Siman 10י׳
1 א

מִצְוַת תְּפִלִּין הִיא גַם כֵּן מִצְוָה יְקָרָה מְאֹד, שֶׁכָּל הַתּוֹרָה הוּקְשָׁה לַתְּפִלִּין, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר, לְמַעַן תִּהְיֶה תּוֹרַת ה' בְּפִיךָ. וּמִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ מֵנִיחַ תְּפִלִּין, הֲרֵי הוּא בִּכְלַל פּוֹשְׁעֵי יִשְֹרָאֵל בְּגוּפָן. וּמִי שֶׁמֵנִּיחַ תְּפִלִּין פְּסוּלִין, לֹא בִלְבַד שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְקַיֵּם אֶת הַמִּצְוָה, אֶלָּא שֶׁמְּבָרֵךְ כַּמָּה וְכַמָּה בְּרָכוֹת לְבַטָּלָה שֶׁהוּא עָוֹן גָּדוֹל. וְלָכֵן יְדַקְדֵּק לִקְנוֹת תְּפִלִּין מִסּוֹפֵר מֻמְחֶה וִירֵא שָׁמַיִם, וְכֵן רְצוּעוֹת יִקְנֶה מֵאִישׁ נֶאֱמָן שֶׁהוּא בָטוּחַ שֶׁנִּתְעַבְּדוּ לִשְׁמָהּ מֵעוֹרוֹת טְהוֹרוֹת. וּבַעֲוֹנוֹתֵינוּ הָרַבִּים, רַבָּה הַמַּכְשֵׁלָה בְּמַה שֶּׁקּוֹנִים תְּפִלִּין וּרְצוּעוֹת מִמָּאן דְּהוּא לְפִי שֶׁמּוֹכְרָם בְּזוֹל, וְהֵם פְּסוּלִים. וְכָל יְרֵא שָׁמַיִם יִתֵּן אֶל לִבּוֹ, אִם עַל מַלְבּוּשָׁיו וְכֵלָיו הוּא מְהַדֵּר שֶׁיְּהוּ כְתִקּוּנָן, מִכָּל שֶׁכֵּן בְּחֶפְצֵי ה' יִתְבָּרַךְ שְׁמוֹ, שֶׁלֹּא יְצַמְצֵם וְיָחוּס עַל הַכֶּסֶף אֶלָּא יְהַדֵּר לִקְנוֹת אוֹתָן בְּוְדַּאי כְּשֵׁרִים אַף שֶׁמְּחִירָם רָב, וְיַשְׁגִּיחַ עֲלֵיהֶם שֶׁיִּהְיוּ מְתֻקָּנִין וּשְׁחוֹרִים הַבָּתִּים וְהָרְצוּעוֹת. וְיֵשׁ לִמְשֹׁחַ הָרְצועוֹת תָּדִיר בְּשֻׁמָּן שֶׁיִּהְיוּ שְׁחוֹרִים (וְלֹא יִמְשְׁחֵם בְּשֻׁמָּן דָּג הַנִּקְרָא פִישְׁטְרָאן כִּי הוּא מִדָּג טָמֵא). וְאִם נִתְקַלְקְלוּ הַתְּפִלִּין אֲפִלּוּ רַק בְּמִקְצָת אוֹ שֶׁנִּפְסְקוּ הַתְּפִירוֹת, יַעֲשֶׂה מִיָּד שְׁאֵלַת חָכָם אִם הֵם כְּשֵׁרִים וּבְיוֹתֵר יֵשׁ לְדַקְדֵּק עַל הַקְּרָנוֹת וּבִפְרָט בְּשֶׁל רֹאשׁ שֶׁהוּא שָׁכִיחַ מְאֹד שֶׁמִּשְׁתַּחֲקוֹת וְנַעֲשׂוּ שָׁם נְקָבִים וְנִפְסְלוּ. וְכֵן שָׁכִיחַ מְאֹד שֶׁמֵּחֲמַת שֶׁנִּתְיַשְּׁנוּ הַתְּפִלִּין, נִפְרַד קְצָת מֵהָעוֹר הָעֶלְיוֹן שֶׁל רֹאשׁ וְנִפְסָל. וּצְרִיכִין לְהַשְׁגִּיחַ עַל כָּל זֶה בִּמְאֹד. וְכָל הַזָּהִיר בְּמִצְוַת תְּפִלִּין לִנְהֹג בָּהֶם קְדֻשָּׁה שֶׁלֹּא לְדַבֵּר בָּהֶם דִּבְרֵי הֲבָלִים וְשִׂיחַת חֻלִּין, מַאֲרִיךְ יָמִים ומֻבְטָח שֶׁהוּא בֶּן עוֹלָם הַבָּא, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר, ה' עֲלֵיהֶם (שֶׁנּוֹשְׂאִין עֲלֵיהֶם שֵׁם ה' בִּתְפִלִּין) יִחְיוּ, וּלְכָל בָּהֶן חַיֵּי רוּחִי, וְתַחֲלִימֵנִי וְהַחֲיֵינִי. תְּפִלִּין הוּא לְשׁוֹן פְּלִילָה וְהוֹכָחָה (וְלָכֵן הַלָּמֶ"ד דְגוּשָׁה לְמַלֹּאת חֶסְרוֹן הַשְּׁנִיָּה), כִּי הַתְּפִלִּין הֵן עֵדוּת וְהוֹכָחָה שֶׁהַשְּׁכִינָה שׁוֹרָה עָלֵינוּ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁאָמַר הַכָּתוּב, וְרָאוּ כָּל עַמֵּי הָאָרֶץ כִּי שֵׁם ה' נִקְרָא עָלֶיךָ וְגוֹ', וְדָרְשׁוּ רַבּוֹתֵינוּ זִכְרוֹנָם לִבְרָכָה אֵלּוּ תְפִלִּין שֶׁבָּרֹאשׁ שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהּ שִׁי"ן מֵהַשֵּׁם שַׁדַּי. וְלָכֵן אֵין לְכַסוֹת תְּפִלִּין שֶׁל רֹאשׁ לְגַמְרֵי עִם הַטַּלִּית.

The mitzvah of tefillin is also a very precious mitzvah, for the entire Torah is similar to tefillin, as it is said: "In order that the Torah of Hashem be in your mouth."1Exodus 13:9. This verse is stated in the context of the mitzvah of tefillin. And someone who does not put on tefillin, is reckoned among the transgressors of Israel who sin with their bodies, [i. e., tefillin are worn on the arm and head]. Similarly one who puts on invalid tefillin,2This halacha applies only to one who knowingly puts on invalid tefillin; but if he found that his tefillin became invalid after he purchased them, we assume that they were valid until the moment they were found to be defective and his mitzvah was fulfilled. not only fails to perform the mitzvah, but he also recites many berachos in vain, which is a grave sin. Therefore, you should be careful to purchase tefillin from an expert, and God-fearing scribe. Similarly, the tefillin straps should be purchased from a trustworthy person to be sure that the leather was processed for the sake of tefillin, from hides of a kosher animal. But among our many sins is the temptation to purchase tefillin and tefillin straps from anyone who sells them cheaply, [even though] their tefillin are invalid. Every God-fearing person should consider this: if he is concerned to select proper material for his clothing and utensils, then certainly he should not economize and worry about the cost when buying articles to serve God, blessed is His Name. You should therefore be careful to purchase [only] those tefillin that are definitely kosher, even though they cost more. You should take care that they are always in proper order, and that the batim3Lit. “batim” i.e., houses. These cases “house” the written parchments. You must not allow the black paint to be peeled from the batim or straps. and straps are always black. You should smear the straps with oil regularly to ensure their blackness, (but they should not be smeared with the oil of a fish called "fishtron" because this oil is derived from a non-kosher fish.) If the tefillin were damaged even slightly or if the stitches tore, you should immediately consult a rabbinic expert to determine their validity. You should be especially careful regarding the corners [of the batim] and specifically to the shel rosh4I.e., the tefillin worn on the head. because they frequently rub against objects which cause dents making them invalid. And also very frequently when tefillin become old, a separation appears in the upper hide of the shel rosh making it invalid. You should be greatly concerned about all of these matters. All who are careful [in the observance] of the mitzvah of tefillin and treat them with sanctity, not speaking of trivial or secular matters when wearing them, will have his days lengthened, and is assured of a share in the World to Come, as it is said: "Hashem is upon them (for they carry upon themselves the Name of Hashem in the tefillin) and they shall live; and in all these things will my spirit live, and You will give me health and give me life."5Isaiah 38,16. This refers to the expression of thanks that King Chizkiyahu gave to Hashem after he recovered from his illness. The word, tefillin, means judgement and admonition (and therefore the lamed has a dot in order to compensate for the second lamed which is missing) because the tefillin are testimony and proof that the Divine Presence dwells upon us, as is stated in Scripture: "All the peoples of the earth shall see that the Name of Hashem is called upon you etc."6Deuteronomy 28:10. Our Sages, of blessed memory, explain that this refers to the shel rosh upon which is formed the letters shin of Hashem's Name, Shadai. And therefore you should not cover the shel rosh completely with the tallis.7However, if the tallis does cover the tefillin it does not invalidate the mitzvah.

