Kiddushin 74bקידושין ע״ד ב
The William Davidson Talmudתלמוד מהדורת ויליאם דוידסון
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74bע״ד ב

הכי קאמר כל האסורים לבא בקהל כהונה מאי נינהו גיורת פחותה מבת שלש שנים ויום אחד ודלא כר' שמעון בן יוחי מותרין לבוא זה בזה

This is what the mishna is saying: All those for whom it is prohibited to enter into the congregation of the priesthood. Rav Yehuda adds parenthetically: And who are they? Even a female who became a convert at less than three years and one day old, and this is not in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai, who holds that such a girl is permitted to marry a priest. Rav Yehuda resumes his presentation of the statement of Rabbi Yehuda: They are permitted to marry into those families that are prohibited from entering into the congregation but are permitted to marry one another.

ונוקמה בבת שלש שנים ויום אחד ואפי' לר' שמעון בן יוחי א"כ מצידה תברה

The Gemara asks: And let us establish the mishna as referring to a girl who became a convert at three years and one day old or older, and then it will accord even with Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai’s opinion, as he agrees that this convert may not marry a priest. The Gemara answers: If so, the mishna is broken, i.e., contradicted, from within itself, as if the mishna states that even a female who converted when she was older than three years and a day may marry one with flawed lineage, one would make an incorrect inference, as follows.

אלא טעמא דבת שלש שנים ויום אחד הא פחותה מבת שלש שנים ויום אחד דמותרת לבא בקהל כהונה אסורה לבוא זה בזה הרי פחותה מבת שלש שנים ויום אחד לר"ש בן יוחי דמותרת לבא בקהל כהונה ומותרות לבא זה בזה

Rather, the reason that she may marry one with flawed lineage is that she converted when she was already three years and one day old. But if she converted when she was less than three years and one day old, as she is permitted to enter into the congregation of the priesthood, is she prohibited from marrying into those families that are prohibited from entering into the congregation but are permitted to marry one another? This cannot be, since according to the opinion of Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai, there is also the case of a female who converted when she was less than three years and one day old, who is permitted to enter the congregation of the priesthood and is also prohibited from marrying into those families that are prohibited from entering into the congregation but are permitted to marry one another. Consequently, the mishna cannot be explained to accord with the opinion of Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai.

וכללא הוא דכל האסורים לבא בקהל כהונה מותרין לבא זה בזה והרי אלמנה וגרושה וחללה וזונה דאסורים לבא בקהל כהונה ואסורים לבא זה בזה ותו הא מותר אסור והרי גר שמותר בכהנת ומותר בממזרת

The Gemara continues to ask: But is it an established principle that all those for whom it is prohibited to enter into the congregation of the priesthood are permitted to marry into those families that are prohibited from entering into the congregation but are permitted to marry one another? But a widow, who may not marry a High Priest, and a divorcée, and a woman disqualified from marrying a priest [ḥalala], and a woman who has engaged in sexual intercourse with a man forbidden to her by the Torah [zona], are prohibited to enter into the congregation of the priesthood and are also prohibited to marry into those families that are prohibited from entering into the congregation but are permitted to marry one another. And furthermore, can it be inferred: But one who is permitted to enter into the congregation of the priesthood is prohibited from marrying a man of flawed lineage? But there is the convert, who is permitted to marry a daughter of a priest, and is also permitted to marry a mamzeret.

אלא אמר רב נתן בר הושעיא ה"ק כל שכהן אסור לישא את בתו ומאי ניהו גר שנשא גיורת וכר' אליעזר בן יעקב מותרין לבא זה בזה

Rather, Rav Natan bar Hoshaya said: This is what the tanna of the mishna is saying: Any person about whom the halakha is that a priest may not marry his daughter. Rav Natan bar Hoshaya adds parenthetically: And who is that? A convert who married a female convert, and this is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov, who prohibits the daughter of two converts to marry a priest. Rav Natan bar Hoshaya resumes his presentation of the statement of Rabbi Yehuda: People of that status are permitted to marry into those families that are prohibited from entering into the congregation but are permitted to marry one another, since converts are not in the category of “congregation.”

וכללא הוא דכל שכהן אסור לישא את בתו מותרים לבא זה בזה הרי חלל שנשא בת ישראל דכהן אסור לישא בתו ואסורין נמי לבא זה בזה לא קשיא כר' דוסתאי בן יהודה

The Gemara asks: But is it an established principle that anyone whose daughter a priest may not marry is permitted to marry into those families that are prohibited from entering into the congregation but are permitted to marry one another? But there is the case of a priest disqualified due to flawed lineage [ḥalal] who married a Jewish woman, as a priest may not marry his daughter, since she is a ḥalala. And despite this, she is included among those who are prohibited to marry into those families that are prohibited from entering into the congregation but are permitted to marry one another. The Gemara answers: This is not difficult, since this mishna is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Dostai ben Yehuda, who holds that the daughter of a ḥalal and a Jewish woman may marry a priest.

