Makkot 18bמכות י״ח ב
The William Davidson Talmudתלמוד מהדורת ויליאם דוידסון
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18bי״ח ב

כל שבקדש פסול בא הכתוב ליתן לא תעשה על אכילתו הני מילי היכא דקודם פסולו חזי הכא דקודם פסולו נמי לא חזי

it is derived that with regard to any item that is sacrificial and disqualified for whatever reason, the verse comes to impose a prohibition upon its consumption. The Gemara explains: This matter applies only in a case where before its disqualification it was fit; here, it is a case where before its disqualification it was not fit either, and therefore the prohibition does not apply.

ולילקי נמי כאידך דר' אליעזר דתניא רבי אליעזר אומר כל שהוא בכליל תהיה ליתן לא תעשה על אכילתו אין הכי נמי ורבא מהאי קרא קאמר

The Gemara suggests: And let him also be flogged in accordance with the other statement of Rabbi Eliezer, as it is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Eliezer says: With regard to any item that is included in the mitzva: “It shall be burned in its entirety” (Leviticus 6:16), the verse serves to impose a prohibition upon its consumption, as it is written: “It shall be burned in its entirety; it shall not be eaten” (Leviticus 6:16). The Gemara explains: Yes, it is indeed so that according to Rabbi Shimon one is flogged for violating this prohibition as well, and Rava is saying that from this verse he is interpreting that it is derived that one is flogged with five sets of lashes according to Rabbi Shimon.

אמר רב גידל אמר רב (סימן כוז"א) כהן שאכל מחטאת ואשם לפני זריקה לוקה מאי טעמא דאמר קרא (שמות כט, לג) ואכלו אותם אשר כופר בהם לאחר כפרה אין לפני כפרה לא לאו הבא מכלל עשה לאו הוא

§ Rav Giddel says that Rav says a statement about a priest [kohen] and another statement about a non-priest [zar]. Before proceeding, the Gemara provides a mnemonic for these statements: Kaf, vav, zayin, alef. Rav says: A priest who ate of a sin-offering or a guilt-offering before sprinkling their blood on the altar is flogged. What is the reason that he is flogged? It is as the verse states with regard to the inauguration offerings, whose halakhic status was like that of sin-offerings and guilt-offerings in that it was permitted only for priests to partake of their flesh: “And they shall eat them, that with which they were atoned” (Exodus 29:33), from which it is inferred: After atonement, yes, they may eat the flesh of the offerings; before atonement, no, they may not eat it. And in Rav’s opinion, the status of a prohibition that stems from a positive mitzva is that of a prohibition, for which one is flogged.

מתיב רבא (דברים יד, ו) וכל בהמה מפרסת פרסה ושוסעת שסע שתי פרסות מעלת גרה בבהמה אותה תאכלו אותה תאכלו ואין בהמה אחרת תאכלו ואי כדקאמרת (דברים יד, ז) את זה לא תאכלו למה לי

Rava raises an objection based on the verse: “And every beast that splits the hoof and has the hoof cloven in two, and chews the cud among the animals, that, you may eat” (Deuteronomy 14:6), from which a prohibition may be inferred: “That, you may eat,” but there is not any other animal that you may eat. The Torah prohibits eating the flesh of any animal that lacks the indicators that it is a kosher animal. And if it is as you say, that an inference from a positive mitzva entails a prohibition, why do I need the following verse: “This you may not eat” (Deuteronomy 14:7), as it was already inferred from the mitzva? Rather, apparently, the status of a prohibition that stems from a positive mitzva is that of a positive mitzva, and one is not liable to receive lashes for its violation.

אלא אי איתמר הכי איתמר אמר רב גידל אמר רב זר שאכל מחטאת ואשם לפני זריקה פטור מאי טעמא דאמר קרא ואכלו אותם אשר כופר בהם כל היכא דקרינן ביה ואכלו אותם אשר כופר בהם קרינן ביה וזר לא יאכל קדש וכל היכא דלא קרינן ביה ואכלו אותם אשר כופר בהם לא קרינן ביה וזר לא יאכל

Rather, if it was stated, this was stated: Rav Giddel says that Rav says: A non-priest who ate of a sin-offering or a guilt-offering before the sprinkling of their blood is exempt from receiving lashes. What is the reason for this? It is as the verse states: “And they shall eat them, that with which they were atoned…and a non-priest may not eat, as they are sacred” (Exodus 29:33), and it is expounded as follows: Anywhere that we read concerning it: “And they shall eat them, that with which they were atoned,” we read concerning it: “And a non-priest may not eat sacrificial food.” But anywhere that we do not read concerning it: “And they shall eat them, that with which they were atoned,” e.g., in this case, where it is prohibited for priests to partake of the flesh of the offerings before the sprinkling of their blood, we do not read concerning it: “And a non-priest may not eat.”