2 ב

זְמַן הַנָּחָתָן בַּבֹּקֶר, מִשֶּׁיִּרְאֶה אֶת חֲבֵרוֹ הָרָגִיל עִמּוֹ קְצָת בְּרִחוּק אַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת וְיַכִּירֶנּוּ. אַחַר שֶׁלָּבַשׁ אֶת הַטַּלִּית, מֵנִיחַ אֶת הַתְּפִלִּין. וְהָא דְמַקְדִּימִין אֶת הַצִּיצִית לִתְפִלִּין, מִשּׁוּם דְּמִצְוַת צִּיצִית תְּדִירָה יוֹתֵר, שֶׁנּוֹהֶגֶת בֵּין בַּחֹל בֵּין בַּשַׁבָּת וְיוֹם טוֹב, וּמִצְוַת תְּפִלִּין אֵינָהּ נוֹהֶגֶת אֶלָּא בַחֹל, וְקַיְמָא לָן, תָּדִיר וְשֶׁאֵינוֹ תָדִיר, תָּדִיר קֹדֶם. וְאִם פָּגַע תְּחִלָּה בַּתְּפִלִּין, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֵן בְּתוֹךְ כִּיסָן, צָרִיךְ לְהַנִּיחָן תְּחִלָּה וְאַחַר כָּךְ יִתְעַטֵּף בַּטַּלִּית (כָּתוּב בְּחַיֵּי אָדָם), מִשּׁוּם דְּאֵין מַעֲבִירִין עַל הַמִצְוֹת, דִּכְתִיב, וּשְׁמַרְתֶּם אֶת הַמַּצּוֹת, קְרֵי בֵהּ, אֶת הַמִצְוֹת, מִצְוָה שֶׁבָּאָה לְיָדְךָ אַל תַּחְמִיצֶנָּה (כ"ה ל').

The time for putting on the tefillin in the morning [begins from the time] when you are able to see and recognize a neighbor with whom you are slightly familiar at a distance of four amos.8See glossary for equivalent of amah. Mishnah Berurah 30:13 quotes Rabbi Akiva Eiger who said that if you put on tefillin before it was light and you recited the berachos, you do not have to recite them again when it gets light. The tefillin should be put on after you put on the tallis. The reason for the precedence of the tzitzis over tefillin is because the mitzvah of tzitzis is performed more frequently, being performed during weekdays as well as Shabbos and Yom Tov, whereas the mitzvah of tefillin is performed only during weekdays. [And] the rule is that in choosing between a regularly performed mitzvah, and one that is not performed [as] regularly, the regularly performed mitzvah takes precedence. However, if you happen to touch the tefillin first even though they are still inside their bag, you must put them on first and then enwrap yourself with the tallis, because the rule is that a mitzvah must not be passed by as it is written: "You shall watch the matzos,"9Exodus 12:17. which may also may be read as the mitzvos, [that is, when the opportunity to do] a mitzvah presents itself, do not let it sour by delaying its fulfillment.

3 ג

כְּתִיב וְהָיָה לְאוֹת עַל יָדְכָה (בְּפָרָשַׁת וְהָיָה כִּי יְבִיאֲךָ), מִדִּכְתִיב יָדְכָה בְּהֵ"א דָּרְשׁוּ רַבּוֹתֵינוּ זִכְרוֹנָם לִבְרָכָה, דְּהַיְנוּ יָד כֵּהָה זוֹ שְׂמֹאל שֶׁהִיא תָּשָׁה וְכֵהָה. וְיַנִּיחָהּ שָׁם בַּמָּקוֹם שֶׁהַבָּשָׂר הוּא גָבוֹהַּ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר, וְשַׂמְתֶּם אֶת דְּבָרַי אֵלֶּה עַל לְבַבְכֶם, שֶׁתְּהֵא שִׂימָה כְּנֶגֶד הַלֵּב, וְלָכֵן יָנִיחָה שָׁמָּה וְיַטֶּה אוֹתָהּ מְעַט לְצַד הַגּוּף, שֶׁכְּשֶׁיָּכוֹף הַזְּרוֹעַ לְמַטָּה, תִּהְיֶה כְּנֶגֶד לִבּוֹ. וְהָא דִכְתִיב בִּתְפִלִּין שֶׁל רֹאשׁ בֵּין עֵינֶיךָ, קִבְּלוּ רַבּוֹתֵינוּ זִכְרוֹנָם לִבְרָכָה, שֶׁאֵין זֹאת בֵּין עֵינֶיךָ מַמָּשׁ, אֶלָּא כְּנֶגֶד בֵּין עֵינֶיךָ, וּמְקוֹמָהּ הוּא מִמְּקוֹם שֶׁהַשְׂעָרוֹת מַתְחִילִין לִצְמֹחַ וְנִמְשָׁךְ מְקוֹמָהּ לְמַעְלָה עַד סוֹף הַמָּקוֹם שֶׁמּוֹחוֹ שֶׁל תִּינוֹק רוֹפֵס, דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁקְּצֵה הַתִּתּוֹרָא שֶׁלְמַטָּה לֹא תְהֵא לְמַטָּה מִמְּקוֹם הַתְחָלַת צְמִיחַת הַשְּׂעָרוֹת, וּקְצֵה הַמַּעְבַּרְתָּא שֶׁלְּמַעְלָה, לֹא תְהֵא לְמַעְלָה מִמָקוֹם שֶׁמֹּחוֹ שֶׁל תִּינוֹק רוֹפֵס. וְצָרִיךְ לִזָּהֵר מְאֹד שֶׁתְּהֵא מֻנַּחַת בִּמְקוֹמָהּ הָרָאוּי. וְאִם מֵנִיחַ אֲפִלּוּ מִקְצָתָהּ עַל הַמֵּצַח בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁאֵין שְׂעָרוֹת גְּדֵלוֹת אוֹ אֲפִלּוּ הֵנִיחָהּ כֻּלָּהּ בִּמְקוֹם שֵׂעָר אֶלָּא שֶׁהִיא מִן הַצַּד וְלֹא כְנֶגֶד בֵּין הָעֵינַיִם, לֹא עָשָׂה אֶת הַמִּצְוָה וּבֵרַךְ לְבַטָּלָה. וְהַקֶּשֶׁר יְהֵא מֻנָּח כְּנֶגְדּוֹ מֵאַחוֹרֵי הָרֹאשׁ לְמַעְלָה בְּגֹבַהּ הָעֹרֶף שֶׁהוּא סוֹף הַגֻּלְגֹּלֶת בִּמְקוֹם שֵׂעָר שֶׁהוּא כְּנֶגֶד הַפָּנִים וְלֹא יַטֶּה לְכָאן אוֹ לְכָאן. וּצְרִיכָה שֶׁתְּהֵא מְהֻדֶּקֶת בְּראֹשׁוֹ. וְהִנֵּה כְּשֶׁהַבַּיִת עִם הַמַּעְבַּרְתָּא רְחָבִים, קָשֶׁה שֶׁתְּהֵא מְהֻדֶּקֶת כָּרָאוּי, וּצְרִיכִין לִזָּהֵר בָּזֶה מְאֹד (כ"ז).