והרי חלל שנשא חללה וכהן אסור לישא בתו ואסור נמי לבא זה בזה ותו הא מותר אסור והרי גר שנשא בת ישראל וכהן מותר לישא בתו ומותרין לבא זה בזה

The Gemara asks: But there is the case of a ḥalal who married a ḥalala, as a priest may not marry his daughter, since she is a ḥalala. And despite this, she is included among those who are prohibited to marry into those families that are prohibited from entering into the congregation but are permitted to marry one another. And furthermore, can it be inferred: One with regard to whom it is permitted for a priest to marry his daughter, is he prohibited from marrying Jews of flawed lineage? But there is the case of a convert who married a Jewish woman, and a priest is permitted to marry his daughter. And despite this, people of that status are permitted to marry into those families that are prohibited from entering into the congregation but are permitted to marry one another.

אלא אמר רב נחמן אמר רבה בר אבוה הכא ממזר מאחותו וממזר מאשת איש איכא בינייהו

Rather, Rav Naḥman said that Rabba bar Avuh said a different explanation of the dispute between the first tanna and Rabbi Yehuda: Here, the difference between them concerns a mamzer resulting from intercourse between a man and his sister, and a mamzer resulting from intercourse between a married woman and a man other than her husband.

ת"ק סבר אפי' ממזר מאחותו נמי הוי ממזר ור' יהודה סבר מאשת איש הוי ממזר מאחותו לא הוי ממזר

The first tanna holds: Even a mamzer resulting from intercourse between a man and his sister is also considered a mamzer. And Rabbi Yehuda holds: The offspring resulting from intercourse with a married woman is a mamzer, but offspring resulting from intercourse between a man and his sister is not a mamzer. According to this explanation, the dispute is that according to the first tanna, offspring resulting from intercourse between siblings may marry offspring resulting from intercourse with a married woman, while according to Rabbi Yehuda, the offspring resulting from intercourse between siblings is of unflawed lineage and may not marry a mamzer.

מאי קמ"ל תנינא איזהו ממזר כל שהוא (דברים כג, ג) בלא יבא דברי ר' עקיבא

The Gemara asks: What is the tanna teaching us with this? We already learned this in a mishna (Yevamot 49a): Who is a mamzer? Any offspring who is born of a union prohibited by the verse: “He shall not enter” (Deuteronomy 23:2). In other words, if the union was a violation of any kind of prohibition, even that of a prohibition that is not subject to the punishment of karet, the child is a mamzer; this is the statement of Rabbi Akiva.

שמעון התימני אומר כל שחייבין עליו כרת בידי שמים והלכה כדבריו ר' יהושע אומר כל שחייבין עליו מיתת ב"ד

The mishna continues: Shimon HaTimni says: Any offspring who is born of a union enjoined by a prohibition for which one is liable to receive karet at the hand of Heaven, and the halakha is in accordance with his statement. Rabbi Yehoshua says: Any offspring who is born of a union enjoined by a prohibition for which one is liable to receive court-imposed capital punishment. This demonstrates that the question of whether mamzer status results from sexual intercourse between siblings, for which one is liable to receive karet rather than capital punishment, has already been addressed in a mishna. Therefore, Rav Naḥman’s explanation of this mishna must be rejected.

אלא אמר רבא גר עמוני ומואבי איכא בינייהו והכי קאמר כל האסורים לבא בקהל ומאי ניהו גר עמוני ומואבי מותרין לבא זה בזה

Rather, Rava said: The difference between them involves the halakha of a male Ammonite and a male Moabite convert, and this is what the tanna is saying: All those for whom it is prohibited to enter into the congregation. Rava adds parenthetically: And who are they? A male Ammonite and a male Moabite convert. Rava resumes his presentation of the statement of Rabbi Yehuda: They are permitted to marry one another.

אי הכי מאי ר' יהודה אוסר ה"ק אע"פ שרבי יהודה אוסר גר בממזרת הני מילי גר דראוי לבא בקהל אבל גר עמוני ומואבי דאין ראויין לבא בקהל לא

The Gemara asks: If so, what is the reason of Rabbi Yehuda for prohibiting these marriages? Rabbi Yehuda should also permit an Ammonite convert to marry a mamzeret, as an Ammonite is not fit to enter the congregation. The Gemara answers: This is what the tanna is saying: Although Rabbi Yehuda generally prohibits a convert from marrying a mamzeret, this matter applies only to a regular convert, who is fit to enter into the congregation. But a male Ammonite convert and a male Moabite convert, who are not fit to enter into the congregation, are not prohibited from marrying a mamzeret, and there is no dispute between Rabbi Yehuda and the first tanna.

תנו רבנן בן תשע שנים ויום אחד גר עמוני ומואבי מצרי ואדומי כותי ונתין חלל וממזר שבאו על הכהנת ועל הלויה ועל בת ישראל [פסלוה] ר' יוסי אומר כל שזרעו פסול פוסל וכל שאין זרעו פסול אינו פוסל רבן שמעון בן גמליאל אומר

The Sages taught (Tosefta, Yevamot 8:1): A boy nine years and one day old, whose sexual intercourse is considered an act of intercourse with regard to sexual transgressions, who was an Ammonite or Moabite convert, or an Egyptian or Edomite convert, or a Samaritan, or a Gibeonite, a ḥalal, or a mamzer, and who engaged in sexual intercourse with the daughter of a priest, or the daughter of a Levite, or an Israelite woman, has thereby disqualified her from the priesthood. Rabbi Yosei says: Anyone whose offspring is unfit to marry a priest disqualifies a woman with whom he engages in intercourse from marrying a priest; and anyone whose offspring is not unfit does not disqualify her. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: