Kiddushin 9aקידושין ט׳ א
The William Davidson Talmudתלמוד מהדורת ויליאם דוידסון
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9aט׳ א

חומרי פתכייתא אתאי ההיא איתתא אמרה ליה הב לי חד שוכא אמר לה אי יהבינא ליך מיקדשת לי אמרה ליה הבה מיהבה אמר רב חמא כל הבה מיהבה לאו כלום הוא

beads [ḥumrei]of glass [petakhyata]. A certain woman came and said to him: Give me one string. He said to her: If I give you this string will you be betrothed to me with it? She said to him: Give, give. Rav Ḥama said: Any use of the expression: Give, give, is nothing. Although she said: Give, give, she did not agree to the condition, as she was mocking him and had no intention of actually becoming betrothed.

ההוא גברא דהוה קא שתי חמרא בחנותא אתאי ההיא איתתא אמרה ליה הב לי חד כסא אמר לה אי יהיבנא ליך מיקדשת לי אמרה ליה אשקויי אשקיין אמר רב חמא כל אשקויי אשקיין לאו כלום הוא

The Gemara relates a similar incident: There was a certain man who was drinking wine in a store. A woman came in and said to him: Give me one cup of wine. He said to her: If I give you a cup of wine will you be betrothed to me with it? She said to him: Give to drink, give it to me to drink. Rav Ḥama said that any use of the expression: Give to drink, give it to me to drink, is nothing, i.e., she certainly did not intend to accept the condition and she is not betrothed.

ההוא גברא דהוה קא שדי תמרי מדקלא אתאי ההיא איתתא א"ל שדי לי תרתי אמר לה אי שדינא ליך מיקדשת לי אמרה ליה שדי מישדא אמר רב זביד כל שדי מישדא לאו כלום הוא

The Gemara further relates: There was a certain man who was picking dates from a date tree. A certain woman came and said to him: Throw me two. He said to her: If I throw two dates to you will you be betrothed to me with them? She said to him: Throw, throw. Rav Zevid said: Any use of the expression: Throw, throw, is nothing, and she is not betrothed.

איבעיא להו הב אשקי ושדי מהו אמר רבינא מקודשת רב סמא בר רקתא אמר תגא דמלכא אינה מקודשת והלכתא אינה מקודשת

A dilemma was raised before the Sages: If she said: Give, or: Give to drink, or: Throw, without the additional emphasis of the repetition, what is the halakha? Does this straightforward statement indicate that she actually meant him to give it to her in accordance with his stated condition, or does she not agree to betrothal even here? Ravina said: She is betrothed. Rav Sama bar Rakta said in the form of an oath: By the king’s crown! She is not betrothed. The Gemara states: And the halakha is that she is not betrothed.

והלכתא שיראי לא צריכי שומא והלכתא כר"א והלכתא כרבא אמר רב נחמן :

The Gemara issues further rulings concerning the previous cases. And the halakha is: With regard to silk garments that are worth more than one peruta, appraisal is not necessary before a woman can be betrothed with them. And the halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Elazar, that if a man promised a woman one hundred dinars as betrothal money and gave her only a dinar, she is betrothed. And the halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rava, who said that Rav Naḥman said that if he promised one hundred dinars and gave her only collateral, this is not a valid betrothal.

ת"ר בשטר כיצד כתב לו על הנייר או על החרס אע"פ שאין בו שוה פרוטה בתך מקודשת לי בתך מאורסת לי בתך לי לאינתו הרי זו מקודשת

§ The Sages taught: How is betrothal performed with a document? If he wrote the following for a young woman’s father on paper or earthenware, despite the fact that the paper or earthenware is not worth one peruta: Your daughter is betrothed [mekuddeshet] to me, or: Your daughter is betrothed [me’oreset] to me, or: Your daughter is to me as a wife, then she is betrothed. There is no requirement for the paper or earthenware to be worth one peruta, as she is not betrothed through the value of the paper or earthenware.

מתקיף לה ר' זירא בר ממל הא לא דמי האי שטרא לשטר זביני התם מוכר כותב לו שדי מכורה לך הכא בעל כותב בתך מקודשת לי

Rabbi Zeira bar Memel objects to this description of the writing of the document: But this document is not comparable to a bill of sale. There, in the case of a bill of sale, the seller is the one who writes to the buyer: My field is sold to you. Here, the husband, who is akin to a buyer, is the one who writes: Your daughter is betrothed to me.

אמר רבא התם מעניינא דקרא והכא מעניינא דקרא התם כתיב (ויקרא כה, כה) ומכר מאחוזתו במוכר תלה רחמנא הכא כתיב (דברים כב, יג) כי יקח בבעל תלה רחמנא

Rava said: There, in the case of a sale, the formulation of the document is taken from the context of the verse, and here, in the case of betrothal, the formulation of the document is likewise taken from the context of the verse. Rava elaborates: There, with regard to a sale, it is written: “And sells of his ancestral land” (Leviticus 25:25), which indicates that the Merciful One renders the transaction dependent on the seller. Here, it is written: “If a man takes a woman” (Deuteronomy 22:13), meaning that the Merciful One renders the betrothal dependent on the husband.

התם נמי כתיב (ירמיהו לב, מד) שדות בכסף יקנו קרי ביה יקנו מאי טעמא קרית ביה יקנו משום דכתיב ומכר ה"נ קרי ביה כי יקח דכתיב (דברים כב, טז) את בתי נתתי לאיש הזה

The Gemara asks: There, in the case of a sale, it is also written: “Men shall buy [yiknu] fields for money” (Jeremiah 32:44), which indicates that the matter depends upon the buyer. The Gemara answers: Read into the verse: Shall sell [yikkanu]. The Gemara asks: What is the reason that you read it as yikkanu; because it is written in the verse in Leviticus: “And sells,” and there is a preference to have the verse from the Prophets accord with that of the Torah? So too, instead of: “If a man takes [ki yikaḥ]” (Deuteronomy 22:13), read into the verse: When he is given [ki yakiaḥ], as it is written: “I gave my daughter to this man” (Deuteronomy 22:16), so that the verses will accord with each other.

אלא אמר רבא הלכתא נינהו ואסמכינהו רבנן אקראי ואיבעית אימא התם נמי כתיב (ירמיהו לב, יא) ואקח את ספר המקנה

Rather, Rava said: There is no proof from the verses for these rulings, as they are a halakha received through tradition, and the Sages based them on the verses. And if you wish, say: There too, in the case in Jeremiah, it is written with regard to the buyer: “And I took the deed of purchase” (Jeremiah 32:11), thereby indicating that it is the seller who writes the document.

ואמר רבא אמר רב נחמן כתב לו על הנייר או על החרס אע"פ שאין בו שוה פרוטה בתך מקודשת לי בתך מאורסת לי בתך לי לאינתו בין ע"י אביה בין ע"י עצמה מקודשת מדעתו והוא שלא בגרה

And Rava says that Rav Naḥman says: If he wrote the following for him on paper or earthenware, despite the fact that the paper or earthenware is not worth one peruta: Your daughter is betrothed [mekuddeshet] to me, or: Your daughter is betrothed [me’oreset] to me, or: Your daughter is to me as a wife, whether he gave it to her father or whether he gave it directly to her, she is betrothed with the consent of her father. And this is the halakha provided that she has not yet reached her majority, before which her father alone has the authority to betroth her.

כתב לה על הנייר או על החרס אע"פ שאין בו שוה פרוטה הרי את מקודשת לי הרי את לי לאינתו הרי את מאורסת לי מקודשת בין ע"י אביה בין ע"י עצמה מדעתה והוא שבגרה :

If he wrote for her on paper or earthenware, despite the fact that the paper or earthenware is not worth one peruta: You are hereby betrothed [mekuddeshet] to me, or: You are hereby to me as a wife, or: You are hereby betrothed [me’oreset] to me, then she is betrothed whether he gave it to her father or to her, as long as this was with her consent. And this is the halakha provided that she has reached her majority and is under her own authority.

בעי ר' שמעון בן לקיש שטר אירוסין שכתבו שלא לשמה מהו הויות ליציאות מקשינן מה

§ Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish raises a dilemma: With regard to a document of betrothal that was written not for her sake, i.e., not for this particular woman, what is the halakha? Do we juxtapose the halakhot of the modes of becoming betrothed to the halakhot of the modes of leaving a marriage, i.e., divorce? If so, one should say: Just as