Kiddushin 3aקידושין ג׳ א
The William Davidson Talmudתלמוד מהדורת ויליאם דוידסון
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3aג׳ א

התם הא קמשמע לן דדרכיה דאתרוג כירק מה ירק דרכו ליגדל על כל מים ובשעת לקיטתו עישורו אף אתרוג דרכו ליגדל על כל מים ובשעת לקיטתו עישורו

The Gemara explains: There, the mishna teaches us this, that the way an etrog grows is like a vegetable: Just as it is the way of a vegetable to grow by being watered by all water, i.e., in addition to rainwater it requires irrigation, and its tithing is according to when it is harvested, i.e., its tithing is based on when it is collected from the field, so too, it is the way of an etrog to grow by being watered by all water, as it requires more water than rain provides, and its tithing is according to the time when it is harvested. If, for example, a vegetable is collected during a year when poor man’s tithe is given, that tithe is separated from it, even if it formed a bud during the previous year, when second tithe was separated. The same applies to an etrog. Therefore, the mishna specifically uses the term: Way, to allude to this reason.

והא דתנן כוי יש בו דרכים שוה לחיה ויש בו דרכים שוה לבהמה ויש בו דרכים שוה לחיה ולבהמה ויש בו דרכים שאינו שוה לא לחיה ולא לבהמה ניתני דברים ותו הא דתנן זו אחת מן הדרכים ששוו גיטי נשים לשחרורי עבדים ניתני דברים

The Gemara further asks: But concerning that which we learned in a mishna (Bikkurim 2:8): With regard to a koy, an animal whose classification was uncertain, as the Sages were unsure whether it is a domesticated or a non-domesticated animal, there are ways, i.e., halakhot, in which its halakhot correspond to those of a non-domesticated animal and there are ways in which its halakhot correspond to those of a domesticated animal. And there are ways in which its halakhot correspond to those of both a non-domesticated animal and a domesticated animal, and there are ways in which its halakhot correspond to those of neither a non-domesticated animal nor a domesticated animal. Let that mishna teach the term: Matters. And furthermore, with regard to that which we learned in a mishna (Gittin 9a): This is one of the ways in which the halakhot of bills of divorce correspond to those of bills of manumission, let that mishna teach the word: Matters.

אלא כל היכא דאיכא פלוגתא תני דרכים וכל היכא דליכא פלוגתא תני דברים דיקא נמי דקתני סיפא ר"א אומר אתרוג שוה לאילן לכל דבר ש"מ

Rather, the Gemara rejects the previous explanations, as the phraseology is not dependent on the nature of the topic at hand. Instead, anywhere that there is a distinction with regard to an issue the mishna teaches the term: Ways, as there are different ways or possibilities available. And anywhere that there is no distinction it teaches the word: Matters. The Gemara comments: The language of the mishna is also precise in this regard, as it teaches in the latter clause of that mishna that Rabbi Eliezer says: The halakhot of an etrog tree correspond to those of a tree with regard to every matter. This indicates that when no distinctions apply, the mishna will use the term matter. The Gemara concludes: Learn from this clause in the mishna that this explanation is correct.

מניינא דרישא למעוטי מאי מניינא דסיפא למעוטי מאי

§ The Gemara continues to analyze the language of the mishna: With regard to the number in the first clause of the mishna, i.e., a woman is acquired in three ways, this serves to exclude what? The fact that the mishna mentions a number indicates that other modes of acquisition do not apply to betrothal. What mode is excluded? Similarly, the number in the latter clause of the mishna, that a woman acquires herself in two ways, serves to exclude what?

מניינא דרישא למעוטי חופה ולרב הונא דאמר חופה קונה מק"ו למעוטי מאי

The Gemara explains: The number in the first clause serves to exclude a wedding canopy, which does not effect betrothal. The Gemara asks: And according to the opinion of Rav Huna, who said: A wedding canopy acquires a woman, and it alone could be a mode of betrothal, as derived by an a fortiori inference (see 5a), this number serves to exclude what?

למעוטי חליפין ס"ד אמינא הואיל וגמר קיחה קיחה משדה עפרון מה שדה מקניא בחליפין אף אשה נמי מקניא בחליפין קמ"ל

The Gemara answers: The number serves to exclude acquisition through symbolic exchange, i.e., a pro forma act of acquisition effecting the transfer of ownership of an article. Although a woman can be betrothed by means of money or an item of monetary value, she is not betrothed if she is given an item by symbolic exchange. The Gemara explains why this needs to be excluded: It might enter your mind to say that since the Sages derive the acquisition of a woman by verbal analogy between the term expressing taking stated with regard to betrothal from the term expressing taking with regard to the field of Ephron, it can be suggested that just as a field can be acquired through symbolic exchange, so too, a woman can be acquired through symbolic exchange. Therefore, the tanna teaches us that this is not the case.

ואימא הכי נמי חליפין איתנהו בפחות משוה פרוטה ואשה בפחות משוה פרוטה

The Gemara asks: And perhaps one should say that so too, it is possible to betroth a woman by means of symbolic exchange. The Gemara answers: This cannot be the case, as symbolic exchange is effective using an item worth less than the value of one peruta, and with an item worth less than the value of one peruta, a woman