הַכֹּל לְשֵׁם שָׁמַיִם All such actions are permitted for the sake of Heaven. In other words, if one is acting out of familial affection, without any element of licentiousness, they are permitted.
מַתְנִי' לֹא יְלַמֵּד אָדָם רַוּוֹק סוֹפְרִים וְלֹא תְּלַמֵּד אִשָּׁה סוֹפְרִים רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר אוֹמֵר אַף מִי שֶׁאֵין לוֹ אִשָּׁה לֹא יְלַמֵּד סוֹפְרִים רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר לֹא יִרְעֶה רַוּוֹק בְּהֵמָה וְלֹא יִישְׁנוּ שְׁנֵי רַוּוֹקִין בְּטַלִּית אַחַת וַחֲכָמִים מַתִּירִים MISHNA: A bachelor may not act as a teacher of children, nor may a woman act as a teacher of children. Rabbi Elazar says: Even one who does not have a wife may not act as a teacher of children. Rabbi Yehuda says: A bachelor may not herd cattle, nor may two bachelors sleep with one covering, lest they transgress the prohibition against homosexual intercourse, but the Rabbis permit it.
גְּמָ' מַאי טַעְמָא אִילֵּימָא מִשּׁוּם יָנוֹקֵי וְהָתַנְיָא אָמְרוּ לוֹ לְרַבִּי יְהוּדָה לֹא נֶחְשְׁדוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל עַל מִשְׁכַּב זְכוּר וְלֹא עַל הַבְּהֵמָה אֶלָּא רַוּוֹק מִשּׁוּם אִמָּהָתָא דְיָנוֹקֵי אִשָּׁה מִשּׁוּם אֲבָהָתָא דְיָנוֹקֵי GEMARA: What is the reason that a bachelor may not teach children? If we say it is due to the children themselves, that it is suspected that he may engage in homosexual intercourse with them, but isn’t it taught in a baraita (Tosefta 5:10): They said to Rabbi Yehuda: Jews are not suspected of engaging in homosexual intercourse nor of engaging in intercourse with an animal. Rather, the reason is as follows: A bachelor may not be a teacher of children due to the mothers of the children, who come to the school from time to time, with whom he might sin. Similarly, a woman may not serve as a teacher to children because she may come to be secluded with the fathers of the children.
רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר אוֹמֵר אַף מִי שֶׁאֵין כּוּ' אִיבַּעְיָא לְהוּ מִי שֶׁאֵין לוֹ אִשָּׁה כְּלָל אוֹ דִלְמָא בְּשֶׁאֵינָהּ שְׁרוּיָה אֶצְלוֹ תָּא שְׁמַע אַף מִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ וְאֵינָהּ שְׁרוּיָה אֶצְלוֹ לֹא יְלַמֵּד סוֹפְרִים The mishna teaches that Rabbi Elazar says: Even one who does not have a wife may not act as a teacher of children. A dilemma was raised before the students in the study hall: Does Rabbi Elazar mean one who does not have a wife at all, or perhaps he is referring even to one who has a wife, in a circumstance where she is not residing with him? Come and hear: Even one who has a wife but she is not residing with him may not act as a teacher of children. This statement is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Elazar and indicates that his restriction applies even if the man is married.
רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר לֹא יִרְעֶה כּוּ' תַּנְיָא אָמְרוּ לוֹ לְרַבִּי יְהוּדָה לֹא נֶחְשְׁדוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל עַל מִשְׁכַּב זְכוּר וְלֹא עַל הַבְּהֵמָה The mishna teaches that Rabbi Yehuda says: A bachelor may not herd cattle, nor may two bachelors sleep with one covering. It is taught in the Tosefta (5:10): They said to Rabbi Yehuda: Jews are not suspected of engaging in homosexual intercourse nor of engaging in intercourse with an animal.
מַתְנִי' כֹּל שֶׁעֲסָקָיו עִם הַנָּשִׁים לֹא יִתְיַחֵד עִם הַנָּשִׁים וְלֹא יְלַמֵּד אָדָם אֶת בְּנוֹ אוּמָּנוּת הַנָּשִׁים רַבִּי מֵאִיר אוֹמֵר לְעוֹלָם יְלַמֵּד אָדָם אֶת בְּנוֹ אוּמָּנוּת נְקִיָּה וְקַלָּה וְיִתְפַּלֵּל לְמִי שֶׁהָעוֹשֶׁר וְהַנְּכָסִים שֶׁלּוֹ שֶׁאֵין אוּמָּנוּת שֶׁאֵין בָּהּ עֲנִיּוּת וַעֲשִׁירוּת שֶׁלֹּא עֲנִיּוּת מִן הָאוּמָּנוּת וְלֹא עֲשִׁירוּת מִן הָאוּמָּנוּת אֶלָּא הַכֹּל לְפִי זְכוּתוֹ MISHNA: Anyone who has professional dealings primarily with women may not be secluded with women. There is more of a concern that such a man might sin due to his familiarity with the women. And a person may not teach his son a trade that necessitates frequent interaction with women, for the same reason. With regard to teaching one’s son a trade, Rabbi Meir says: A person should always teach his son a clean and easy trade and pray for success to the One to Whom wealth and property belong, as ultimately there is no trade that does not include both poverty and wealth, since a person can become rich from any profession. Poverty does not come from a particular trade, nor does wealth come from a particular trade, but rather, all is in accordance with a person’s merit. Therefore, one should choose a clean and easy trade, and pray to God for success.
רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן אֶלְעָזָר אוֹמֵר רָאִיתָ מִיָּמֶיךָ חַיָּה וָעוֹף שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָהֶם אוּמָּנוּת וְהֵן מִתְפַּרְנְסִין שֶׁלֹּא בְּצַעַר וַהֲלֹא לֹא נִבְרְאוּ אֶלָּא לְשַׁמְּשֵׁנִי וַאֲנִי נִבְרֵאתִי לְשַׁמֵּשׁ אֶת קוֹנִי אֵינוֹ דִּין שֶׁאֶתְפַּרְנֵס שֶׁלֹּא בְּצַעַר אֶלָּא שֶׁהוֹרַעְתִּי מַעֲשַׂי וְקִפַּחְתִּי אֶת פַּרְנָסָתִי Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar says: Have you ever seen a beast or a bird that has a trade? And yet they earn their livelihood without anguish. But all these were created only to serve me, and I, a human being, was created to serve the One Who formed me. Is it not right that I should earn my livelihood without anguish? But I, i.e., humanity, have committed evil actions and have lost my livelihood. This is why people must work to earn a living.
אַבָּא גּוּרְיָין אִישׁ צַיְידָן אוֹמֵר מִשּׁוּם אַבָּא גּוּרְיָא לֹא יְלַמֵּד אָדָם אֶת בְּנוֹ חַמָּר גַּמָּל קַדָּר סַפָּן רוֹעֶה וְחֶנְוָנִי שֶׁאוּמָּנוּתָן אוּמָּנוּת לִיסְטִים רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר מִשְּׁמוֹ הַחַמָּרִין רוּבָּן רְשָׁעִים וְהַגַּמָּלִין רוּבָּן כְּשֵׁרִין הַסַּפָּנִין רוּבָּן חֲסִידִים טוֹב שֶׁבָּרוֹפְאִים לְגֵיהִנָּם וְהַכָּשֵׁר שֶׁבַּטַּבָּחִים שׁוּתָּפוֹ שֶׁל עֲמָלֵק Abba Guryan of Tzadyan says in the name of Abba Gurya: A person may not teach his son the trades of a donkey driver, a camel driver, a pot maker, a sailor, a shepherd, or a storekeeper. The reason for all these is the same, as their trades are the trades of robbers; all of these professions involve a measure of dishonesty and are likely to lead to robbery. Rabbi Yehuda says in Abba Gurya’s name: Most donkey drivers are wicked, since they engage in deceit, and most camel drivers, who traverse dangerous places such as deserts, are of fit character, as they pray to God to protect them on their journeys. Most sailors are pious, since the great danger of the seas instills in them the fear of Heaven. The best of doctors is to Gehenna, and even the fittest of butchers is a partner of Amalek.
רַבִּי נְהוֹרַאי אוֹמֵר מַנִּיחַ אֲנִי כׇּל אוּמָּנוּת שֶׁבָּעוֹלָם וְאֵינִי מְלַמֵּד אֶת בְּנִי אֶלָּא תּוֹרָה שֶׁאָדָם אוֹכֵל מִשְּׂכָרָהּ בָּעוֹלָם הַזֶּה וְהַקֶּרֶן קַיֶּימֶת לוֹ לָעוֹלָם הַבָּא וּשְׁאָר כׇּל אוּמָּנִיּוֹת אֵינָן כֵּן כְּשֶׁאָדָם בָּא לִידֵי חוֹלִי אוֹ לִידֵי זִקְנָה אוֹ לִידֵי יִסּוּרִין וְאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לַעֲסוֹק בִּמְלַאכְתּוֹ הֲרֵי הוּא מֵת בָּרָעָב אֲבָל הַתּוֹרָה אֵינָהּ כֵּן אֶלָּא מְשַׁמַּרְתּוֹ מִכׇּל רַע בְּנַעֲרוּתוֹ וְנוֹתֶנֶת לוֹ אַחֲרִית וְתִקְוָה בְּזִקְנוּתוֹ Rabbi Nehorai says: I set aside all the trades in the world, and I teach my son only Torah, as a person partakes of its reward in this world and the principal reward remains for him in the World-to-Come, which is not true of other professions, whose rewards are only in this world. Furthermore, if a person comes to be ill, or old, or undergoes suffering, and is unable to be involved in his trade, behold, he dies in hunger. But with regard to the Torah it is not so, since one can study it under all circumstances. Rather, it preserves him from all evil and sin in his youth, and provides him with a future and hope in his old age.