It is written: "It shall be a sign upon your hand."10Exodus 13:16. Since the word Yadecha is written with a [superfluous] hei, our Sages of blessed memory teach: that this means yad keiha or weak hand referring to the left hand which is weaker and feebler.11The usual spelling of the word yadecha would be with the letter chaf as the suffix. Since in our verse there is a variance with a different spelling, it indicates the need of a drashah. The tefillin should be placed on the elevated part of the muscle as it said: "Place these words of Mine upon your hearts,"12Deuteronomy 11:18. which means it shall be put opposite the heart, and therefore you should place the tefillin there and incline it slightly toward the body, so that when you bend your arm down, the tefillin will be opposite your heart. Although regarding the shel rosh it is written: "Between your eyes," our Sages of blessed memory knew from sacred tradition that this does not mean literally "between your eyes" but, rather, [on the head] above the space between your eyes. And the proper place is from where the hair begins to grow, and this place extends to the end of the spot where a baby's scalp is soft. This means that the lower edge of the tefillin should not be lower than the place where hair begins to grow, and the upper edge of the tefillin which is above [on the head], should not be higher than the place where the scalp of a baby is soft. Great care must be taken that the tefillin should rest on its proper place. If you place the shel rosh [so that] even a small part is on the forehead where hair does not grow or even if you place the entire shel rosh on the place where hair grows but it is moved to the side and is not between the eyes, the mitzvah is not fulfilled, and the berachah is in vain. The knot [in the strap] should be placed opposite the tefillin at the back of the head above the nape of the neck, which is the base of the skull where hair grows, which is opposite the face; and it should not incline to either direction. The strap should be secure on the head. When the bayis13I.e., case. and its base are exceedingly wide it is difficult to maintain their tightness, and it is therefore, urgent to be most careful in this matter.

4 ד

מֵנִיחִין אֶת הַתְּפִלִּין מְעֻמָּד. לֹא יְנַעֵר אֶת הַתְּפִלִּין מִן הַתִּיק, מִשּׁוּם בִּזּוּי מִצְוָה, אֶלָּא יִקָּחֵם בְּיָדוֹ, מֵנִיחַ תְּחִלָּה שֶׁל יָד. וְקֹדֶם שֶׁמְּהַדֵּק אֶת הַקֶּשֶׁר, מְבָרֵךְ לְהָנִיחַ תְּפִלִין (הַהֵ"א בְּקָמַץ וְהַלָּמֶ"ד שֶׁל תְּפִלִּין דְגוּשָׁה), וּמְהַדֵּק אֶת הַקֶּשֶׁר וְעוֹשֶׂה שֶׁבַע כְּרִיכוֹת עַל יָדוֹ וְאַחַר כָּךְ מֵנִיחַ תֵּכֶף שֶׁל רֹאשׁ. וְקֹדֶם שֶׁמְּהַדְּקָהּ עַל רֹאשׁוֹ, מְבָרֵךְ עַל מִצְוַת תְּפִלִּין (הַוָּא"ו בְּפַתַח), וּמְהַדְּקָהּ עַל רֹאשׁוֹ וְאוֹמֵר, בָּרוּךְ שֵׁם כְּבוֹד מַלְכוּתוֹ לְעוֹלָם וָעֶד (עַיֵּן פרי מגדים). וְהַטַּעַם שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לוֹמַר בָּרוּךְ שֵׁם כְּבוֹד מַלְכוּתוֹ לְעוֹלָם וָעֶד, הוּא מִפְּנֵי שֶׁיֵּשׁ סָפֵק בִּבְרָכָה זֹאת (ע"ל סִימָן ו' סָעִיף ד). וּמִפְּנֵי שֶׁיֵּשׁ סָפֵק בִּבְרָכָה זֹאת, לָכֵן יֵשׁ גַּם כֵּן סָפֵק אִם הַשּׁוֹמֵעַ יַעֲנֶה אָמֵן אוֹ לֹא (פרמ"ג). עַל כֵּן נִרְאֶה לִי כִּי טוֹב לְבָרֵךְ בְּרָכָה זֹאת בְּלָחַשׁ. לְאַחַר שֶׁהֵנִיחַ שֶׁל רֹאשׁ, עוֹשֶׂה בִרְצוּעָה שֶׁל יָד, שָׁלֹשׁ כְּרִיכוֹת עַל הָאֶצְבַּע הָאֶמְצָעִית, אַחַת בְּפֶרֶק הָאֶמְצָעִי, וּשְׁתַּיִם בְּפֶרֶק הַתַּחְתּוֹן (כ"ה כ"ז כ"ח).

The tefillin must be put on while standing.14There is a custom among Sefardim which is based on the Zohar to put on the shel yad while sitting. The berachah however is said while standing. You should not shake the tefillin out of the bag, because this is disrespectful to the mitzvah, but you should take them out with your hand. You first put on the shel yad15The tefillin for the arm. and before you tighten the knot16If you forgot, you may recite the berachah even after you tighten the knot. recite the berachah: lehani'ach tefillin (the letter hay has the vowel kametz and the letter lamed of the word tefillin17According to technical rules of grammar a letter with a dot has a different pronunciation than a letter without a dot. has a dot in it). You then tighten the knot and wind the strap around your arm seven times, and then immediately put on the shel rosh. Before tightening it on your head recite the berachah: al mitzvas tefillin (the letter vav has the vowel pasach). You then tighten the shel rosh and say the verse: Blessed [is His] Name, Whose glorious kingdom is forever and ever. The reason it is necessary to say: Blessed [is His] Name, Whose glorious kingdom is forever and ever, is because there is some doubt regarding the [second] berachah,18There is a dispute amongst the halachic authorities whether this berachah should be recited or not. and because there is a doubt regarding this berachah there is consequently also a doubt if one who hears the berachah should answer Amein19According to Mishnah Berurah you may answer Amein. or not. Therefore, it appears to me that it is preferable to recite this berachah in an undertone. After putting on the shel rosh coil the strap of the shel yad three times around the middle finger, once on the middle section and twice on the lower section.20The finger is composed of three sections.

5 ה

אֲפִלּוּ אִם אֵרַע לוֹ שֶׁהוֹצִיא מִן הַכִּיס שֶׁל רֹאשׁ תְּחִלָּה, צָרִיךְ לְהַעֲבִיר עַל הַמִּצְוָה וְיַנִיחָהּ מִתּוֹךְ יָדוֹ וִיכַסֶּה אוֹתָהּ בְּאֵיזֶה דָבָר, וְיָנִיחַ תְּחִלָּה שֶׁל יָד. דְּכֵיוָן דִּקְדִימַת שֶׁל יָד לְשֶׁל רֹאשׁ הוּא מִן הַתּוֹרָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר, וּקְשַׁרְתֶּם לְאוֹת עַל יָדֶךָ וְהָיוּ לְטֹטָפֹת בֵּין עֵינֶיךָ לְפִיכָךְ אֵין מַשְׁגִּיחִין עַל הַעֲבָרַת הַמִּצְוָה בָּזֶה (כ"ה).

Even if you happen to take the shel rosh from the bag first, you must pass by this mitzvah21See paragraph 2 above. and put the shel rosh down, cover it with something, and put on the shel yad first. Since the precendence of the tefillin shel yad over the tefillin shel rosh is ordained in the Torah, as it is said: "And you shall bind them for a sign upon your arm and they shall be totafos between your eyes," we are therefore not concerned with passing over a mitzvah in this case.22Deuteronomy 6:8. If however you forgot and put on the shel rosh first, you do not have to remove it.

6 ו

לֹא יְהֵא דָבָר חוֹצֵץ בֵּין תְּפִלִּין לִבְשָׂרוֹ, לָא שְׁנָא שֶׁל יָד, לָא שְׁנָא שֶׁל רֹאשׁ, וּשְׂעָרוֹת קְצָרוֹת לֹא הַוְיָן חֲצִיצָה, שֶׁדַּרְכָּן בְּכָךְ. אֲבָל אוֹתָן הַמְגַדְּלִין בְּלוֹרִיּוֹת, מִלְּבַד שֶׁהוּא דֶרֶךְ שַׁחַץ וְגַאֲוָה וְיֵשׁ בָּזֶה אִסּוּר (עַיֵּן סִימָן ג' סָעִיף ב), יֵשׁ עוֹד אִסּוּר מִשּׁוּם הַנָּחַת תְּפִלִּין, דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁגְּדוֹלִים הַרְבֵּה, הַוְיָן חֲצִיצָה.

Nothing must intervene between the tefillin and the flesh, whether in regard to the tefillin of the arm [shel yad] or to the tefillin of the head, [shel rosh], but short hair does not constitute a separation, because it is normal to have it. However, people who grow long waves of hair, beside the fact that it is detestable and arrogant, which in itself is a transgression, it also causes a transgression regarding wearing the tefillin, since when the hair is excessively long it is considered an imposition [between the head and the tefillin].

