Megillah 21aמגילה כ״א א
The William Davidson Talmudתלמוד מהדורת ויליאם דוידסון
Toggle Reader Menu Display Settings
21aכ״א א

מה משפט ביום אף כאן ביום:

Just as judgment may be done only by day, so too here, the sota is given the bitter waters to drink only by day.

ולעריפת העגלה: אמרי דבי רבי ינאי כפרה כתיב בה כקדשים: ולטהרת מצורע: דכתיב (ויקרא יד, ב) זאת תהיה תורת המצורע ביום טהרתו:

And daytime is the time for breaking the neck of the heifer, as the Sages of the school of Rabbi Yannai said: Atonement is written with regard to the heifer, teaching that it is treated like sacred offerings, and it has already been established that all actions relating to offerings must be performed during the day. And for purifying the leper, it is derived as it is written: “This shall be the law of the leper on the day of his cleansing” (Leviticus 14:2).

כל הלילה כשר לקצירת העומר וכו': דאמר מר קצירה וספירה בלילה והבאה ביום: ולהקטר חלבים ואברים: דכתיב (ויקרא ו, ב) כל הלילה עד הבוקר:

It was taught in the mishna: The entire night is a valid time for reaping the omer,” as the Master said in tractate Menaḥot: The reaping of the omer and the counting of the omer must be performed at night, whereas bringing the omer offering to the Temple must be done during the day. And for burning the fats and limbs of the offerings, it is derived as it is written with regard to them: “Which shall be burning upon the altar all night until the morning” (Leviticus 6:2).

זה הכלל דבר שמצותו ביום כשר כל היום: זה הכלל לאתויי מאי לאתויי סידור בזיכין וסלוק בזיכין

§ The mishna states: This is the principle: Something that it is a mitzva to perform during the day is valid if performed any time during the entire day. The Gemara asks: As the mishna has seemingly mentioned all daytime mitzvot explicitly, the words: This is the principle, are to add what? The Gemara answers: This principle comes to include the arranging of the vessels of frankincense alongside the shewbread in the Temple, and the removal of those vessels at the end of the week, as the verse does not specify the time when these procedures should be performed.

וכר' יוסי דתניא רבי יוסי אומר סילק את הישנה שחרית וסידר את החדשה ערבית אין בכך כלום

And this mishna would consequently be in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yosei, as it is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Yosei said: If one removed the old shewbread and frankincense in the morning and arranged the new ones toward the evening, i.e., at the end of the day, there is nothing wrong with this, as it suffices if the changeover is made any time over the course of the same day. The Sages, however, maintain that the new ones must be set in place immediately after the old ones have been removed.

ומה אני מקיים ((ויקרא כד, ח) לפני ה' תמיד) שלא יהא שולחן בלא לחם:

And, according to Rabbi Yosei, how do I uphold that which is written with regard to the shewbread: “He shall set it in order before the Lord continually” (Leviticus 24:8), implying that the bread must be on the table at all times? It means only that the table should not be an entire day without the bread, but if there is bread on the table for even a part of the day, it is considered as being there “continually.”

דבר שמצותו בלילה כשר כל הלילה: לאתויי מאי

§ The mishna concludes: Something that it is a mitzva to perform at night may be performed the entire night. The Gemara asks: What does this principle come to add that has not already been mentioned explicitly?

לאתויי אכילת פסחים ודלא כר' אלעזר בן עזריה דתניא ואכלו את הבשר בלילה הזה א"ר אלעזר בן עזריה נאמר כאן בלילה הזה ונאמר להלן (שמות יב, יב) ועברתי בארץ מצרים בלילה הזה מה להלן עד חצות אף כאן עד חצות:

The Gemara answers: It comes to include the eating of the Paschal offering, and consequently this mishna is not in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya, as it is taught in a baraita that it is written: “And they shall eat the meat on that night” (Exodus 12:8). Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya said: It is stated here: “On that night,” and it is stated further on: “And I will pass through the land of Egypt on that night” (Exodus 12:12). Just as there, when God passed through the land of Egypt, it was until midnight, so too here, the Paschal offering may be eaten only until midnight. The mishna, which asserts that the Paschal offering may be eaten all night, is not in accordance with Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya.



הדרן עלך הקורא למפרע

May we return to you “One who reads out of order.”

מתני׳ הקורא את המגילה עומד ויושב קראה אחד קראוה שנים יצאו מקום שנהגו לברך יברך ושלא לברך לא יברך

MISHNA: One who reads the Megilla may position himself as he wishes, either standing or sitting. Whether one person reads the Megilla or two people read it together, they have fulfilled their obligation. In a place where the people are accustomed to recite a blessing over the reading, one should recite a blessing. And in a place where it is customary not to recite a blessing, one should not recite a blessing.

בשני וחמישי בשבת במנחה קורין שלשה אין פוחתין מהן ואין מוסיפין עליהן ואין מפטירין בנביא הפותח והחותם בתורה מברך לפניה ולאחריה

The mishna records several laws governing public Torah readings. On Mondays and Thursdays during the morning service and on Shabbat during the afternoon service, three people read from the Torah; one may neither decrease the number of readers nor add to them. And one does not conclude with a reading from the Prophets [haftara] on these occasions. Both the one who begins the reading and the one who concludes the reading from the Torah recite a blessing; one recites before the beginning of the reading and one recites after its conclusion, but the middle reader does not recite a blessing.

