אַרְבַּע עַל אַרְבַּע רוּחוֹת הָעֲרוּגָה וְאַחַת בָּאֶמְצַע שַׁפִּיר אֶלָּא הָכָא מִשּׁוּם נוֹי וְאִי נָמֵי מִשּׁוּם טִרְחָא דְּשַׁמָּעָא הִיא and he was careful to plant four different species along the four sides of the garden bed and one in the middle, so that there would be space between them, it works out well. This would show that Rav was cautious not to plant diverse kinds together. But here, where Rav actually planted each species in its own bed, he did so due to beautification, i.e., to improve the appearance of the garden in front of the study hall. Alternatively, the reason Rav planted this way is due to the trouble that would be caused to the attendant. When his attendant would be sent to fetch a certain type of vegetable from the garden he would not need to search for it, but would know where the different vegetables were planted. Therefore, this does not prove that Rav was concerned about diverse kinds outside of Eretz Yisrael.
מַתְנִי' כׇּל הָעוֹשֶׂה מִצְוָה אַחַת מְטִיבִין לוֹ וּמַאֲרִיכִין לוֹ יָמָיו וְנוֹחֵל אֶת הָאָרֶץ וְכֹל שֶׁאֵינוֹ עוֹשֶׂה מִצְוָה אַחַת אֵין מְטִיבִין לוֹ וְאֵין מַאֲרִיכִין לוֹ יָמָיו וְאֵינוֹ נוֹחֵל אֶת הָאָרֶץ MISHNA: Anyone who performs one mitzva has goodness bestowed upon him, his life is lengthened, and he inherits the land, i.e., life in the World-to-Come. And anyone who does not perform one mitzva does not have goodness bestowed upon him, his life is not lengthened, and he does not inherit the land of the World-to-Come.
גְּמָ' וּרְמִינְהִי אֵלּוּ דְּבָרִים שֶׁאָדָם אוֹכֵל פֵּירוֹתֵיהֶן בָּעוֹלָם הַזֶּה וְהַקֶּרֶן קַיֶּימֶת לוֹ לָעוֹלָם הַבָּא אֵלּוּ הֵן כִּבּוּד אָב וָאֵם וּגְמִילוּת חֲסָדִים וְהַכְנָסַת אוֹרְחִים וַהֲבָאַת שָׁלוֹם בֵּין אָדָם לַחֲבֵירוֹ וְתַלְמוּד תּוֹרָה כְּנֶגֶד כּוּלָּם GEMARA: And the Gemara raises a contradiction from a mishna (Pe’a 1:1): These are the matters that a person engages in and enjoys their profits in this world, and the principal reward remains for him for the World-to-Come, and they are: Honoring one’s father and mother, acts of loving kindness, hospitality toward guests, and bringing peace between one person and another; and Torah study is equal to all of them. This indicates that one is rewarded in this world only for fulfilling these mitzvot, but not for fulfilling all mitzvot.
אָמַר רַב יְהוּדָה הָכִי קָאָמַר כׇּל הָעוֹשֶׂה מִצְוָה אַחַת יְתֵירָה עַל זְכִיּוֹתָיו מְטִיבִים לוֹ וְדוֹמֶה כְּמִי שֶׁמְּקַיֵּים כׇּל הַתּוֹרָה כּוּלָּהּ מִכְּלָל דְּהָנָךְ אֲפִילּוּ בַּחֲדָא נָמֵי אָמַר רַב שְׁמַעְיָה לוֹמַר שֶׁאִם הָיְתָה שְׁקוּלָה מַכְרַעַת Rav Yehuda said that this is what the mishna is saying: Anyone who performs one mitzva in addition to his other merits, and thereby tips the scale of all his deeds to the side of righteousness, has goodness bestowed upon him and is compared to one who fulfills the entire Torah. The Gemara asks: One can learn by inference from here that with regard to those mitzvot listed in the mishna in Pe’a one is rewarded even for one of them, notwithstanding the fact that overall his sins are more numerous. Rav Shemaya said: The other mishna serves to say that if one’s sins and merits were of equal balance, i.e., he has accrued an equal amount of merit and sin, one of these mitzvot tilts the scale in his favor.
וְכׇל הָעוֹשֶׂה מִצְוָה אַחַת יְתֵירָה עַל זְכִיּוֹתָיו מְטִיבִין לוֹ וּרְמִינְהוּ כֹּל שֶׁזְּכִיּוֹתָיו מְרוּבִּין מֵעֲוֹנוֹתָיו מְרִיעִין לוֹ וְדוֹמֶה כְּמִי שֶׁשָּׂרַף כׇּל הַתּוֹרָה כּוּלָּהּ וְלֹא שִׁיֵּיר מִמֶּנָּה אֲפִילּוּ אוֹת אַחַת וְכֹל שֶׁעֲוֹנוֹתָיו מְרוּבִּין מִזְּכִיּוֹתָיו מְטִיבִין לוֹ וְדוֹמֶה כְּמִי שֶׁקִּיֵּים כׇּל הַתּוֹרָה כּוּלָּהּ וְלֹא חִיסֵּר אוֹת אַחַת מִמֶּנָּה The Gemara further asks: And does anyone who performs one mitzva in addition to his other merits have goodness bestowed upon him in this world? The Gemara raises a contradiction from a baraita: Anyone whose merits are greater than his sins is punished with suffering in order to cleanse his sins in this world and enable him to merit full reward for his mitzvot in the World-to-Come. And due to this punishment he appears to observers like one who burned the entire Torah without leaving even one letter remaining of it. Conversely, anyone whose sins are greater than his merits has goodness bestowed upon him in this world, and he appears like one who has fulfilled the entire Torah without lacking the fulfillment of even one letter of it.