7 ז

יִזָּהֵר בִּתְפִלָּה שֶׁל יָד שֶׁלֹּא יָזִיז הַקֶּשֶׁר מִן הַבַּיִת (וְגַם כְּשֶׁהֵן בְּתוֹךְ כִּיסָן צְרִיכִין לִזָּהֵר בָּזֶה). וְהַיּוּ"ד שֶׁל הַקֶּשֶׁר תִּהְיֶה לְצַד הַלֵּב. הַמַּעְבַּרְתָּא אֲשֶׁר בָּהּ הַרְצוּעָה תִּהְיֶה לְצַד מַעְלָה וְהַבַּיִת לְצַד מָטָּה. וּבִשְׁעַת הַדְּחָק כְּגוֹן אִטֵּר שֶׁהוּא מֵנִיחַ בַּיָּמִין וְעַתָּה אֵין לוֹ תְפִלִּין אֶלָּא שְׁאוּלִין מִמִּי שֶׁמֵנִּיחַ בַּשְּׂמֹאל (וְכֵן אִפְּכָא) וְאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְשַׁנּוֹת אֶת הַקֶּשֶׁר, וְאִם כֵּן אִם יַנִּיחַ תְּפִלִּין בְּאֹפֶן זֶה, הַמַּעְבַּרְתָּא לְצַד מַעְלָה וְהַבַּיִת לְצַד מַטָּה, תִּהְיֶה הַיּוּ"ד עִם הַקֶּשֶׁר לְצַד חוּץ. עַל כֵּן יַהֲפֹךְ וְיַנִּיחָהּ שֶׁהַמַּעְבַּרְתָּא תִהְיֶה לְצַד מַטָּה וְהַבַּיִת לְצַד מַעְלָה, כְּדֵי שֶׁתִּהְיֶה הַיּוּ"ד וְהַקֶּשֶׁר לְצַד הַלֵּב (כ"ז).

Care should be taken that the knot of the shel yad should not be moved away from the bayis (and even when the tefillin are in their bag you should be careful about this) and the letter yud of the knot should always be facing the heart. The base into which the strap is inserted should be above and the bayis itself should be below.23I.e., when the tefillin are worn, the knot should be above the bayis. In extreme circumstances, for example, a left-handed person who wears tefillin on his right arm, and now has no other tefillin except those borrowed from someone who wears them on his left arm (and similarly the converse) and he is unable to change the knot, then if he wears the tefillin in this manner, with the base upward and the bayis downward, the yud and the knot will face outward.24And not toward the heart, as it should be. Therefore in these circumstances he may invert the tefillin and put it on with the base downward and the bayis upward, in order that the yud and the knot face the heart.

8 ח

אָסוּר לְהַפְסִיק בְּשִׂיחָה בֵּין שֶׁל יָד לְשֶׁל רֹאשׁ. וַאֲפִלּוּ לִרְמֹז בְּעֵינָיו וְלִקְרֹץ בְּאֶצְבְּעוֹתָיו, אָסוּר, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וְהָיָה לְךָ לְאוֹת עַל יָדְךָ וּלְזִכָּרוֹן בֵּין עֵינֶיךָ, צָרִיךְ זְכִירָה, שֶׁיִּהְיֶה תֵּכֶף תְּפִלָּה שֶׁל רֹאשׁ לְשֶׁל יָד, כְּדֶי שֶׁתִּהְיֶה הֲוָיָה אַחַת לִשְׁתֵּיהֶן. וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם שׁוֹמֵעַ קַדִּישׁ אוֹ קְדֻשָּׁה, לֹא יַפְסִיק אֶלָּא יִשְׁתֹּק וִיכַוֵּן לְמַה שֶּׁאוֹמְרִים הַקָּהָל. אַךְ אִם שׁוֹמֵעַ שֶׁאֶחָד בֵּרַךְ בִּרְכַּת לְהָנִיחַ תְּפִלִּין, יָכוֹל לַעֲנוֹת אָמֵן, שֶׁהֲרֵי אָמֵן הוּא הָאֲמָנַת הַדְּבָרִים שֶׁהוּא מַאֲמִין בְּמִצְוַת תְּפִלִּין, וַהֲוֵי כְּמוֹ הֲוָיָה אַחַת. בִּתְפִלִּין דְּרַבֵּנוּ תָם גַּם כֵּן אָסור לְהַפְסִיק בֵּין שֶׁל יָד לְשֶׁל רֹאשׁ. אַךְ לְקַדִּישׁ וְלִקְדֻשָּׁה, יָכוֹל לְהַפְסִיק.

It is forbidden to talk between putting on the shel yad25You should also not delay putting on the shel rosh, once the shel yad is in place. and the shel rosh. Even gesturing with the eyes or snapping the fingers is forbidden, for it is said: "It shall be for you a sign upon your hand and a remembrance between your eyes."26Exodus 13:9. This remembrance requires the instantaneous putting on of the shel rosh after the shel yad, in order that there be one continuum for both of them. Even if you hear Kaddish or Kedushah, you may not interrupt but rather remain silent and concentrate on what the congregation is saying. However, if you hear someone reciting the berachah lehani'ach tefillin you may respond with Amein, since the response of Amein is an affirmation that you believe in the mitzvah of tefillin, and this is considered one continuum.27According to Mishnah Berurah you should not answer Amein even on the berachah over tefillin. Regarding the tefillin of Rabbeinu Tam28There are certain variations between the conventional tefillin which are in accordance with the view of Rashi as opposed to the tefillin of Rabbeinu Tam. Some people observe the mitzvah of tefillin by also putting on the tefillin of Rabbeinu Tam, in order to avert any doubt as to whether the mitzvah was fulfilled properly. The berachos are not said on these tefillin. it is likewise forbidden to interrupt between putting on the shel rosh and shel yad; but you may interrupt for Kaddish and Kedushah.29You may also interrupt to answer for barechu and all Ameins.

9 ט

אִם טָעָה וְהִפְסִיק, יְמַשְׁמֵשׁ בְּשֶׁל יָד וִיבָרֵךְ שֵׁנִית לְהָנִיחַ תְּפִלִין, וִיחַזֵּק אֶת הַקֶּשֶׁר וְאַחַר כָּךְ יַנִּיחַ שֶׁל רֹאשׁ וִיבָרֵךְ עָלֶיהָ. וְאִם הִפְסִיק לְצֹרֶךְ הַתְּפִלִּין, אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ שֵׁנִית עַל שֶׁל יָד.

If by error you interrupted, move the shel yad a bit and repeat the berachah lehani'ach tefillin, and tighten the knot. After that put on the shel rosh, and recite the berachah. If the interruption was necessary to the mitzvah of tefillin you are not required to repeat the berachah over the shel yad.

10 י

יְכַוֵּן בְּהַנָּחַת תְּפִלִּין שֶׁצִּוָּנוּ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לְהָנִיחַ תְּפִלִין שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהֶם אַרְבַּע פָּרָשִׁיּוֹת שֶׁכָּתוּב בָּהֶן יִחוּד שְׁמוֹ יִתְבָּרַךְ וִיצִיאַת מִצְרַיִם, עַל הַזְּרוֹעַ כְּנֶגֶד הַלֵּב וְעַל הָראֹשׁ כְּנֶגֶד הַמֹּחַ, כְּדֵי שֶׁנִּזְכֹּר תָּמִיד נִסִּים וְנִפְלָאוֹת שֶׁעָשָׂה עִמָּנוּ, שֶׁהֵם מוֹרִים עַל יִחוּדוֹ וַאֲשֶׁר לוֹ הַכֹּחַ וְהַמֶּמְשָׁלָה בָּעֶלְיוֹנִים וּבַתַּחְתּוֹנִים לַעֲשׂוֹת כִּרְצוֹנוֹ. וִישַׁעְבֵּד לוֹ אֶת הַנְּשָׁמָה שֶׁהִיא בַמֹּחַ וְגַם הַלֵב שֶׁהוּא עִקַּר הַתַּאֲווֹת וְהַמַּחֲשָׁבוֹת, וּבָזֶה יִזְכֹּר אֶת הַבּוֹרֵא וְיַמְעִיט הֲנָאוֹתָיו, וִיקַיֵּם וְלֹא תָתוּרוּ אַחֲרֵי לְבַבְכֶם וְאַחֲרֵי עֵינֵיכֶם. וְלָכֵן כְּתִיב בַּתְּפִלִּין, בֵּין עֵינֶיךָ (כ"ה).

