Kiddushin 45aקידושין מ״ה א
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45aמ״ה א
1 א

ושוין שמוכרה אלמנה לכהן גדול גרושה וחלוצה לכהן הדיוט האי אלמנה היכי דמי אילימא דקדשה אביה מי מצי מזבין לה הא אין אדם מוכר את בתו לשפחות אחר אישות אלא לאו דקדיש איהי נפשה וקא קרי לה אלמנה

And they agree that he can sell her to a High Priest even if she is a widow, or to a common priest even if she is a divorcée or is a yevama who performed ḥalitza [ḥalutza]. Although such marriages are prohibited, they do take effect. The Gemara analyzes this: What are the circumstances of this widow who can be sold as a maidservant by her father? If we say that her father betrothed her and her husband subsequently died while she was still a minor, is he able to sell her after her betrothal? A person cannot sell his daughter into servitude after he has betrothed her. Rather, isn’t the baraita referring to a case when she betrothed herself as a minor, and yet it calls her a widow, indicating that such a betrothal is effective, contrary to the opinion of Ulla.

2 ב

אמר רב עמרם אמר ר' יצחק הכא בקידושי יעוד ואליבא דר' יוסי בר' יהודה דאמר מעות הראשונות לאו לקידושין ניתנו

Rav Amram said that Rabbi Yitzḥak said: Here it deals with a minor girl widowed from a betrothal of designation, i.e., her father sold her as a Hebrew maidservant, and the master designated her as his wife but died before he married her. And this is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Yehuda, who says: The original money of the sale of the maidservant was not given for the purpose of betrothal. Rather, her betrothal goes into effect when her master relinquishes his rights to have her serve as a Hebrew maidservant. Since this betrothal was not accepted by the father, he is later permitted to sell her as a maidservant again.

3 ג

איתמר מת ונפלה לפני אחיו ליבום אמר רב הונא אמר רב ממאנת למאמרו ואינה ממאנת לזיקתו כיצד עשה בה מאמר צריכה גט וצריכה חליצה וצריכה מיאון

§ It was stated: If a man who betrothed a minor without her father’s consent died, and she happened before his brothers for levirate marriage, Rav Huna says that Rav says: She performs refusal for his levirate betrothal, i.e., if the yavam performed levirate betrothal with her, divorce is effected only by means of refusal in addition to a bill of divorce, but she does not perform refusal for his levirate bond to her. If he did not perform levirate betrothal, she does not require refusal as well as ḥalitza. How so? If he performed levirate betrothal with her, she requires a bill of divorce, and she requires ḥalitza, and she requires refusal.

4 ד

צריכה גט שמא נתרצה האב בקידושי שני צריכה חליצה שמא נתרצה האב בקידושי ראשון צריכה מיאון שמא לא נתרצה האב לא בקידושי ראשון ולא בקידושי שני ויאמרו אין קידושין תופסין באחותה

The Gemara clarifies: She requires a bill of divorce, as perhaps the father desired the betrothal of only the second man. Levirate betrothal is performed in the same manner as standard betrothal, i.e., by giving money. If the father did not desire the first betrothal she is not a yevama, and the second betrothal goes into effect, requiring a bill of divorce to end the betrothal. She requires ḥalitza, as perhaps the father desired the betrothal of the first man, in which case she is a regular yevama, who requires ḥalitza to be released from the yavam. She requires refusal, as perhaps the father did not desire either the betrothal of the first man or the betrothal of the second man. If she receives a bill of divorce and performs ḥalitza, and the second man proceeds to betroth her sister, people will say that the betrothal does not take effect with her sister, as they will think that the first betrothal was fully valid.

5 ה

לא עשה בה מאמר אינה צריכה אלא חליצה בלבד מאי אמרת תיבעי נמי מיאון שמא יאמרו אין קידושין תופסין באחותה הכל יודעים אחות חלוצה דרבנן דאמר ריש לקיש כאן שנה רבי אחות גרושה מדאורייתא אחות חלוצה מדברי סופרים

If he did not perform levirate betrothal with her, she requires only ḥalitza. The Gemara explains: If you say that she should require refusal as well, lest people say that betrothal does not take effect with her sister, that is unnecessary. Everyone knows that a sister of one’s ḥalutza is forbidden by rabbinic law only; therefore, they also know that betrothal with the sister would be effective, and they would not permit the sister to marry others without receiving a bill of divorce. This is as Reish Lakish said with regard to the wording of a mishna (Yevamot 41a): Here Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi incidentally taught that a sister of one’s divorcée is forbidden to him by Torah law, whereas a sister of one’s ḥalutza is forbidden to him by rabbinic law.

6 ו

הנהו בי תרי דהוו קא שתו חמרא תותי ציפי בבבל שקל חד מינייהו כסא דחמרא יהב ליה לחבריה אמר מיקדשא לי ברתיך לברי אמר רבינא אפילו למאן דאמר חיישינן שמא נתרצה האב

§ The Gemara relates: There were these two people that were sitting and drinking wine under poplar trees [tzifei] in Babylonia. One of them took a cup of wine and gave it to his friend. He said: Betroth for me your daughter to my son by receiving this cup of wine. Ravina says: Even according to the one who says that in the case of a minor girl who became betrothed without her father’s consent, we are concerned that perhaps the father desired the betrothal,