Kiddushin 77bקידושין ע״ז ב
The William Davidson Talmudתלמוד מהדורת ויליאם דוידסון
Save 'Kiddushin 77b'
Toggle Reader Menu Display Settings
77bע״ז ב

הרי גופין מוחלקים הרי שמות מוחלקים

Aren’t they separate bodies, i.e., three different people? Aren’t they labels [shemot] of separate [muḥlakim] prohibitions, since each one is forbidden in her own right? It is therefore clear that he should receive lashes for each act.

אלא שבא על אלמנה אחת שלש ביאות היכי דמי אי דלא אתרו ביה פשיטא דאינו חייב אלא אחת

Rather, perhaps it means that he engaged in three acts of intercourse with one widow. The Gemara analyzes this possibility: What are the circumstances? If they did not forewarn him between each act, it is obvious that he is liable to receive only one set of lashes, for one must be forewarned in order to be liable to receive lashes, and here he was forewarned only once for the three acts. There would be no need to state this halakha.

אלא דאתרו ביה אכל חדא וחדא אמאי אינו חייב אלא אחת והתנן נזיר שהיה שותה יין כל היום כולו אינו חייב אלא אחת אמרו לו אל תשתה אל תשתה והוא שותה חייב על כל אחת ואחת

Rather, perhaps the case is that they forewarned him for each and every one of his acts of intercourse. But if that were the case, why is he liable to receive only one set of lashes? But didn’t we learn in a mishna (Nazir 42a): A nazirite who was drinking wine in violation of his naziriteship the entire day is liable to receive only one set of lashes. If they said to him: Do not drink, do not drink, i.e., he was forewarned several times, and he nevertheless drinks, he is liable to receive lashes for each and every time he was forewarned and proceeded to drink.

לא צריכא שבא על אלמנת ראובן שהיתה אלמנת שמעון שהיתה אלמנת לוי מהו דתימא הרי שמות מוחלקים קמ"ל גופים מוחלקים בעינן וליכא

The Gemara answers: No, it is necessary for a case where he engaged in sexual intercourse one time with Reuven’s widow, who was previously Shimon’s widow, who was previously Levi’s widow. Lest you say they are separate labels of prohibitions and he should be liable to receive three sets of lashes, since she was widowed from three different people, the baraita therefore teaches us that we require separate bodies for him to receive separate punishments, and as that is not the case here, he is liable to receive only one set of lashes.

(ויקרא כא, יד) אלמנה וגרושה וחללה זונה האי תנא מאי קסבר אי קסבר איסור חל על איסור איפכא נמי ואי קסבר אין איסור חל על איסור אפילו כסדר הזה נמי לא

The baraita teaches that if a High Priest engages in sexual intercourse with a woman who was a widow, and then was a divorcée, and then was a ḥalala, and then was a zona, if the changes to her status occurred in that order he is liable to receive lashes for each of them. The Gemara asks: What does this tanna hold? If he holds that a prohibition takes effect where another prohibition already exists, i.e., if an item or a person is rendered forbidden by a prohibition then another prohibition can take effect in addition to the first one, the reverse should also be the case, i.e., if she was initially a zona and subsequently became a ḥalala, the same two prohibitions should apply to her. And if he holds that a prohibition does not take effect where another prohibition already exists, he should likewise not be liable to receive more than one set of lashes even if they occurred in this order.

אמר רבא האי תנא איסור חל על איסור לית ליה איסור מוסיף אית ליה

Rava said: In general, this tanna does not accept the principle that a prohibition takes effect where another prohibition already exists, but he holds that it does take effect in the case of an expanded prohibition. If the second prohibition adds people to the category of those to whom the item is forbidden, then it takes effect in addition to the previous prohibition, which had a more limited range.

אלמנה אסורה לכהן גדול ושריא לכהן הדיוט הויא לה גרושה מיגו דאיתוסף לה איסורא לגבי כהן הדיוט איתוסף לה איסורא לגבי כהן גדול ועדיין שריא למיכל בתרומה הויא לה חללה מיגו דאיתוסף איסורא למיכל בתרומה איתוסף איסורא לגבי כהן גדול

In this case, a widow is forbidden to a High Priest but is permitted to a common priest. Once she becomes a divorcée, since a prohibition has been added to her with regard to a common priest, as a common priest is prohibited from marrying a divorcée, the prohibition is also added to her with regard to a High Priest. And at this stage, she is still permitted to partake of teruma if she is the daughter of a priest. When she becomes a ḥalala by engaging in sexual intercourse with a priest, since a prohibition for her to eat teruma has been added, the prohibition with regard to a ḥalala is also added with regard to a High Priest who engages in intercourse with her, in addition to the prohibitions of a widow and a divorcée. It is only if they occurred in this order that each prohibition adds to the previous one, but not if they happened in the reverse order.