Have in mind when putting on the tefillin, that the Holy One, blessed is He, commanded us to put on tefillin which contain four sections of the Torah in which are written the Oneness of Hashem's Name, blessed is He, and the Exodus from Egypt. [The tefillin are put] on the arm opposite the heart, and on the head opposite the brain, in order that we remember always the miracles and wonders He did for us, which teach us of His Oneness, and His power and dominion over the heavenly and earthly worlds to do with them as He wills. [It also teaches us] that we must subject to Him the soul which resides in the brain, and also the heart, which is the source of desire and thoughts. By so doing, we will remember the Creator and restrain our indulgences, and fulfill [that which is written:] "And you will not turn aside after your hearts and after your eyes." Therefore, it is written in the tefillin: "Between your eyes."

11 יא

תְּפִלִּין שֶׁל יָד וְשֶׁל רֹאשׁ, שְׁתֵּי מִצְוֹת הֵן וְאֵינָן מְעַכְּבוֹת זוֹ אֶת זוֹ. שֶׁאִם אֵין לוֹ אֶלָּא אַחַת אוֹ שֶׁמֵּחֲמַת אֵיזֶה אֹנֶס אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְהָנִיחַ אֶלָּא אַחַת, מֵנִיחַ אֶחָת. אִם מֵנִיחַ שֶׁל יָד, מְבָרֵךְ לְהָנִיחַ תְּפִלִּין לְבָד. וְאִם מֵנִיחַ שֶׁל רֹאשׁ, מְבָרֵךְ עָלֶיהָ לְהָנִיחַ תְּפִלִּין וְגַם עַל מִצְוַת תְּפִלִּין, וְאוֹמֵר, בָּרוּךְ שֵׁם כְּבוֹד מַלְכוּתוֹ לְעוֹלָם וָעֶד (כ"ו).

The tefillin of the arm and the head are two separate mitzvos and are not prerequisites for each other. Therefore if you have only one of them or because of a particular situation you are able to put on only one of them, you must put that one on. If you put on the tefillin of the arm you recite only the berachah: lehani'ach tefillin. And if you put on the tefillin of the head you recite over it the berachos: lehani'ach tefillin and also al mitzvas tefillin, and then say: Blessed [is His] Name Whose glorious kingdom is forever and ever.

12 יב

אִטֵּר גָּמוּר אֲפִלּוּ נַעֲשָׂה אִטֵּר מֵחֲמַת שֶׁהִרְגִּיל אֶת עַצְמוֹ כֵּן, מִכָּל מָקוֹם יָנִיחַ בַּיָּמִין שֶׁל כָּל אָדָם שֶׁהִיא שְׂמֹאלוֹ. וְאִם עוֹשֶׂה כָּל מְלָאכָה בַּיָּמִין רַק שֶׁכּוֹתֵב בַּשְּׂמֹאל אוֹ בְּהִפּוּךְ, הַיָּד שֶׁכּוֹתֵב בָּהּ הִיא חֲשׁוּבָה יָמִין וְיָנִיחַ הַתְּפִלָּה בְיָדוֹ הַשְּׁנִיָּה. וְאִם שׁוֹלֵט בִּשְׁתֵּי יָדָיו, מֵנִיחַ בַּשְּׂמֹאל שֶׁל כָּל אָדָם. וְכֵן אִם לֹא נוֹלַד אִטֵּר כְּלָל אֶלָּא שֶׁלְּאַחַר כָּךְ הִרְגִּיל אֶת עַצְמוֹ לִכְתֹּב בַּשְּׂמֹאל וְעוֹשֶׂה כָּל מְלַאכְתּוֹ בִימִינוֹ, מֵנִיחַ בַּשְּׂמֹאל שֶׁל כָּל אָדָם (כ"ז).

A completely left-handed person, although he became left-handed [only] through habit, nevertheless, must put the tefillin on his right hand which is equivalent to everyone's left.30Since his right hand is his weakest hand, the tefillin should be put on the weaker hand as stated in paragraph 3 above. If he performs all activities with his right hand except that he writes with his left hand or vice versa, the hand with which he writes is considered his right hand and he therefore puts the tefillin on the other hand. An ambidexterous person puts the tefillin on his left arm. Similarly, a man not born left-handed at all, but later trained himself to write with his left hand, but performs all other activities with his right hand, must put the tefillin on his left hand.

13 יג

שִׁעוּר רֹחַב הָרְצוּעוֹת בֵּין שֶׁל רֹאשׁ בֵּין שֶׁל יָד, לֹא פָחוֹת מֵאֹרֶךְ שְׂעוֹרָה. וְשִׁעוּר אָרְכָּן שֶׁל רֹאשׁ מִיָּמִין וּמִשְּׂמֹאל, עַד הַטַּבּוּר אוֹ לְמַעְלָה מִמֶּנּוּ מְעָט. וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים, דְּשֶׁל צַד יָמִין תַּגִּיעַ עַד הַמִּילָה (שִׁמּוּשָׁא רַבָּה) וְכֵן נָכוֹן לְהַחְמִיר לְכַתְּחִלָּה. וְשֶׁל יָד, כְּדֵי שֶׁיְּהַדְּקָה וְיַעֲשֶׂה בָהּ שֶׁבַע כְּרִיכוֹת עַל הַזְּרוֹעַ וְשָׁלֹשׁ כְּרִיכוֹת עַל הָאֶצְבַּע וִיחַזְּקָהּ. וְאִם נִפְסְקָה הָרְצוּעָה בֵּין שֶׁל רֹאשׁ בֵּין שֶׁל יָד, יַעֲשֶׂה שְׁאֵלָה.

The prescribed width of the tefillin straps, whether of the shel rosh or the shel yad, cannot be less than the length of a barley kernel. The prescribed length for the shel rosh, for both right and left straps [is that it be long enough] to reach until the navel or slightly above it. Some authorities maintain that the right strap should extend until the circumcision, (Shimusha Rabbah), and it is proper to follow the stricter view as the best way to fulfill the mitzvah. The strap of the shel yad must be long enough to tighten the bayis to the muscle, and to make seven coils around the arm and three coils around the middle finger, with enough left to tighten it. If the strap breaks, whether of the shel rosh or the shel yad, you should consult a rabbinic authority.

14 יד

יִזָּהֵר שֶׁיִּהְיוּ הָרְצוּעוֹת בְּצַד הַשָּׁחוֹר לַחוּץ. וְאִם אֵרַע לוֹ שֶׁנִּתְהַפְּכָה הָרְצוּעָה שֶׁסְּבִיב רֹאשׁוֹ אוֹ סְבִיב זְרוֹעוֹ בְּצַד הַלָּבָן לַחוּץ, יִתְעַנֶּה אוֹ יִפְדֶּה בִּצְדָקָה. וְכֵן אִם נָפְלוּ לוֹ הַתְּפִלִּין לָאָרֶץ בְּלֹא נַרְתִּיקָן, יֵשׁ לוֹ גַם כֵּן לְהִתְעַנּוֹת. אֲבָל אִם נָפְלוּ בְּנַרְתִּיקָן, אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לְהִתְעַנּוֹת אֶלָּא יִתֵּן אֵיזֶה דָבָר לִצְדָקָה (ר"ס כז מ מד).

Care should be taken that the black side of the straps face outward. If it happens that the straps become inverted around your head or around the muscle of your arm so that the white side faces outward, you must either fast or redeem yourself by giving charity. Similarly, if the tefillin fall to the ground when they are not in their bag, you must also fast, but if they fall while in their bag, you need not fast but you should give something to charity.

15 טו

אִם הֵסִיר אֶת הַתְּפִלִּין מִפְּנֵי שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לָלֶכֶת לְבֵית הַכִּסֵּא, כְּשֶׁחוֹזֵר צָרִיךְ לַחֲזֹר וּלְבָרֵךְ עֲלֵיהֶן. וְאִם עוֹמֵד בַּבְּרָכוֹת שֶׁל קְרִיאַת שְׁמַע, דְּהַיְנוּ מִן בִּרְכַּת יוֹצֵר אוֹר וּלְהַלָּן, לֹא יַפְסִיק בַּבְּרָכוֹת שֶׁעַל הַתְּפִלִּין אֶלָּא יָנִּיחֵן בְּלֹא בְרָכוֹת, וּלְאַחַר תְּפִלַּת שְׁמוֹנֶה עֶשְׂרֵה יְמַשְׁמֵשׁ בָּהֶם וִיבָרֵךְ עֲלֵיהֶן (רסכ"ה וְעַיֵּן סכ"ו).