אָמַר אַבָּיֵי מַתְנִיתִין דְּעָבְדִין לֵיהּ יוֹם טָב וָיוֹם בִּישׁ רָבָא אָמַר הָא מַנִּי רַבִּי יַעֲקֹב הִיא דְּאָמַר שְׂכַר מִצְוָה בְּהַאי עָלְמָא לֵיכָּא Abaye said: When the mishna said that he is rewarded, it means that he has one good day and one bad day. He is rewarded for the mitzvot he performs; nevertheless, occasionally he also has bad days which cleanse him of his sins, and the baraita is referring to those days. Rava said that the mishna and this baraita represent two different opinions. In accordance with whose opinion is this baraita? It is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Ya’akov, who says: There is no reward for performance of a mitzva in this world, as one is rewarded for mitzvot only World-to-Come.
דְּתַנְיָא רַבִּי יַעֲקֹב אוֹמֵר אֵין לָךְ כׇּל מִצְוָה וּמִצְוָה שֶׁכְּתוּבָה בַּתּוֹרָה שֶׁמַּתַּן שְׂכָרָהּ בְּצִדָּהּ שֶׁאֵין תְּחִיַּית הַמֵּתִים תְּלוּיָה בָּהּ בְּכִיבּוּד אָב וָאֵם כְּתִיב לְמַעַן יַאֲרִיכֻן יָמֶיךָ וּלְמַעַן יִיטַב לָךְ בְּשִׁילּוּחַ הַקֵּן כְּתִיב לְמַעַן יִיטַב לָךְ וְהַאֲרַכְתָּ יָמִים As it is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Ya’akov says: There is not a single mitzva written in the Torah whose reward is stated alongside it, which is not dependent on the resurrection of the dead, i.e., the reward is actually bestowed in the World-to-Come, after the resurrection of the dead. How so? With regard to honoring one’s father and mother it is written: “That your days may be long, and that it may go well with you” (Deuteronomy 5:16). With regard to the dispatch of the mother bird from the nest it is written: “That it may be well with you, and that you may prolong your days” (Deuteronomy 22:7).
הֲרֵי שֶׁאָמַר לוֹ אָבִיו עֲלֵה לַבִּירָה וְהָבֵא לִי גּוֹזָלוֹת וְעָלָה לַבִּירָה וְשִׁלַּח אֶת הָאֵם וְנָטַל אֶת הַבָּנִים וּבַחֲזִירָתוֹ נָפַל וָמֵת הֵיכָן טוֹבַת יָמָיו שֶׁל זֶה וְהֵיכָן אֲרִיכוּת יָמָיו שֶׁל זֶה אֶלָּא לְמַעַן יִיטַב לָךְ לְעוֹלָם שֶׁכּוּלּוֹ טוֹב וּלְמַעַן יַאֲרִיכֻן יָמֶיךָ לְעוֹלָם שֶׁכּוּלּוֹ אָרוֹךְ Despite this, it occurred that there was one whose father said to him: Climb to the top of the building and fetch me chicks. And he climbed to the top of the building and dispatched the mother bird and took the young, thereby simultaneously fulfilling the mitzva to dispatch the mother bird from the nest and the mitzva to honor one’s parents, but upon his return he fell and died. Where is the goodness of the days of this one, and where is the length of days of this one? Rather, the verse “that it may be well with you” means in the world where all is well, and “that your days may be long” is referring to the world that is entirely long.
וְדִלְמָא לָאו הָכִי הֲוָה רַבִּי יַעֲקֹב מַעֲשֶׂה חֲזָא וְדִלְמָא מְהַרְהֵר בַּעֲבֵירָה הֲוָה מַחְשָׁבָה רָעָה אֵין הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מְצָרְפָהּ לְמַעֲשֶׂה The Gemara asks: But perhaps this incident never occurred? It is possible that everyone who performs these mitzvot is rewarded in this world, and the situation described by Rabbi Ya’akov never happened. The Gemara answers: Rabbi Ya’akov himself saw an incident of this kind. The Gemara asks: But perhaps that man was contemplating sin at the time, and he was punished for his thoughts? The Gemara answers that there is a principle that the Holy One, Blessed be He, does not link a bad thought to an action, i.e., one is not punished for thoughts alone.