אלא זונה מאי איסור מוסיף אית בה אמר רב חנא בר רב קטינא הואיל ושם זנות פוסל בישראל

Yet, one could ask: But in the case of a zona, what expanded prohibition is there with regard to her? There is no additional prohibition with a zona beyond what is prohibited with regard to a ḥalala. Rav Ḥana bar Rav Ketina said: Since the label of zenut disqualifies her in Israel, it is viewed as an expanded prohibition. Although a zona as precisely defined in this context, i.e., a woman who engages in sexual intercourse with one who is unfit for her, is prohibited only to priests and does not add any prohibition beyond that of a ḥalala, the label of a zona in its broader sense, such as a married woman who commits adultery, does disqualify her to an Israelite, namely her husband. Therefore, there is a prohibition with regard to a zona that has a greater scope than the prohibition with regard to a ḥalala.

תני תנא קמיה דרב ששת כל שהוא (ויקרא כא, יד) ביקח הרי הוא (ויקרא כא, יד) בלא יקח כל שאינו ביקח אינו בלא יקח פרט לכהן גדול שבא על אחותו אלמנה

A tanna taught a baraita before Rav Sheshet: The command addressed to the High Priest states: “A widow, or one divorced, or a ḥalala, or a zona, these shall he not take; but a virgin of his own people shall he take to wife” (Leviticus 21:14). Any woman who is included in the mitzva: “Shall he take” is included in the prohibition: “Shall he not take” if she becomes a widow or a divorcée. And any woman who is not included in the mitzva: “Shall he take” is not included in the prohibition: “Shall he not take.” This excludes the case of a High Priest who engaged in intercourse with his widowed sister. As his sister, she is forbidden to him even when she is a virgin, so the mitzva: “Shall he take” does not refer to her. Therefore, he does not transgress the prohibition: “Shall he not take” if he engages in intercourse with her after she had been widowed or divorced.

אמר ליה דאמר לך מני ר' שמעון היא דאמר אין איסור חל על איסור דתניא רבי שמעון אומר האוכל נבילה ביום הכפורים פטור דאי רבנן הא אמרי איסור חל על איסור

Rav Sheshet said to him: He who said this to you, in accordance with whose opinion did he teach it? It is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Shimon, who says as a principle: A prohibition does not take effect where another prohibition already exists. Therefore, his sister, who was already forbidden to him by virtue of being his sister, is not forbidden due to the additional prohibition: “Shall he not take.” As it is taught in a baraita: Rabbi Shimon says: One who eats an unslaughtered animal carcass on Yom Kippur is exempt from karet for eating on the fast day, since the prohibition against eating an animal carcass applied to it beforehand. As, if you say this baraita follows the opinion of the Rabbis, don’t they say: A prohibition takes effect where another prohibition already exists?

אפי' תימא רבנן כי אמרי רבנן איסור חל על איסור ה"מ איסור חמור על איסור קל אבל איסור קל על איסור חמור לא חייל

The Gemara rejects this: You can even say that the baraita is in accordance with the opinion of the Rabbis, as when the Rabbis say that a prohibition takes effect where another prohibition already exists, that statement applies only when the second prohibition is a more severe prohibition, e.g., eating on Yom Kippur, which takes effect in addition to a light prohibition, in this case, eating an unslaughtered animal carcass. But a light prohibition does not take effect in addition to a severe prohibition. In this case, the prohibition of engaging in intercourse with one’s sister, which is punishable by karet, is more severe than that of: “A widow or one divorced, or a ḥalala, or a zona, these shall he not take,” which is punishable by flogging.

איכא דאמרי הא מני רבנן היא דאמרי איסור חל על איסור וכי אמרי רבנן איסור חל על איסור הני מילי איסור חמור על איסור קל אבל איסור קל על איסור חמור לא חייל דאי ר"ש השתא איסור חמור על איסור קל לא חייל איסור קל על איסור חמור מיבעיא

There are those who say that Rav Sheshet said to the tanna as follows: In accordance with whose opinion is this? It is in accordance with the opinion of the Rabbis, who say: A prohibition takes effect where another prohibition already exists. And when the Rabbis say that a prohibition takes effect where another prohibition already exists, that statement applies when the second prohibition is a more severe prohibition, which takes effect in addition to a light prohibition, but a light prohibition does not take effect in addition to a severe prohibition. As, if it is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Shimon, now that he holds that even a severe prohibition does not take effect in addition to a light prohibition, is it necessary to say that a light prohibition does not take effect in addition to a severe prohibition? There would be no novelty in this ruling of the baraita.