אמר ר' אלעזר אמר ר' הושעיא בכורים הנחה מעכבת בהן קרייה אין מעכבת בהן

§ The Gemara resumes the discussion of the halakha that was mentioned in the mishna with regard to the Torah verses that one recites when he brings his first fruits to the Temple. Rabbi Elazar says that Rabbi Hoshaya says: With regard to first fruits, the lack of placement alongside the altar invalidates them, and they may not be eaten by the priest; the lack of recitation of the accompanying Torah verses does not invalidate them.

ומי אמר ר' אלעזר הכי והא אמר רבי אלעזר אמר רבי הושעיא הפריש בכורים קודם לחג ועבר עליהן החג ירקבו מאי לאו משום דלא מצי למיקרי עליהן ואי ס"ד קרייה אין מעכבת בהן אמאי ירקבו

The Gemara asks: And did Rabbi Elazar say that? But doesn’t Rabbi Elazar say that Rabbi Hoshaya says: If one set aside first fruits before the festival of Sukkot and the Festival elapsed over them while they remain in his possession, they shall be left to decay, as they cannot be rendered fit for consumption. What, is it not that they cannot be rendered fit due to the fact that he can no longer recite the Torah verses over them, as one may recite the Torah verses only until Sukkot? And if it enters your mind to say that the lack of recitation does not invalidate them, why must they be left to decay?

כדרבי זירא דאמר ר' זירא כל הראוי לבילה אין בילה מעכבת בו וכל שאינו ראוי לבילה בילה מעכבת בו

The Gemara answers: Rabbi Elazar holds in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Zeira, as Rabbi Zeira says a principle with regard to a meal-offering that applies in other areas as well: For any measure of flour that is suitable for mixing with oil in a meal-offering, the lack of mixing does not invalidate the meal-offering. Even though there is a mitzva to mix the oil and the flour ab initio, the meal-offering is fit for sacrifice even if the oil and the flour are not mixed. And for any measure of flour that is not suitable for mixing with oil in a meal-offering, the lack of mixing invalidates the meal-offering. Here too, although failure to recite the Torah verses does not invalidate the first fruits for consumption by the priest, that is referring only to when reciting the portion is possible. After Sukkot, when it is no longer possible to recite the portion, failure to recite the Torah verses invalidates the first fruits.

ר' אחא בר יעקב מתני לה כדרבי אסי אמר רבי יוחנן וקשיא ליה דרבי יוחנן אדרבי יוחנן ומי אמר רבי יוחנן בכורים הנחה מעכבת בהן קרייה אין מעכבת בהן והא בעא מיניה רבי אסי מרבי יוחנן בכורים מאימתי מותרין לכהנים ואמר ליה הראוין לקרייה משקרא עליהן ושאין ראוין לקרייה משראו פני הבית

Rabbi Aḥa bar Ya’akov teaches this halakha that was cited in the name of Rabbi Elazar as the statement that Rabbi Asi says that Rabbi Yoḥanan says, and as a result, an apparent contradiction between one statement of Rabbi Yoḥanan and another statement of Rabbi Yoḥanan is difficult for him. Rabbi Aḥa bar Ya’akov asks: And did Rabbi Yoḥanan say that with regard to first fruits, the lack of placement alongside the altar invalidates them and they may not be eaten; while the lack of recitation of the accompanying Torah verses does not invalidate them? But didn’t Rabbi Asi raise a dilemma before Rabbi Yoḥanan: With regard to first fruits, from when is it permitted for priests to partake of them? And Rabbi Yoḥanan said to Rabbi Asi: It is permitted for the priest to partake of those first fruits that are fit for recitation of the accompanying Torah verses from when he recites those verses over them, and those first fruits that are not fit for recitation of the Torah verses are permitted once they entered inside the Temple.