If you remove the tefillin because you need to go to the lavatory, when you return and put them on you must again recite the berachos. However, if you are in the middle of the berachos of shema, that is from the berachah of yotseir or and further, you should not interrupt by reciting the berachos over the tefillin, but put them on without reciting the berachos,31According to Mishnah Berurah you may put on your tefillin and recite the berachos between the sections of the Shema berachos. During the Shema itself you may put on tefillin and recite the berachos even in the middle of a section. See Chapter 16:1. and following the Shemonah Esrei you should move them a bit and then recite the berachos.

16 טז

כָּל זְמַן שֶׁהַתְּפִלִּין עָלָיו, לֹא יַסִּיחַ דַּעְתּוֹ מֵהֶן כְּלָל, חוּץ מִבִּשְׁעַת תְּפִלַּת ֹשְמוֹנֶה עֶשְׂרֵה וְתַלְמוּד תּוֹרָה. אָסוּר לֶאֱכֹל בָּהֶן סְעוּדַת קֶבַע. אֲבָל אֲכִילַת אַרְעַי, מֻתָּר לֶאֱכֹל בָּהֶן. וְלִישֹׁן אֲפִלּוּ שְׁנַת אַרְעַי אָסוּר בָּהֶן (כ"ח ממ"ד).

As long as you are wearing tefillin your attention must not be diverted from them even for a moment, except while praying the Amidah and while studying Torah.32When you concentrate on the words of prayer or on the Torah, certainly the fear of heaven is upon you and thus it is not a diversion from the sacred purpose of tefillin. It is forbidden to eat a regular meal while wearing tefillin, but eating a snack [while wearing]33A snack according to halachah consists of a kebeitzah. See glossary for exact equivalent. tefillin is permissible; but taking even a short nap while wearing tefillin is forbidden.

17 יז

חַיָּב אָדָם לְמַשְׁמֵשׁ בַּתְּפִלִּין בְּכָל שָׁעָה וְשָׁעָה שֶׁנִּזְכָּר בָּהֶם, שֶׁעַל יְדֵי זֶה לֹא יָבוֹא לִידֵי הֶסַּח הַדַּעַת גָּמוּר. וִימַשְׁמֵשׁ תְּחִלָה בְּשֶׁל יָד, וְאַחַר כָּךְ בְּשֶׁל רֹאשׁ. וּמִנְהָג יָפֶה לְמַשְׁמֵשׁ בָּהֶן כְּשֶׁמַּזְכִּיר מִצְוָתָן בִּקְרִיאַת שְׁמַע. כְּשֶׁאוֹמֵר וּקְשַׁרְתָּם לְאוֹת עַל יָדֶךָ, מְמַשְׁמֵשׁ בְּשֶׁל יָד וְנוֹשֵׁק. וכְשֶׁאוֹמֵר וְהָיוּ לְטֹטָפֹת בֵּין עֵינֶיךָ, מְמַשְׁמֵשׁ בְּשֶׁל רֹאשׁ וְנוֹשֵׁק (כ"ח).

You must touch the tefillin each time you think of them because by doing so you will not have your thoughts diverted from them. You should first touch the shel yad and then the shel rosh. It is a beautiful custom to touch the tefillin when you mention their mitzvah during the reading of Shema. When you say: "You shall bind them for a sign upon your hand," you should touch the shel yad and then kiss [your hand] and when you say "They shall be for totafos between your eyes, you should touch the shel rosh and then kiss [your hand].

18 יח

מַעֲלִין בַּקֹּדֶשׁ וְלֹא מוֹרִידִין. וּתְפִלָּה שֶׁל רֹאשׁ, קְדֻשָּׁתָהּ גְּדוֹלָה מִשֶּׁל יָד, לְפִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהּ אַרְבָּעָה בָתִּים וְגַם הַשִּׁי"ן. וְלָכֵן רְצוּעָה שֶׁהָיְתָה בְשֶׁל רֹאשׁ, אָסוּר לַעֲשׂוֹתָהּ לְשֶׁל יָד. אֲבָל מִשֶּׁל יָד, מֻתָּר לַעֲשׂוֹתָהּ לְשֶׁל רֹאשׁ. וְכֵן רְצוּעָה שֶׁל יָד שֶׁנִּפְסְקָה לְמַעְלָה אֵצֶל הַקֶּשֶׁר וְרוֹצֶה לְהָפְכָהּ שֶׁיַּעֲשֶׂה עַתָּה הַקֶּשֶׁר בַּקָּצֶה הָאַחֲרוֹן, אָסוּר, אֶלָּא צָרִיךְ לַעֲשׂוֹת הַקֶּשֶׁר בְּהַקָּצֶה שֶׁנִּפְסְקָה שָׁם (עַיֵּן בשערי תשובה). וְכֵן בִּרְצוּעָה שֶׁל רֹאשׁ, אָסוּר לַהֲפֹךְ מַה שֶּׁהָיָה בְּתוֹךְ הַקֶּשֶׁר שֶׁיִּהְיֶה חוּץ לַקֶּשֶׁר. כִּיס שֶׁעֲשָׂאוֹ לְהַחֲזִיק בּוֹ תְּפִלִין וְגַם הֶחֱזִיקָן בּוֹ, שׁוּב אָסוּר לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בְּכִיס זֶה דָּבָר שֶׁל חֻלִּין (מ"ב).

We may elevate a holy thing to a higher level of sanctity but not diminish its level of sanctity. The tefillin shel rosh is more sacred than the shel yad because the shel rosh is composed of four compartments34Each compartment contains a section of the Torah pertaining to tefillin. and also the letter shin; and therefore the strap that was part of the shel rosh, may not be used for the shel yad, but the strap of the shel yad may be used for the shel rosh. Similarly, if the strap of the shel yad tears above the knot and you wish to reverse it and make the knot on the lower end of the strap, it is forbidden; but you must remake the knot on that end of the strap where the tear occurred. The same applies to the strap of the shel rosh. It is forbidden to reverse that which was inside the knotted area and remake it so that it is outside the knotted area. The same is true of a bag made to hold tefillin and in which tefillin had actually been held; it is subsequently forbidden to use this bag for any secular purpose.

19 יט

אֵין לַחֲלֹץ אֶת הַתְּפִלִּין עַד אַחַר קְדֻשַּׁת וּבָא לְצִיּוֹן כְּשֶׁאוֹמֵר יְהִי רָצוֹן שֶׁנִּשְׁמֹר חֻקֶּיךָ (עַיֵּן א"ר). וּבִמְקוֹם שֶׁנּוֹהֲגִין שֶׁבְּיוֹם קְרִיאַת סֵפֶר תּוֹרָה אֵין מַחֲזִירִין אֶת הַסֵּפֶר תּוֹרָה עַד אַחַר קְדֻשַּׁת וּבָא לְצִיוֹן, אֵין חוֹלְצִין אֶת הַתְּפִלִּין עַד שֶׁיַּחֲזִירוּ אֶת הַסֵּפֶר תּוֹרָה לָהֵיכָל. סִימָן לַדָּבָר, וַיַּעֲבֹר מַלְכָּם לִפְנֵיהֶם וַה' בְּרֹאשָׁם. וּבְיוֹם שֶׁיֵּשׁ מִילָה, אֵין לַחֲלֹץ עַד אַחַר הַמִּילָה. בְּרֹאשׁ חֹדֶשׁ חוֹלְצִין קֹדֶם תְּפִלַּת מוּסָף. בְּחֹל הַמּוֹעֵד סֻכּוֹת, כֻּלָּם חוֹלְצִין קֹדֶם הַלֵּל. וּבְחֹל הַמּוֹעֵד פֶּסַח, הַצִּבּוּר חוֹלְצִין קֹדֶם הַלֵּל, וְהַשְּׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר אַחַר הַלֵּל (כ"ה).

