Kiddushin 6aקידושין ו׳ א
The William Davidson Talmudתלמוד מהדורת ויליאם דוידסון
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6aו׳ א

לישני בתראי קמ"ל הכא כתיב (דברים כד, א) כי יקח ולא שיקח את עצמו והכא כתיב (דברים כד, א) ושלחה ולא שישלח את עצמו :

last expressions are what he teaches us. The novelty of Shmuel’s statement is that with regard to the second set of pronouncements there is no concern at all that a valid betrothal or divorce might have been performed. The Gemara explains why according to Shmuel these pronouncements are not of concern. Here, in the case of betrothal, it is written: “When a man takes a woman” (Deuteronomy 24:1), which indicates that the man is acting to change the status of the woman, and it is not written that he takes himself or gives himself to her, as in the case of one who says: I am hereby your man. And likewise, it is written here, with regard to divorce: “And sends her” (Deuteronomy 24:1), and it is not written that he sends himself from her, as in the case of one who says: I am not your man.

ת"ר הרי את אשתי הרי את ארוסתי הרי את קנויה לי מקודשת הרי את שלי הרי את ברשותי הרי את זקוקה לי מקודשת וליתנינהו כולהו כחדא תנא תלת תלת שמעינהו וגרסינהו

The Sages taught in a baraita that if a man says to a woman: You are hereby my wife, or: You are hereby my betrothed, or: You are hereby acquired to me, then she is betrothed. If he said to her: You are hereby mine, or: You are hereby under my authority, or: You are hereby bound to me, then she is betrothed. The Gemara asks: But as the halakha is that she is betrothed with regard to both sets of statements, let the baraita teach all of them together. Why does the baraita divide these statements into two groups? The Gemara answers: The tanna heard them as two sets of three, and consequently he taught them in that form. He heard each sequence of three cases as a separate halakha from his teachers, and therefore he preserved them as two sets of three.

איבעיא להו מיוחדת לי מהו מיועדת לי מהו עזרתי מהו נגדתי מהו עצורתי מהו צלעתי מהו סגורתי מהו תחתי מהו תפושתי מהו לקוחתי מהו

A dilemma was raised before the Sages: If a man betrothing a woman said: You are hereby unique to me, what is the halakha? Is this woman betrothed? Similarly, if he said to her: You are hereby designated to me, what is the halakha? If he said: You are hereby my helper, what is the halakha? If he said: You are hereby my counterpart, what is the halakha? If he said: You are hereby my gathered one, what is the halakha? If he said: You are hereby my rib, what is the halakha? If he said: You are hereby my closed one, what is the halakha? If he said: You are hereby beneath me, what is the halakha? If he said: You are hereby my seized one, what is the halakha? Finally, if he said: You are hereby my taken one, what is the halakha?

פשוט מיהא חדא דתניא האומר לקוחתי הרי זו מקודשת משום שנאמר (דברים כד, א) כי יקח איש אשה

The Gemara suggests: Resolve at least one of these dilemmas, as it is taught in a baraita: With regard to one who says to a woman: You are hereby my taken one, she is betrothed, because it is stated: “When a man takes a woman” (Deuteronomy 24:1).

איבעיא להו חרופתי מהו ת"ש דתניא האומר חרופתי מקודשת שכן ביהודה קורין לארוסה חרופה ויהודה הויא רובא דעלמא

A dilemma was raised before the Sages: If a man says to a woman: You are hereby my espoused one [ḥarufati], what is the halakha? Come and hear, as it is taught in a baraita that with regard to one who says: You are hereby my espoused one, she is betrothed, as in Judea they call a betrothed woman a ḥarufa, an espoused woman. The Gemara asks: And is Judea most of the world? Even if this is true in Judea, why should a halakha that applies in all locations be based on this local custom?

ה"ק האומר חרופתי מקודשת שנאמר (ויקרא יט, כ) והיא שפחה נחרפת לאיש ועוד ביהודה קורין לארוסה חרופה ויהודה ועוד לקרא אלא ה"ק האומר חרופה ביהודה מקודשת שכן ביהודה קורין לארוסה חרופה

The Gemara answers that this is what the baraita is saying: With regard to one who says: You are hereby my espoused one, she is betrothed, as it is stated: “Who is a maidservant espoused [neḥerefet] to a man” (Leviticus 19:20). This verse means that she is betrothed to a certain man. And furthermore, the baraita adds another proof for this claim: In Judea they call a betrothed woman a ḥarufa, an espoused woman. The Gemara asks: And is it reasonable to introduce the custom in Judea with the term: And furthermore, as proof to a halakha derived from a verse? Rather, the Gemara explains that this is what the baraita is saying: With regard to one who says: You are hereby espoused, in Judea, she is betrothed, as in Judea they call a betrothed woman a ḥarufa, an espoused woman.

במאי עסקינן אילימא בשאין מדבר עמה על עסקי גיטה וקידושיה מנא ידעה מאי קאמר לה ואלא במדבר עמה על עסקי גיטה וקידושיה אע"ג דלא אמר לה נמי

The Gemara asks a general question with regard to all the previously mentioned expressions: With what are we dealing? If we say that these dilemmas are referring to a case where he was not speaking with her about matters of her bill of divorce or her betrothal, but suddenly issued this statement to her, from where does she know what he is saying to her? Out of context, these statements are not necessarily referring to betrothal. Rather, they are referring to a case where he was speaking to her about matters of her bill of divorce and her betrothal.But if so, even though he did not say anything, she would also be betrothed if he gave her money for the purpose of betrothal.