מהו דתימא איסור כהונה שאני קמ"ל

The Gemara rejects this: It is necessary, lest you say that a prohibition involving the priesthood is different. You might say that since there are many stringencies that apply only to priests, then with regard to prohibitions of the priesthood, a second prohibition should take effect in addition to a first one. He therefore teaches us that Rabbi Shimon holds that the second prohibition does not take effect even when it is one addressed to members of the priesthood.

אמר ליה רב פפא לאביי ישראל הבא על אחותו זונה משוי לה חללה משוי לה או לא משוי לה

§ Rav Pappa said to Abaye: In the case of an Israelite who engages in intercourse with his sister, this makes her a zona and she is forbidden to a priest. But does he also make her a ḥalala so that a priest who engages in intercourse with her is also liable for violating the prohibition of engaging in intercourse with a ḥalala, or perhaps he does not make her a ḥalala?

מי אמרינן קל וחומר מחייבי לאוין הויא חללה מחייבי כריתות לא כל שכן או דילמא אין חללה אלא מאיסור כהונה אמר ליה אין (איסור) חללה אלא מאיסור כהונה בלבד

The two sides of the question are as follows: Do we say that this is an a fortiori inference: If she becomes a ḥalala by engaging in sexual intercourse for which she is liable for violating only an ordinary prohibition, should she not all the more so be considered a ḥalala by engaging in intercourse for which she is liable to be punished by karet? Or perhaps the status of ḥalala results only from a prohibition addressed specifically to the priesthood? Abaye said to him: A prohibition with regard to a ḥalala results only from a prohibition addressed specifically to the priesthood and from that alone.

אמר רבא מנא הא מילתא דאמור רבנן אין חללה אלא מאיסור כהונה דתניא לא יאמר גרושה בכהן גדול ותיתי בקל וחומר מכהן הדיוט ואנא אמינא השתא לכהן הדיוט אסורה לכהן גדול מיבעיא למה נאמרה כשם שחלוקה גרושה מזונה וחללה בכהן הדיוט כך חלוקה בכהן גדול

Rava says: From where is this matter that the Sages state, that a ḥalala results only from a prohibition addressed specifically to the priesthood, derived? As it is taught in a baraita: The verse need not explicitly state that a divorcée is forbidden to a High Priest, and one could derive it by means of an a fortiori inference from the halakha of a common priest. As I can state the following argument: Now that a divorcée is forbidden to a common priest, is it necessary to state that she is forbidden to a High Priest? But if it is not necessary to mention it, why is the prohibition with regard to a divorcée to a High Priest stated? It is in order to teach the following: Just as the prohibition with regard to a divorcée is distinct from that of a zona and a ḥalala in the case of a common priest, as a divorcée is forbidden by a separate prohibition for which he is liable to be flogged, so too, the prohibition with regard to a divorcée is distinct in the case of a High Priest, and he will be liable to receive lashes for a separate prohibition if she was a ḥalala as well.

פשיטא מיגרע גרעה אלא כשם שחלוקה גרושה מזונה וחללה בכהן הדיוט כך אלמנה חלוקה מגרושה וחללה זונה בכהן גדול

The Gemara questions this statement: This is obvious; is the status of a High Priest any lower than that of a common priest? Since this halakha applied to him when he was a common priest, it certainly applies to him when he becomes a High Priest. His restrictions as a priest are not lessened when he becomes a High Priest. Rather, teach as follows: Just as the prohibition with regard to a divorcée is distinct from that of a zona and a ḥalala in the case of a common priest, since he is liable to receive lashes for each of the prohibitions, so too, a widow is distinct from a divorcée, and a ḥalala, and a zona in the case of a High Priest, and he is liable to receive lashes for each prohibition, despite the fact that they are stated in the same verse (see Leviticus 21:14).

חללה למה נאמרה אין חללה אלא מאיסור כהונה זונה למה נאמרה נאמר כאן זונה ונאמר להלן זונה מה כאן זרעו חולין אף להלן זרעו חולין

The baraita further asks: Why is the prohibition with regard to a ḥalala stated with regard to a High Priest, as she is forbidden to him even when he is a common priest? This repetition serves to teach that a ḥalala results only from a prohibition addressed specifically to the priesthood. Why is the prohibition with regard to a zona stated with regard to a High Priest, as she is forbidden to him even when he is a common priest? It is stated here: “Zona (Leviticus 21:14), with regard to a High Priest, and it is stated there: “Zona (Leviticus 21:7), with regard to a common priest. Just as here, in the case of a High Priest who engages in sexual intercourse with a zona, his offspring are profaned, in accordance with the verse: “And he shall not profane his offspring” (Leviticus 21:15), so too there, in the case of a common priest who engages in intercourse with a zona, his offspring are profaned.

אמר רב אשי הילכך כהן הבא על אחותו

Rav Ashi says: Consequently, a priest who engages in intercourse with his sister