The tefillin should not be removed until after the kedushah of uva letzion when we say: "May it be Your will that we keep Your statutes."35Those who are meticulous in their observance of the mitzvos, do not remove them until after the “Whole kaddish.” One who says the Mourners’ kaddish should wait until after kaddish to remove his tefillin. In communities where it is customary that on the day the Seifer Torah is read, the Seifer Torah is not returned36In congregations where it is customary to pray according to nusach Sefard, the Seifer Torah is not returned to the Ark until after Uva Letzion. until after the kedusha of uva letzion, the tefillin should not be taken off until the Seifer Torah is returned to the Ark. A mnemonic for this order is: "Their king will pass in front of them and Hashem will be at their head."37Micah 2:13. On a day a circumcision is performed38This applies when the circumcision is performed in the synagogue. the tefillin should not be removed until after the circumcision. On Rosh Chodesh the tefillin are removed before the Musaf Amidah.39I.e., after the chazzan recites the half-kaddish. On the intermediary days of Sukkos, everyone removes the tefillin before Halleil. On the intermediary days of Pesach the congregation removes them before Halleil and the chazzan after Halleil.

20 כ

חוֹלְצִין מְעֻמָּד. מֵסִיר אֶת הַכְּרִיכוֹת מִן הָאֶצְבַּע וּשְׁתַּיִם אוֹ שָׁלֹשׁ כְּרִיכוֹת מֵהַזְּרוֹעַ. וְחוֹלֵץ תְּחִלָּה שֶׁל רֹאשׁ וְאַחַר כָּךְ חוֹלֵץ שֶׁל יָד, מִשּׁוּם דִּכְתִיב, וְהָיוּ לְטֹטָפֹת בֵּין עֵינֶיךָ, וּמִדִּכְתִיב וְהָיוּ לְשׁוֹן רַבִּים, דָּרְשׁוּ רַבּוֹתֵינוּ זִכְרוֹנָם לִבְרָכָה, כָּל זְמַן שֶׁבֵּין עֵינֶיךָ יִהְיוּ שְׁתַּיִם וְלָכֵן מַנִּיחִין תְּחִלָּה שֶׁל יָד וְחוֹלְצִין תְּחִלָּה שֶׁל רֹאשׁ, שֶׁכָּל זְמַן שֶׁיֵּשׁ עָלָיו שֶׁל רֹאשׁ, תִּהְיֶה עָלָיו גַּם שֶׁל יָד. וְיֵשׁ לַחֲלֹץ שֶׁל רֹאשׁ בְּיַד שְׂמֹאל שֶׁהִיא יַד כֵּהָה כְּדֵי לְהַרְאוֹת שֶׁקָּשָׁה עָלָיו חֲלִיצָתָן, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהַמִּצְוָה הִיא שֶׁיִהְיוּ עָלָיו תְּפִלִּין כָּל הַיּוֹם, אֶלָּא שֶׁמִּפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵין לָנוּ גּוּף נָקִי, חוֹלְצִין מִיָּד לְאַחַר הַתְּפִלָּה. וְלֹא יַחֲלֹץ אֶת הַתְּפִלִּין לֹא בִפְנֵי סֵפֶר תּוֹרָה וְלֹא בִפְנֵי רַבּוֹ אֶלָּא יְסַלֵּק עַצְמוֹ לִצְדָדִים מִנְהַג חֲכָמִים לְנַשֵּׁק אֶת הַתְּפִלִּין בִּשְׁעַת הַנָּחָתָן וּבִשְׁעַת חֲלִיצָתָן. אֵין לְהָסִיר אֶת הַטַּלִּית עַד לְאַחַר חֲלִיצַת הַתְּפִלִּין (כ"ה ס"ח).

The tefillin are removed while standing. You should unwind the coils from the middle finger and two or three coils from the arm.40This custom is not mentioned in Mishnah Berurah. The shel rosh is removed first and then the shel yad because it is written "They shall be for totafos between your eyes." Since it says "They shall be" in the plural tense, our Sages of blessed memory, elicit that as long [as the shel rosh] is between your eyes, both tefillin should be on you. Therefore, you put on the tefillin shel yad first and remove the shel rosh first, so that whenever the shel rosh is on you, the shel yad should also be on you. You should remove the shel rosh with the left hand which is the weaker hand in order to demonstrate that you are reluctant to remove them, because ideally the mitzvah is to wear the tefillin the entire day; but because our bodies are not always clean we remove them immediately after prayers. You should not remove the tefillin in the presence of the Seifer Torah nor in the presence of your rebbe41I.e., the person who teaches you Torah. but you should turn aside [and remove them]. It is a custom ordained by our Sages to kiss the tefillin when putting them on and taking them off. You should not remove the tallis until after taking off the tefillin.

21 כא

יָנִיחַ אֶת הַתְּפִלִּין בְּתוֹךְ הַכִּיס שֶׁלָּהֶן, בְּאֹפֶן שֶׁיֵּדַע לְמָחָר לְהוֹצִיא תְחִלָּה שֶׁל יָד. אֲבָל לֹא יָנִיחַ שֶׁל יָד עַל שֶׁל רֹאשׁ, כֵּיוָן דְּשֶׁל רֹאשׁ קְדֻשָּׁתוֹ גְדוֹלָה מִשֶּׁל יָד, אֶלָּא יָנִיחֵם זוֹ אֵצֶל זוֹ, וְיָנִיחַ הַכִּיס עִם הַתְּפִלִּין בְּתוֹךְ כִּיס הַטַּלִּית לְמַטָּה וְהַטַּלִּית לְמַעְלָה, כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּפְגַע בַּטַּלִּית תְּחִלָּה (כ"ה כ"ח).

The tefillin should be placed inside their bag in a way that you will be certain the next day to take out the shel yad first. However, you should not place the shel yad on top of the shel rosh because the shel rosh is more sacred than the shel yad, but they should be placed side by side. The tefillin bag should be placed inside the tallis bag, below the tallis. The tallis should be on top in order that the tallis is first at hand.

22 כב

מִי שֶׁאֵין לוֹ תְפִלִּין וְהַצִּבּוּר מִתְפַּלְּלִין, מוּטָב שֶׁיִּתְעַכֵּב עַד לְאַחַר תְּפִלַּת הַצִּבּוּר לִשְׁאֹל לוֹ תְפִלִּין מֵאַחֵר, כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּקְרָא קְרִיאַת שְׁמַע וְיִתְפַּלֵּל שְׁמוֹנֶה עֶשְׂרֵה בַּתְּפִלִּין, מִמַּה שֶּׁיִּתְפַּלֵּל עִם הַצִּבּוּר בְּלֹא תְפִלִּין. אֲבָל מִי שֶׁמִּתְיָרֵא שֶׁמָּא יַעֲבֹר זְמַן קְרִיאַת שְׁמַע עַד שֶׁיִּמְצָא תְפִלִּין, קוֹרֵא קְרִיאַת שְׁמַע בְּלֹא תְפִלִּין. וְאִם מִתְיָרֵא. שֶׁמָּא יַעֲבֹר גַּם זְמַן תְּפִלָּה, מִתְפַּלֵּל גַּם כֵּן, וּכְשֶׁיִּמְצָא אַחַר כָּךְ תְּפִלִּין, יָנִיחֵן בִּבְרָכוֹת וְיֹאמַר בָּהֶם אֵיזֶה מִזְמוֹר אוֹ יִתְפַּלֵּל בָּהֶם מִנְחָה (וְעַיֵּן לְקַמָּן סִימָן יד סָעִיף ח). אֲבָל לַיְלָה לָאו זְמַן תְּפִלִּין הוּא, וְאָסוּר לְהָנִיחָן בַּלָּיְלָה. מֻתָּר לִקַּח תְּפִלִּין שֶׁל חֲבֵרוֹ גַּם שֶׁלֹּא בִידִיעָתוֹ לְהָנִיחָן וּלְבָרֵךְ עֲלֵיהֶן, כְּמוֹ שֶׁכָּתַבְתִּי בְּסִימָן שֶׁלִּפְנֵי זֶה סָעִיף י"א לְעִנְיַן טַלִּית (י"ד ל' ס"ו).

If you have no tefillin [and arrive at the synagogue] when the congregation is already praying, it is preferable to wait until the end of the service and then borrow tefillin from someone, in order to say the Shema and the Shemoneh Esrei while wearing tefillin, rather than pray with the congregation without wearing tefillin. However, if you are afraid that the time limit for Shema will elapse before you find tefillin, you should recite the Shema without tefillin. If you are afraid the time limit for prayer will also elapse, you should also pray without tefillin; and later when you find tefillin put them on, pronouncing the required berachos, and then recite a Psalm, or put them on for the Mincha service. However, the night is not the proper time to wear tefillin, and it is forbidden to put them on at night. It is permissible to take someone else's tefillin even without his knowledge [in order] to put them on and recite the berachos over them, (as was mentioned in the previous chapter, paragraph 11, in regard to a tallis).