בְּנַעֲרוּתוֹ מַהוּ אוֹמֵר וְקוֹיֵ ה' יַחֲלִיפוּ כֹחַ בְּזִקְנוּתוֹ מַהוּ אוֹמֵר עוֹד יְנוּבוּן בְּשֵׂיבָה וְכֵן הוּא אוֹמֵר בְּאַבְרָהָם אָבִינוּ וְאַבְרָהָם זָקֵן וַה' בֵּרַךְ אֶת אַבְרָהָם בַּכֹּל מָצִינוּ שֶׁעָשָׂה אַבְרָהָם אָבִינוּ אֶת כָּל הַתּוֹרָה כּוּלָּהּ עַד שֶׁלֹּא נִיתְּנָה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר עֵקֶב אֲשֶׁר שָׁמַע אַבְרָהָם בְּקֹלִי וַיִּשְׁמֹר מִשְׁמַרְתִּי מִצְוֹתַי חֻקּוֹתַי וְתוֹרֹתָי The mishna explains: With regard to his youth, what does it say about a Torah scholar? “But they that wait for the Lord shall renew their strength” (Isaiah 40:31). With regard to his old age, what does it say? “They shall still bring forth fruit in old age” (Psalms 92:15), and it likewise states with regard to Abraham our forefather: “And Abraham was old, well stricken in age; and the Lord had blessed Abraham in all things” (Genesis 24:1). We found that Abraham our forefather fulfilled the entire Torah before it was given, as it is stated: “Because that Abraham listened to My voice, and kept My charge, My commandments, My statutes, and My laws” (Genesis 26:5), which indicates that Abraham observed all the mitzvot of his own accord and was rewarded in his old age as a result.
גְּמָ' תָּנוּ רַבָּנַן כׇּל שֶׁעֲסָקָיו עִם הַנָּשִׁים סוֹרוֹ רַע כְּגוֹן הַצּוֹרְפִים וְהַסָּרֵיקִים וְהַנָּקוֹרוֹת וְהָרוֹכְלִין וְהַגַּרְדִּיִּים וְהַסַּפָּרִים וְהַכּוֹבְסִים וְהַגָּרָע וְהַבַּלָּן וְהַבּוּרְסְקִי אֵין מַעֲמִידִים מֵהֶם לֹא מֶלֶךְ וְלֹא כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל מַאי טַעְמָא לָא מִשּׁוּם דִּפְסִילִי אֶלָּא מִשּׁוּם דְּזִיל אוּמָּנוּתַיְהוּ GEMARA: The Sages taught: With regard to anyone who has professional dealings primarily with women, his practice and company are bad, and it is best to keep away from him. This category includes, for example, the smiths, and the carders, and the fixers of hand mills of women, and the peddlers of jewelry and perfume to women, and the weavers [gardiyyim], and the barbers, and the launderers, and the bloodletter, and the bathhouse attendant [ballan], and the tanner [burseki]. One may not appoint from among those who have these professions neither a king nor a High Priest. What is the reason for this? It is not because they are disqualified, since there is nothing wrong with these jobs, but because their trades are demeaning, and they would not be respected when appointed to a position of authority.
תָּנוּ רַבָּנַן עֲשָׂרָה דְּבָרִים נֶאֶמְרוּ בְּגָרָע מְהַלֵּךְ עַל צִידּוֹ וְרוּחוֹ גַּסָּה וְנִתְלֶה וְיוֹשֵׁב וְעֵינוֹ צָרָה וְעֵינוֹ רָעָה אוֹכֵל הַרְבֵּה וּמוֹצִיא קִימְעָא וְחָשׁוּד עַל הָעֲרָיוֹת וְעַל הַגָּזֵל וְעַל שְׁפִיכוּת דָּמִים The Sages taught: Ten things were stated with regard to a bloodletter: He walks on his side, i.e., in a haughty manner; and his spirit is arrogant; and he leans and sits, i.e., he does not sit down like others do but leans on an object in a conceited fashion; and he is stingy; and he is envious; and he eats much and discharges only a little; and he is suspected of engaging in intercourse with those with whom relations are forbidden, and of stealing, and of bloodshed in the course of his work.
דָּרַשׁ בַּר קַפָּרָא לְעוֹלָם יְלַמֵּד אָדָם אֶת בְּנוֹ אוּמָּנוּת נְקִיָּה וְקַלָּה מַאי הִיא אָמַר רַב יְהוּדָה Bar Kappara taught: A person should always teach his son a clean and easy trade. The Gemara asks: What is such a profession? Rav Yehuda said: