וְהָאִידָּנָא הוּא [דְּ]דַלְיוּהּ פָּרְסָאֵי אֲמַר לֵיהּ אַבָּיֵי לְרַב יוֹסֵף לְהָא גִּיסָא דִפְרָת עַד הֵיכָא אֲמַר לֵיהּ מַאי דַּעְתָּיךְ מִשּׁוּם בִּירָם מְיַיחֲסִי דְּפוּמְבְּדִיתָא מִבִּירָם נָסְבִי And it is only now that the Persians moved the bridge further up northward. Abaye said to Rav Yosef: Until where does the border extend on this western side of the Euphrates? Rav Yosef said to him: What are you thinking? Why do you ask? Is it due to the town of Biram? Even those of pure lineage who live in Pumbedita marry women from Biram, which demonstrates that the residents of Biram are presumed to have unflawed lineage.
אָמַר רַב פָּפָּא כְּמַחְלוֹקֶת לְיוּחֲסִין כָּךְ מַחְלוֹקֶת לְעִנְיַן גִּיטִּין וְרַב יוֹסֵף אָמַר מַחְלוֹקֶת לְיוּחֲסִין אֲבָל לְגִיטִּין דִּבְרֵי הַכֹּל עַד אַרְבָּא תִנְיָינָא דְּגִישְׁרָא Rav Pappa says: Just as there is a dispute between Rav and Shmuel as to the northern border of Babylonia with regard to lineage, so is there a dispute with regard to bills of divorce. An agent bringing a bill of divorce from a country overseas to Eretz Yisrael must state that it was written and signed in his presence. If he brought it from Babylonia, there is no requirement for him to state this. Rav Pappa is teaching that the borders that define Babylonia with regard to this issue are the same as the borders with regard to lineage. And Rav Yosef says: This dispute is with regard to lineage, but with regard to bills of divorce, everyone agrees that it is considered Babylonia up to the second lake of the bridge that Shmuel mentioned.
אָמַר רָמֵי בַּר אַבָּא חֲבֵיל יַמָּא תְּכֵילְתָּא דְבָבֶל שׁוּנְיָא וְגוּבְיָא תְּכֵילְתָּא דַּחֲבֵיל יַמָּא רָבִינָא אָמַר אַף צִיצוֹרָא תַּנְיָא נָמֵי הָכִי חָנָן בֶּן פִּנְחָס אוֹמֵר חֲבֵיל יַמָּא תְּכֵילְתָּא דְּבָבֶל שׁוּנְיָא וְגוּבְיָא וְצִיצוֹרָא תְּכֵילְתָּא דַּחֲבֵיל יַמָּא אָמַר רַב פָּפָּא וְהָאִידָּנָא אִיעָרַבִי בְּהוּ כּוּתָאֵי וְלָא הִיא אִיתְּתָא הוּא דִּבְעָא מִינַּיְיהוּ וְלָא יְהַבוּ לֵיהּ מַאי חֲבֵיל יַמָּא אָמַר רַב פָּפָּא זוֹ פְּרָת דְּבוֹרְסִי Rami bar Abba said: The province of Ḥaveil Yamma is the glory of Babylonia with regard to lineage; Shunya and Guvya are the glory of Ḥaveil Yamma. Ravina said: The town of Tzitzora is also like Shunya and Guvya. This is also taught in a baraita: Ḥanan ben Pineḥas says: Ḥaveil Yamma is the glory of Babylonia; Shunya and Guvya and Tzitzora are the glory of Ḥaveil Yamma. Rav Pappa says: And nowadays, Samaritans have assimilated with them, and their lineage is problematic. The Gemara comments: And that is not so. Rather, one Samaritan requested to marry a woman from them and they would not give her to him, which led to the rumor that Samaritans had assimilated with them. The Gemara asks: What is this region called Ḥaveil Yamma? Rav Pappa said: This is the area near the Euphrates adjacent to Bursi.
הָהוּא גַּבְרָא דַּאֲמַר לְהוּ אֲנָא מִן שׁוֹט מֵישׁוֹט עָמַד רַבִּי יִצְחָק נַפָּחָא עַל רַגְלָיו וְאָמַר שׁוֹט מֵישׁוֹט בֵּין הַנְּהָרוֹת עוֹמֶדֶת וְכִי בֵּין הַנְּהָרוֹת עוֹמֶדֶת מַאי הָוֵי אָמַר אַבָּיֵי אָמַר רַבִּי חָמָא בַּר עוּקְבָא אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹסֵי בְּרַבִּי חֲנִינָא בֵּין הַנְּהָרוֹת הֲרֵי הִיא כַּגּוֹלָה לְיוּחֲסִין וְהֵיכָא קָיְימָא אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן מֵאִיהִי דְקִירָא וּלְעֵיל וְהָא אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן עַד מַעְבַּרְתָּא דְגִיזְמָא אָמַר אַבָּיֵי רְצוּעָה נָפְקָא The Gemara relates: There was a certain man who said to the Sages: I am from a place called Shot Mishot. Rabbi Yitzḥak Nappaḥa stood on his feet and said: Shot Mishot is located between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. The Gemara asks: And if it is located between the rivers, what of it? What halakha is this relevant for? Abaye said that Rabbi Ḥama bar Ukva says that Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, says: The area between the rivers is like the exile, meaning Pumbedita, with regard to lineage. The Gemara inquires: And where is the area between the rivers located for the purpose of this halakha? Rabbi Yoḥanan said: From Ihi Dekira and upward, i.e., northward. The Gemara asks: But doesn’t Rabbi Yoḥanan say: Until the crossing at Gizma but no further? Abaye said: A strip extends from that region past Ihi Dekira.
אָמַר רַב אִיקָא בַּר אָבִין אָמַר רַב חֲנַנְאֵל אָמַר רַב חִלָּזוֹן נִיהֲוַונְד הֲרֵי הִיא כַּגּוֹלָה לְיוּחֲסִין אֲמַר לְהוּ אַבָּיֵי לָא תְּצִיתוּ לֵיהּ יְבָמָה הִיא דִּנְפַלָה לֵיהּ הָתָם אֲמַר לֵיהּ אַטּוּ דִּידִי הִיא דְּרַב חֲנַנְאֵל הִיא אֲזוּל שַׁיְילוּהּ לְרַב חֲנַנְאֵל אֲמַר לְהוּ הָכִי אָמַר רַב חִלָּזוֹן נִיהֲוַונְד הֲרֵי הִיא כַּגּוֹלָה לְיוּחֲסִין Rav Ika bar Avin says that Rav Ḥananel says that Rav says: Ḥillazon Nihavnad is like the exile with regard to lineage. Abaye said to them: Do not listen to Rav Ika bar Avin about this, as it was a yevama who fell before him from there to perform levirate marriage, and he said that its lineage was unflawed because he wished to marry her. Rav Ika bar Avin said to him: Is that to say that this halakha is mine? It is Rav Ḥananel’s, and it is not reasonable to say that I was influenced by my own interests in stating it. They went and asked Rav Ḥananel. He said to them: Rav said as follows: Ḥillazon Nihavnad is like the exile with regard to lineage.
וּפְלִיגָא דְּרַבִּי אַבָּא בַּר כָּהֲנָא דְּאָמַר רַבִּי אַבָּא בַּר כָּהֲנָא מַאי דִּכְתִיב וַיַּנְחֵם בַּחְלַח וּבְחָבוֹר נְהַר גּוֹזָן וְעָרֵי מָדָי חֲלַח זוֹ חִלָּזוֹן חָבוֹר זוֹ הַדְיָיב נְהַר גּוֹזָן זוֹ גִּינְזַק עָרֵי מָדָי זוֹ חֲמָדָן וְחַבְרוֹתֶיהָ וְאָמְרִי לַהּ זוֹ נִהֲוַונְד וְחַבְרוֹתֶיהָ The Gemara comments: And this disagrees with the statement of Rabbi Abba bar Kahana, as Rabbi Abba bar Kahana says: What is the meaning of that which is written with regard to the exile of the ten tribes of the kingdom of Israel: “And he put them in Halah, and in Habor, on the river of Gozan, and in the cities of the Medes” (II Kings 18:11)? Halah is Ḥillazon; Habor is Hadyav; the river of Gozan is Ginzak; the cities of the Medes are Ḥamadan and its neighboring towns, and some say: This is Nihavnad and its neighboring towns. Since the ten tribes assimilated with the gentiles, the lineage of Jews from those places is flawed, unlike that which was taught before.
מַאי חַבְרוֹתֶיהָ אָמַר שְׁמוּאֵל כְּרַךְ מוּשְׁכֵּי חוּסְקֵי וְרוּמְקֵי אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן וְכוּלָּם לִפְסוּל קָסָלְקָא דַּעְתָּא מוּשְׁכֵּי הַיְינוּ מוּשְׁכְּנֵי וְהָאָמַר רַבִּי חִיָּיא בַּר אָבִין אָמַר שְׁמוּאֵל מוּשְׁכְּנֵי הֲרֵי הִיא כַּגּוֹלָה לְיוּחֲסִין אֶלָּא מוּשְׁכֵּי לְחוּד וּמוּשְׁכְּנֵי לְחוּד The Gemara asks: What are the neighboring towns of Nihavnad? Shmuel said: The city of Mushekhei, Ḥosekei, and Rumekei. Rabbi Yoḥanan says: And all of these are the same with regard to flawed lineage. It was assumed that Mushekhei is the same as Mushekanei. The Gemara therefore asks: But doesn’t Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Avin say that Shmuel says: Mushekanei is like the exile with regard to lineage? Rather, it must be that Mushekhei is discrete, and Mushekanei is discrete.
וּתְלָת עִלְעִין בְּפֻמַּהּ בֵּין שִׁנַּהּ אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן זוֹ חִלָּזוֹן הַדְיָיב וּנְצִיבִין שֶׁפְּעָמִים בּוֹלַעְתָּן וּפְעָמִים פּוֹלַטְתָּן In connection to the aforementioned places, the Gemara analyzes the following verse, describing a vision of a bear-like animal: “And it had three ribs in its mouth between its teeth” (Daniel 7:5). Rabbi Yoḥanan says: This is Ḥillazon, Hadyav, and Netzivin, which the Persian government sometimes swallows and sometimes discharges. In other words, control over these places passed from the Persians to the Romans and back again several times.
וַאֲרוּ חֵיוָה אׇחֳרִי תִנְיָנָה דָּמְיָה לְדֹב תָּנֵי רַב יוֹסֵף אֵלּוּ פָּרְסִיִּים שֶׁאוֹכְלִין וְשׁוֹתִין כְּדוֹב וּמְסוּרְבָּלִין כְּדוֹב וּמְגַדְּלִין שֵׂעָר כְּדוֹב וְאֵין לָהֶם מְנוּחָה כְּדוֹב רַבִּי אַמֵּי כִּי הֲוָה חָזֵי פָּרְסָא דְּרָכֵיב אָמַר הַיְינוּ דּוּבָּא נָיְידָא The first part of that verse stated: “And behold a second beast, similar to a bear” (Daniel 7:5). Rav Yosef taught: These are Persians, who eat and drink copious amounts like a bear, and are corpulent like a bear, and grow hair like a bear, and have no rest like a bear, which is constantly on the move from one place to another. When Rabbi Ami saw a Persian riding, he would say: This is a bear on the move.
אֲמַר לֵיהּ רַבִּי לְלֵוִי הַרְאֵנִי פָּרְסִיִּים אֲמַר לֵיהּ דּוֹמִים לַחֲיָילוֹת שֶׁל בֵּית דָּוִד הַרְאֵנִי חַבָּרִין דּוֹמִין לְמַלְאֲכֵי חַבָּלָה הַרְאֵנִי יִשְׁמְעֵאלִים דּוֹמִין לִשְׂעִירִים שֶׁל בֵּית הַכִּסֵּא הַרְאֵנִי תַּלְמִידֵי חֲכָמִים שֶׁבְּבָבֶל דּוֹמִים לְמַלְאֲכֵי הַשָּׁרֵת Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said to Levi: Show me Persians, i.e., describe a typical Persian to me. Levi said to him: They are similar to the legions of the house of David. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said: Show me Ḥabbarin, Persian priests. Levi said to him: They are similar to angels of destruction. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said: Show me Ishmaelites. Levi said to him: They are similar to demons of an outhouse. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said: Show me Torah scholars of Babylonia. Levi said to him: They are similar to ministering angels.
כִּי הֲוָה נִיחָא נַפְשֵׁיהּ דְּרַבִּי אֲמַר הוּמַנְיָא אִיכָּא בְּבָבֶל כּוּלַּהּ עַמּוֹנָאֵי הִיא מַסְגַּרְיָא אִיכָּא בְּבָבֶל כּוּלָּהּ דְּמַמְזֵירֵי הִיא בִּירְקָא אִיכָּא בְּבָבֶל שְׁנֵי אַחִים יֵשׁ [בָּהּ] שֶׁמַּחֲלִיפִים נְשׁוֹתֵיהֶם זֶה לָזֶה בִּירְתָּא דְּסָטְיָא אִיכָּא בְּבָבֶל הַיּוֹם סָרוּ מֵאַחֲרֵי הַמָּקוֹם דְּאַקְפִּי פִּירָא בִּכְווֹרֵי בְּשַׁבְּתָא וַאֲזֻיל וְצָדוּ בְּהוּ בְּשַׁבְּתָא וְשַׁמְּתִינְהוּ רַבִּי אַחַי בְּרַבִּי יֹאשִׁיָּה וְאִישְׁתַּמּוּד אַקְרָא דְאַגְמָא אִיכָּא בְּבָבֶל אַדָּא בַּר אַהֲבָה יֵשׁ בָּהּ When Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi was dying, he said prophetically: There is a place called Homanya in Babylonia, and all its people are the sons of Ammon. There is a place called Masgariya in Babylonia, and all its people are mamzerim. There is a place called Bireka in Babylonia, and there are two brothers there who exchange wives with each other, and their children are therefore mamzerim. There is a place called Bireta DeSatya in Babylonia. Today they turned away from the Omnipresent. What did they do? A ditch with fish overflowed, and they went and trapped the fish on Shabbat. Rabbi Aḥai, son of Rabbi Yoshiya, excommunicated them, and they all became apostates. There is a place called Akra DeAgma in Babylonia. There is a man named Adda bar Ahava there.