23 כג

תְּפִלִּין צְרִיכִין גּוּף נָקִי. וּצְרִיכִין לִזָּהֵר שֶׁלֹּא לְהָפִיחַ בָּהֶם (וְעַיֵּן לעֵיל סִימָן יב ס"ד). חוֹלֶה מֵעַיִם אֲפִלּוּ אֵין לוֹ צַעַר, פָּטוּר מִן הַתְּפִלִּין, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לִשְׁמֹר אֶת עַצְמוֹ בִּנְקִיּוּת כָּרָאוּי. וְאִם נִרְאֶה לוֹ שֶׁיָּכוֹל לִהְיוֹת בְּגוּף נָקִי בִּשְׁעַת קְרִיאַת שְׁמַע וּתְפִלַּת שְׁמוֹנֶה עֶשְׂרֵה, יָנִיחֵם אָז. אֲבָל שְׁאָר חוֹלֶה, אִם מִצְטַעֵר בְּחָלְיוֹ וְאֵין דַּעְתּוֹ מְיֻשֶׁבֶת עָלָיו מִפְּנֵי צַעְרוֹ, פָּטוּר, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאָסוּר לְהַסִּיחַ דַּעְתּוֹ מֵהֶן. וְאִם לָאו, חַיָּב (סִימָן לח).

He who wears tefillin must have a clean body, and must be careful not to flatulate while wearing them. A person suffering from diarrhea, although he has no actual pain, is exempt from the mitzvah of tefillin, because he is incapable of keeping himself properly clean. If he feels that he will be able to keep his body clean when reading the Shema and during the Shemoneh Esrei, he may then put on tefillin. Regarding any other sick person, if he suffers pain from his sickness, and his mind is not at ease because of his pain, he is exempt from the mitzvah42Nevertheless, one who wishes to be stringent, is permitted to put them on. because it is forbidden to divert his attention from the tefillin; but if he is not in pain he must put them on.

24 כד

קָטֹן הַיּוֹדֵעַ לִשְׁמֹר תְּפִלִּין שֶׁלֹּא יָפִיחַ בָּהֶן וְשֶׁלֹּא יִישַׁן בָּהֶן, אָבִיו חַיָּב לִקְנוֹת לוֹ תְּפִלִּין שֶׁיָנִיחֵן. וְעַכְשָׁו נִתְפַּשֵּׁט הַמִּנְהָג שֶׁמַּתְחִיל הַקָּטָן לְהָנִיחַ תְּפִלִּין שְׁנַיִם אוֹ שְׁלשָׁה חֳדָשִׁים קֹדֶם שֶׁנַּעֲשָׂה בֶּן שְׁלֹשׁ עֶשְׂרֵה שָׁנָה (לז).

When a minor knows how to care for tefillin properly, not to flatulate while wearing them, and not to sleep while wearing them, his father is obligated to purchase tefillin for him to put on. It is now the prevailing custom that a child begins putting on tefillin two or three months prior to his becoming thirteen years old.

25 כה

בְּעִנְיַן הַנָּחַת תְּפִלִּין בְּחֹל הַמּוֹעֵד, יֵשׁ מַחֲלֹקֶת הַפּוֹסְקִים וְחִלּוּקֵי מִנְהָגִים. יֵשׁ מְקוֹמוֹת שֶׁאָחֲזוּ כְּדַעַת הַפּוֹסְקִים שֶׁלֹּא לְהָנִיחָן. וְיֵשׁ מְקוֹמוֹת נוֹהֲגִין כְּדַעַת הַפּוֹסְקִים לְהָנִיחָן אֶלָּא שֶׁאֵין מְבָרְכִין עֲלֵיהֶם בְּקוֹל רָם בְּבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת כְּמוֹ שְׁאָר יְמוֹת הַשָּׁנָה. וְיֵשׁ נוֹהֲגִין לְהָנִיחָן בְּלֹא בְרָכוֹת (וְיֵשׁ לְכַוֵּן שֶׁאִם חֹל הַמּוֹעֵד לָאו זְמַן תְּפִלִּין תִּהְיֶינָה כִּרְצוּעוֹת בְּעָלְמָא, פרמ"ג). וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְבָרֵךְ, מִכָּל מָקוֹם אָסוּר לְהַפְסִיק בֵּין שֶׁל יָד לְשֶׁל רֹאשׁ. אַךְ לְקַדִּישׁ וְלִקְדֻשָּׁה פּוֹסֵק (סִימָן כה לא). וּצְרִיכִין לִזָּהֵר שֶׁהַמִּתְפַּלְּלִים בְּבֵית כְּנֶסֶת אֶחָד, לֹא יִהְיוּ קְצָת מֵנִיחִין וּקְצָת אֵין מֵנִיחִין (כֵּן נִרְאֶה דְּבָזֶה וַדַּאי אִכָּא מִשּׁוּם לֹא תִתְגּוֹדְדוּ).

As regards putting on tefillin on the intermediary days of Yom Tov, there is a dispute among the authorities and there are various customs. Some communities hold like those authorities who maintain not to wear them at all. Other communities hold like those authorities who maintain that they should be worn but without reciting the berachos over them aloud in the synagogue, as is done on other days of the year. In other communities they have a custom to put them on without reciting the berachos at all.43Most later authorities agree that this is the proper way. (And a person should bear in mind that if the intermediary days are not the proper time for tefillin, the tefillin should be considered as ordinary straps.) Even though you do not recite the berachos, nevertheless, it is forbidden to interrupt between putting on the shel yad and the shel rosh. However, you may interrupt for Kaddish and Kedushah. Care must be taken that among the worshipers in any one synagogue, there should not be some who put on tefillin and some who do not put them on. (This seems to be the correct way because otherwise there would certainly be a problem of Lo Sisgodidu.)44According to the Sages this is a prohibition imposed upon a congregation having opposing practices, for this would lead people to believe that there are different standards of Halacha, Torah law, for various people and this can lead to rivalry and enmity.

26 כו

תְּפִלִּין שֶׁהֻחְזְקוּ בְּכַשְׁרוּת, מִן הַדִּין כָּל זְמַן שֶׁהַבַּיִת שָׁלֵם, גַּם הַפָּרָשִׁיּוֹת הֲרֵי הֵן בְּחֶזְקָתָן וְאֵינָן צְרִיכִין בְּדִיקָה. וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם נָכוֹן לְבָדְקָן, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁלִּפְעָמִים מִתְקַלְקְלִין מִן הַזֵּעָה. וְאִם אֵינוֹ מֵנִיחַ אוֹתָן אֵלָּא לִפְרָקִים, צְרִיכִין בְּדִיקָה שְׁתֵּי פְעָמִים בְּכָל שֶׁבַע שָׁנִים, כִּי יֵשׁ לָחוּשׁ שֶׁמָּא נִתְעַפָּשׁוּ. וְכֵן אִם נִקְרַע הַבַּיִת, צְרִיכִין גַּם הַפָּרָשִׁיּוֹת בְּדִיקָה. וְכֵן אִם נָשְׁרוּ בַמָּיִם. וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם אִם אֵין לוֹ מִי שֶׁיּוֹדֵעַ לְבָדְקָן וְלַחֲזֹר לְתָפְרָן, יָנִיחֵן כָּךְ בְּלֹא בְדִיקָה, שֶלֹּא יִתְבַּטֵּל מִמִצְוַת תְּפִלִּין (סִימָן לט), אֲבָל לֹא יְבָרֵךְ עֲלֵיהֶם (פרי מגדים).

Once tefillin are assumed to be kosher, then according to halachah, as long as the bayis itself is in perfect condition, the scrolls inside are also presumed to be kosher and do not require examination. Nevertheless, it is proper to examine them because sometimes they become spoiled because of perspiration. If you wear them only periodically, they require examination two times every seven years, because they may have become moldy. Also, if the bayis tore the scrolls also require examination. This also applies if they were soaked in water. Nevertheless, if there was no [competent person] to examine the scrolls and to resew the tefillin, you may wear them without examination, in order not to negate the mitzvah but should not recite the berachos over them.