far as he can, provided that the translator will not conclude his translation while the reader is still rolling the scroll to the new location. The reader may not cause the congregation to wait for him after the translator has finished, as that would be disrespectful to the congregation.

גמ׳ הני ג' פסוקין כנגד מי אמר רב אסי כנגד תורה נביאים וכתובים

GEMARA: The Gemara asks: Corresponding to what were these three verses, i.e., the minimal Torah reading, instituted? Rav Asi said: They correspond to the Torah, Prophets, and Writings.

ולא יקרא למתורגמן יותר מפסוק אחד ובנביא ג' פסוקים ואם היו שלשתן שלש פרשיות קורא אחד אחד כגון (ישעיהו נב, ג) כי כה אמר ה' חנם נמכרתם (ישעיהו נב, ד) כי כה אמר ה' אלהים מצרים ירד עמי בראשונה (ישעיהו נב, ה) ועתה מה לי פה נאם ה':

We learned in the mishna: And when it is being translated, one should not read to the translator more than one verse at a time. And with regard to the Prophets, he may read to the translator three verses at a time. If the three verses constitute three separate paragraphs, he must read them to the translator separately, for example, the verses: “For thus says the Lord, You were sold for naught” (Isaiah 52:3); “For thus says the Lord God, at first My people went down to Egypt” (Isaiah 52:4); “Now therefore what have I here, says the Lord” (Isaiah 52:5). These are three adjacent verses, each one constituting an independent paragraph.

מדלגין בנביא ואין מדלגין בתורה: ורמינהי קורא (ויקרא טז, א) אחרי מות (ויקרא כג, כז) ואך בעשור והא קא מדלג

§ We learned further in the mishna: One may skip from one place to another while reading the Prophets, but one may not skip from one place to another while reading the Torah. The Gemara raises a contradiction from a mishna (Yoma 68b): On Yom Kippur, the High Priest reads the section beginning with the verse: “After the death” (Leviticus 16:1), and then he reads the section beginning with the verse: “Only on the tenth day” (Leviticus 23:27). Doesn’t he skip from the first section to the second section?

אמר אביי לא קשיא כאן בכדי שיפסוק התורגמן וכאן בכדי שלא יפסוק התורגמן

Abaye said: This is not difficult. Here, where it says that one may not skip in the Torah, the translator will conclude his translation before the reader is ready to continue reading. There, where it is permitted to skip, the translator will not conclude his translation before the reader is ready to continue reading.

והא עלה קתני מדלגין בנביא ואין מדלגין בתורה ועד כמה הוא מדלג עד כדי שלא יפסוק התורגמן מכלל דבתורה כלל כלל לא

The Gemara asks: Wasn’t it taught in the mishna with regard to that issue: One may skip while reading the Prophets, but one may not skip while reading the Torah. How far may he skip? As far as he can, provided that the translator will not conclude his translation before the reader is ready to continue reading. This applies to reading the Prophets; it therefore proves by inference that while reading the Torah one may not skip at all.

אלא אמר אביי לא קשיא כאן בענין אחד כאן בשתי עניינות והתניא מדלגין בתורה בענין אחד ובנביא בשני עניינין כאן וכאן בכדי שלא יפסוק התורגמן

Rather, Abaye said it is not difficult for a different reason: Here, where it says that the High Priest skipped from one section to another, it was permitted because the two sections address one topic. There, where the mishna says one may not skip while reading the Torah, it is where the two sections address two distinct topics. And so it is explicitly taught in a baraita: One may skip from one section to another while reading the Torah if the two sections address one topic, and in the Prophets one may skip even if the two sections address two distinct topics. Both here and there, with regard to the Torah and the Prophets, one may skip only if the translator will not conclude his translation before the reader is ready to continue reading.

תניא אידך אין מדלגין מנביא לנביא ובנביא של שנים עשר מדלג ובלבד שלא ידלג מסוף הספר לתחילתו:

It is taught in another baraita: One may not skip from prophet to prophet, i.e., from one book of Prophets to another, even if the selections address the same topic. However, one may skip from one prophet to another among the twelve books of Prophets, which are grouped together, provided that he does not skip from the end of the book to the beginning, i.e., that he does not read a later section and then an earlier section.

מתני׳ המפטיר בנביא הוא פורס על שמע והוא עובר לפני התיבה והוא נושא את כפיו ואם היה קטן אביו או רבו עוברין על ידו

MISHNA: The one who concludes with a reading from the Prophets [haftara] is also the one who is honored to recite the introductory prayers and blessing before Shema, and he passes before the ark to repeat the Amida prayer, and if he is a priest he lifts his hands to recite the Priestly Benediction. And if the one who reads the haftara is a minor, who may read the haftara but is not qualified to lead the congregation in prayer, his father or teacher is honored to pass before the ark in his place.

קטן קורא בתורה ומתרגם אבל אינו פורס על שמע ואינו עובר לפני התיבה ואינו נושא את כפיו

A minor may read the Torah in public and also translate the text for the congregation into Aramaic, but he may not recite the introductory prayers and blessing before Shema, and he may not pass before the ark to lead the congregation in prayer, and he may not lift his hands to recite the Priestly Benediction.

פוחח פורס את שמע ומתרגם אבל אינו קורא בתורה ואינו עובר לפני התיבה ואינו נושא את כפיו

One whose limbs are exposed [poḥe’aḥ] may recite the introductory prayers and blessing before Shema and translate the Torah reading into Aramaic, but he may not read from the Torah out of respect for the Torah; he may not pass before the ark to lead the congregation in prayer; and he may not lift his hands to recite the Priestly Benediction out of respect for the congregation.

סומא פורס את שמע ומתרגם רבי יהודה אומר כל שלא ראה מאורות מימיו אינו פורס על שמע:

One who is blind may recite the introductory prayers and blessing before Shema, and he may also translate the Torah reading into Aramaic. Rabbi Yehuda says: Anyone who has not seen the luminaries, the sun, moon, and stars, in his life, i.e., he was blind from birth, may not recite the introductory prayers and blessing before Shema. The first of the blessings before Shema is the blessing over the luminaries, and one who has never seen them cannot recite the blessing at all.

גמ׳ מ"ט רב פפא אמר משום כבוד רבה בר שימי אמר משום דאתי לאינצויי

GEMARA: The Gemara asks: What is the reason that the one who reads the haftara is honored with these other roles? Rav Pappa said: It is due to a desire to grant him honor. Since even minors are qualified to read the haftara, it was considered an insult for a person to be called up to read the haftara rather than be called up as one of those needed to read the Torah. Since he was willing to serve in this role, he is granted other, more honorable roles in the synagogue. Rabba bar Shimi said a different reason: It is due to a concern that they will come to quarrel, as the individual who read the haftara will quarrel with the individual honored to lead the congregation in prayer.

מאי בינייהו איכא בינייהו דעביד בחנם

The Gemara asks: What is the practical difference between them? The Gemara explains: There is a practical difference between them where the one who passes before the ark does so free of charge. In that case, there is still a need to grant the one who read the haftara honor, but it is not likely that they will quarrel.

תנן ואם היה קטן אביו או רבו עוברין על ידו אי אמרת משום נצויי קטן בר נצויי הוא

We learned in the mishna: And if the one who reads the haftara is a minor, his father or teacher is honored to pass before the ark in his place. If you say that the reason the reader of the haftara passes before the ark is due to a concern that they will quarrel, will a minor engage in quarreling? He has no valid claim to the right to pass before the ark. Consequently, the concern for strife must not be the reason for the halakha stated in the mishna.

אלא מאי משום כבוד קטן בר כבוד הוא אלא איכא כבוד אביו וכבוד רבו

The Gemara rejects this argument: Rather, what is the reason; is it due to honor? Does a minor have honor that is slighted when he reads the haftara and therefore must be assuaged? Rather, according to Rav Pappa it is a display of honor to his father and his teacher.