דתנן היה מדבר עם אשה על עסקי גיטה וקידושיה ונתן לה גיטה וקידושיה ולא פירש ר' יוסי אומר דיו ר' יהודה אומר צריך לפרש ואמר רב הונא אמר שמואל הלכה כר' יוסי

As we learned in a mishna (Ma’aser Sheni 4:7): If one was speaking with a woman about matters of her bill of divorce or her betrothal, and he gave her a bill of divorce or her betrothal, i.e., the money or a document of betrothal, but did not clarify his action, Rabbi Yosei says: This is sufficient for him, i.e., it is a valid divorce or betrothal because she will understand his intention from the context. Rabbi Yehuda says: He is required to clarify the meaning of his behavior. And Rav Huna says that Shmuel says: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yosei. If so, even if he said nothing to her she would still be betrothed, and this should certainly be the case if he says one of the statements under discussion.

אמרי לעולם במדבר עמה על עסקי גיטה וקידושיה ואי דיהיב לה ושתיק ה"נ הב"ע דיהב לה ואמר לה בהני לישני

The Sages say in explanation of this matter: Actually, we are dealing with cases where he was speaking to her about matters of her bill of divorce and her betrothal, and if it was referring to a case where he had given her the money and been silent, so too it would have been a valid betrothal. With what are we dealing here? This is a case where he gave her something and said to her one of these expressions.

והכי קא מיבעי ליה הני לישני לקידושי קאמר לה או דילמא למלאכה קאמר לה תיקו :

And this is the dilemma raised before the Sages: These expressions, did he say them to her for the purpose of betrothal, or perhaps he said them to her for the purpose of labor? He might have intended to hire her, withdrawing his previous intention to betroth her. In other words, his statement in conjunction with his giving of an item renders the meaning of the expression less clear than if he had remained silent. The Gemara leaves most of these issues unanswered, and states that the dilemmas shall stand unresolved.

גופא היה מדבר עם האשה על עיסקי גיטה וקידושיה ונתן לה גיטה וקידושיה ולא פירש רבי יוסי אומר דיו ר' יהודה אומר צריך לפרש אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל והוא שעסוקין באותו ענין

§ The Gemara discusses the matter itself: If he was speaking to the woman about matters of her bill of divorce or her betrothal, and he gave her bill of divorce or her betrothal to her and did not clarify his intention, Rabbi Yosei says: This is sufficient for him. Rabbi Yehuda says: He is required to clarify. Rav Yehuda says that Shmuel says: And this is the halakha provided that they were discussing the same issue and had not moved on to a different topic.

וכן אמר ר"א א"ר אושעיא והוא שעסוקין באותו ענין כתנאי רבי אומר והוא שעסוקין באותו ענין ר' אלעזר בר ר"ש אומר אע"פ שאין עסוקין באותו ענין

And likewise, Rabbi Elazar says that Rabbi Oshaya says: And this is the halakha provided that they were discussing the same issue. The Gemara comments: This disagreement is like a dispute between tanna’im on this topic. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi says: And this is the halakha provided that they were discussing the same issue. Rabbi Elazar bar Rabbi Shimon says: This is the halakha despite the fact that they were not discussing the same issue.

ואי לאו דעסוקין באותו ענין מנא ידעה מאי קאמר לה אמר אביי מענין לענין באותו ענין

The Gemara asks: And if they were not discussing the same issue, from where does she know what he is saying to her? They have already changed the topic of conversation, and these expressions on their own are ambiguous. Abaye said: They have not changed to an entirely different topic; rather, they changed from discussing one topic to discussing another topic within the same general topic. In other words, they were no longer speaking directly about divorce or betrothal, but they were still discussing related matters. Therefore, his intention was clear to her when he made his statement.

אמר רב הונא אמר שמואל הלכה כר' יוסי א"ל רב יימר לרב אשי ואלא הא דאמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל כל שאינו יודע בטיב גיטין וקידושין לא יהא לו עסק עמהם אפילו לא שמיע ליה הא דרב הונא אמר שמואל א"ל אין הכי נמי :

Rav Huna says that Shmuel says: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yosei. Rav Yeimar said to Rav Ashi: But if so, with regard to that which Rav Yehuda says that Shmuel says: Anyone who does not know the nature of bills of divorce and betrothals should have no dealings in them, i.e., he may not serve as a judge in cases of this kind lest he permit that which is prohibited, does this principle apply even if that individual did not hear this halakha that Rav Huna says that Shmuel says? Since this type of case is uncommon, should such an individual be considered unfamiliar with the halakhot of bills of divorce and betrothals? Rav Ashi said to him: Yes, it is indeed so; this person is considered to lack the requisite knowledge to deal with these cases. This ruling is an important matter with regard to the halakhot of betrothal, and one who is unaware of it might err.

וכן בגירושין נתן לה גיטה ואמר לה הרי את משולחת הרי את מגורשת הרי את מותרת לכל אדם הרי היא מגורשת : פשיטא נתן לה גיטה ואמר לה לאשתו הרי את בת חורין

The Gemara returns to Shmuel’s statement. And similarly, with regard to divorce: If a husband gave his wife her bill of divorce and said to her: You are hereby sent away, or: You are hereby divorced, or: You are hereby permitted to marry any man, then she is divorced. The Gemara comments: It is obvious that if a husband gave her a bill of divorce and said to his wife: You are hereby a free woman,