בראשי חדשים ובחולו של מועד קורין ארבעה אין פוחתין מהן ואין מוסיפין עליהן ואין מפטירין בנביא הפותח והחותם בתורה מברך לפניה ולאחריה

On the days of the New Moon and on the intermediate days of a Festival, four people read from the Torah; one may neither decrease the number of readers nor add to them. And one does not conclude with a reading from the Prophets. Both the one who begins the reading and the one who concludes the reading from the Torah recite a blessing. The first reader recites a blessing before the beginning of the reading, and the last reader recites a blessing after its conclusion, but the middle readers do not recite a blessing.

זה הכלל כל שיש בו מוסף ואינו יום טוב קורין ארבעה ביום טוב חמשה ביוה"כ ששה בשבת שבעה אין פוחתין מהן אבל מוסיפין עליהן ומפטירין בנביא הפותח והחותם בתורה מברך לפניה ולאחריה:

The mishna formulates a general principle with regard to the number of people who read from the Torah on different occasions. This is the principle: Any day on which there is an additional offering sacrificed in the Temple and that is not a Festival, i.e., the New Moon and the intermediate days of a Festival, four people read from the Torah; on a Festival, five people read; on Yom Kippur, six people read; and on Shabbat, seven people read. One may not decrease the number of readers, but one may add to them. And on these days one concludes with a reading from the Prophets. Both the one who begins the reading and the one who concludes the reading from the Torah recite a blessing; one recites before the beginning of the reading and one recites after its conclusion, but the middle readers do not recite a blessing.

גמ׳ תנא מה שאין כן בתורה מנהני מילי אמר רבי אבהו דאמר קרא (דברים ה, לא) ואתה פה עמד עמדי ואמר רבי אבהו אלמלא מקרא כתוב אי אפשר לאומרו כביכול אף הקב"ה בעמידה

GEMARA: We learned in the mishna that one may read the Megilla while sitting. It was taught in a baraita: This is not the case with regard to reading the Torah, as one must stand when reading the Torah. The Gemara asks: From where are these matters derived? Rabbi Abbahu said: It is as the verse states: “But as for you, stand here with Me, and I will speak to you all the commandments and the statutes” (Deuteronomy 5:27), which indicates that the Torah must be received while standing. And Rabbi Abbahu said: Were the verse not written in this manner, it would be impossible to utter it, in deference to God. The phrase “with Me” indicates that, as it were, even the Holy One, Blessed be He, was standing at the giving of the Torah.

וא"ר אבהו מנין לרב שלא ישב על גבי מטה וישנה לתלמידו על גבי קרקע שנאמר ואתה פה עמד עמדי

And Rabbi Abbahu also said: From where is it derived that the teacher should not sit on a couch and teach his disciple while he is sitting on the ground? It is as it is stated: “But as for you, stand here with Me,” which indicates that the teacher and his disciples should be in the same position.

ת"ר מימות משה ועד רבן גמליאל לא היו למדין תורה אלא מעומד משמת רבן גמליאל ירד חולי לעולם והיו למדין תורה מיושב והיינו דתנן משמת רבן גמליאל בטל כבוד תורה

With regard to Torah study while standing, the Sages taught: From the days of Moses until the time of Rabban Gamliel, they would study Torah only while standing, as learning from one’s teacher is comparable to receiving the Torah at Sinai, during which the Jewish people stood. When Rabban Gamliel died, weakness descended to the world, and they would study Torah while sitting. And this is as we learned in a mishna (Sota 49a): When Rabban Gamliel died, honor for the Torah ceased, as standing while learning is an expression of honor for the Torah.

כתוב אחד אומר (דברים ט, ט) ואשב בהר וכתוב אחד אומר (דברים י, י) ואנכי עמדתי בהר אמר רב עומד ולומד יושב ושונה ר' חנינא אמר לא עומד ולא יושב אלא שוחה רבי יוחנן אמר אין ישיבה אלא לשון עכבה שנאמר (דברים א, מו) ותשבו בקדש ימים רבים רבא אמר רכות מעומד וקשות מיושב:

The Gemara points out an apparent contradiction with regard to this very issue. One verse says: “And I sat [va’eshev] on the mount” (Deuteronomy 9:9), and another verse says: “And I stood on the mount” (Deuteronomy 10:10). The Gemara cites several possible resolutions. Rav said: Moses would stand and learn the Torah from God, and then sit and review what he had learned. Rabbi Ḥanina said: Moses was not standing or sitting, but rather bowing. Rabbi Yoḥanan said: The term yeshiva is nothing more than an expression of remaining in one place, as it is stated: “And you dwelled [vateshvu] in Kadesh for many days” (Deuteronomy 1:46). Rava said: Moses studied easy material while standing and difficult material while sitting.

קראה אחד קראוה שנים יצאו וכו':

We learned in the mishna: If one person reads the Megilla or two people read it together, they have fulfilled their obligation.