קשיא קרייה אקרייה קשיא הנחה אהנחה

Rabbi Yoḥanan apparently holds that first fruits that are not fit for recitation are not invalidated. In addition, he did not mention placement of the first fruits, indicating that the lack of their placement does not invalidate them for consumption by the priest. The Gemara notes: The apparent contradiction between one statement of Rabbi Yoḥanan with regard to recitation and another statement of Rabbi Yoḥanan with regard to recitation is difficult; and the apparent contradiction between one statement of Rabbi Yoḥanan with regard to placement and another statement of Rabbi Yoḥanan with regard to placement is difficult.

קרייה אקרייה לא קשיא הא רבי שמעון הא רבנן הנחה אהנחה נמי לא קשיא הא רבי יהודה והא רבנן

The Gemara answers: The apparent contradiction between one statement of Rabbi Yoḥanan with regard to recitation and another statement of Rabbi Yoḥanan with regard to recitation is not difficult, as this statement, that when recitation is impossible, lack of recitation invalidates the first fruits, is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Shimon cited in the mishna, and that statement, which states that when recitation is impossible, lack of recitation does not invalidate the first fruits, is in accordance with the opinion of the Rabbis. The apparent contradiction between one statement of Rabbi Yoḥanan with regard to placement and another statement of Rabbi Yoḥanan with regard to placement is not difficult either, as this statement, that lack of placement does not invalidate the first fruits, is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda, and that statement, which states that lack of placement invalidates the first fruits, is in accordance with the opinion of the Rabbis.

מאי רבי יהודה דתניא ר' יהודה אומר (דברים כו, י) והנחתו זו תנופה אתה אומר זו תנופה או אינו אלא הנחה ממש כשהוא אומר (דברים כו, ד) והניחו הרי הנחה אמור הא מה אני מקיים והנחתו זו תנופה

The Gemara asks: What is the statement of Rabbi Yehuda? It is as it is taught in a baraita: Rabbi Yehuda says with regard to the verse written in the portion of first fruits: “And you shall place it before the Lord your God” (Deuteronomy 26:10), that the reference is not to the placement of the fruits alongside the altar; rather, this is a reference to waving the first fruits. Do you say that this is a reference to waving, or perhaps it is a reference only to actual placement of the first fruits? He explains: When it states earlier: “And the priest shall take the basket from your hand and place it before the altar of the Lord your God” (Deuteronomy 26:4), placement alongside the altar is already stated; how do I realize the meaning of the term “And you shall place it”? This is a reference to waving.

ומאן תנא דפליג עליה דרבי יהודה ר' אליעזר בן יעקב היא דתניא (דברים כו, ד) ולקח הכהן הטנא מידך לימד על הבכורים שטעונין תנופה דברי רבי אליעזר בן יעקב מאי טעמא דרבי אליעזר בן יעקב

The Gemara clarifies: And who is the tanna who disagrees with Rabbi Yehuda? It is Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov, as it is taught in a baraita with regard to the verse written in the portion of first fruits: “And the priest shall take the basket from your hand” (Deuteronomy 26:4); this verse taught about first fruits that they require waving, this is the statement of Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov. The Gemara asks: What is the reason for the opinion of Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov?

אתיא יד יד משלמים כתיב הכא ולקח הכהן הטנא מידך וכתיב (ויקרא ז, ל) ידיו תביאינה את אשי ה' מה כאן כהן אף להלן כהן מה להלן בעלים אף כאן בעלים הא כיצד מניח כהן ידיו תחת ידי בעלים ומניף

The Gemara explains: The matter is derived by means of a verbal analogy from one instance of the word “hand” written with regard to first fruits and from another instance of the word “hand” written with regard to a peace-offering. It is written here, with regard to first fruits: “And the priest shall take the basket from your hand” (Deuteronomy 26:4), and it is written with regard to a peace-offering: “He who offers his peace-offering to God…his hands shall bring it, the fire of God…to raise it as a waving before God” (Leviticus 7:29–30). Just as here, in the case of first fruits, it is the priest who takes the basket in his hand and waves it, so too there, in the case of the peace-offering, a priest performs the waving. Just as there, with regard to a peace-offering, it is the owner who performs the waving, as it is written: “He who offers…his hands shall bring it,” so too here, the owner waves the first fruits. How so; how can the waving be performed by both the priest and the owner? The priest places his hands beneath the hands of the owner and waves the first fruits together with the owner.

אמר רבא בר אדא אמר ר' יצחק בכורים

§ Rava bar Adda says that Rabbi Yitzḥak says: With regard to first fruits,