וְדִלְמָא מְהַרְהֵר בַּעֲבוֹדָה זָרָה הֲוָה וּכְתִיב לְמַעַן תְּפֹשׂ אֶת בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּלִבָּם אִיהוּ נָמֵי הָכִי קָאָמַר אִי סָלְקָא דַעְתָּךְ שְׂכַר מִצְוָה בְּהַאי עָלְמָא אַמַּאי לָא אַגִּין מִצְוֹת עֲלֵיהּ כִּי הֵיכִי דְּלָא לֵיתֵי לִידֵי הִרְהוּר The Gemara asks: But perhaps he was contemplating idol worship at the time, and it is written with regard to idol worship: “So I may take the house of Israel in their own heart” (Ezekiel 14:5), which indicates that one is punished for idolatrous thoughts. The Gemara answers: Rabbi Ya’akov was saying this as well: If it enters your mind that there is reward for performing a mitzva in this world, why didn’t these mitzvot protect him so that he should not come to contemplate idol worship? Since that man was not protected from thoughts of idol worship at the time, this indicates that the performance of mitzvot does not entitle one to merit reward in this world.
וְהָא אָמַר רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר שְׁלוּחֵי מִצְוָה אֵין נִזּוֹקִין הָתָם בַּהֲלִיכָתָן שָׁאנֵי The Gemara asks: But didn’t Rabbi Elazar say that those on the path to perform a mitzva are not susceptible to harm? How is it possible that this individual, who was sent by his father to perform a mitzva, could have died? The Gemara answers: There, Rabbi Elazar is referring those on their way to perform a mitzva, which is different, as one is not susceptible to harm when he is on his way to fulfill a mitzva. In this case the individual was harmed on his return, and one is not afforded protection after having performed a mitzva.
וְהָא אָמַר רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר שְׁלוּחֵי מִצְוָה אֵינָן נִזּוֹקִין לֹא בַּהֲלִיכָתָן וְלֹא בַּחֲזִירָתָן סוּלָּם רָעוּעַ הֲוָה דִּקְבִיעַ הֶיזֵּיקָא וְכׇל הֵיכָא דִּקְבִיעַ הֶיזֵּיקָא לָא סָמְכִינַן אַנִּיסָּא דִּכְתִיב וַיֹּאמֶר שְׁמוּאֵל אֵיךְ אֵלֵךְ וְשָׁמַע שָׁאוּל וַהֲרָגָנִי The Gemara asks: But didn’t Rabbi Elazar say that those on the path to perform a mitzva are not susceptible to harm, neither when they are on their way to perform the mitzva nor when they are returning from performing the mitzva? The Gemara answers: In that case it was a rickety ladder, and therefore the danger was established; and anywhere that the danger is established one may not rely on a miracle, as it is written with regard to God’s command to Samuel to anoint David as king in place of Saul: “And Samuel said: How will I go, and Saul will hear and kill me; and God said: Take in your hand a calf and say: I have come to sacrifice an offering to God” (I Samuel 16:2). Although God Himself issued the command, there was concern with regard to the established dangers.
אָמַר רַב יוֹסֵף אִילְמָלֵי דַּרְשֵׁיהּ אַחֵר לְהַאי קְרָא כְּרַבִּי יַעֲקֹב בַּר בְּרַתֵּיה לָא חֲטָא וְאַחֵר מַאי הוּא אִיכָּא דְּאָמְרִי כִּי הַאי גַוְונָא חֲזָא Rav Yosef said: Had Aḥer, literally Other, the appellation of the former Sage Elisha ben Avuya, interpreted this aforementioned verse: “That it may go well with you” (Deuteronomy 5:16), homiletically, as referring to the World-to-Come, as did Rabbi Ya’akov, son of his daughter, he would not have sinned. The Gemara asks: And what caused Aḥer to sin? There are those who say he saw a case like this, where a son went up to the roof on his father’s command, dispatched the mother bird, and then died. It was witnessing this episode that led Elisha ben Avuya astray.
וְאִיכָּא דְּאָמְרִי לִישָּׁנָא דְּחוּצְפִּית הַמְתוּרְגְּמָן חֲזָא דַּהֲוָה גָּרַיר לֵיהּ דָּבָר אַחֵר אֲמַר פֶּה שֶׁהֵפִיק מַרְגָּלִיּוֹת יְלַחֵךְ עָפָר נְפַק חֲטָא And there are those who say that he saw the tongue of Ḥutzpit the disseminator after the latter was executed by the government, thrown in the street, and dragged along by something else, a euphemism for a pig. He said: Shall a mouth that produced pearls lap up dirt? For this reason he went out and sinned.
רָמֵי רַב טוֹבִי בַּר רַב קִיסְנָא לְרָבָא תְּנַן כׇּל הָעוֹשֶׂה מִצְוָה אַחַת מְטִיבִין לוֹ עָשָׂה אִין לֹא עָשָׂה לָא וּרְמִינְהִי יָשַׁב וְלֹא עָבַר עֲבֵירָה נוֹתְנִים לוֹ שָׂכָר כְּעוֹשֶׂה מִצְוָה אֲמַר לֵיהּ הָתָם כְּגוֹן שֶׁבָּא דְּבַר עֲבֵירָה לְיָדוֹ וְנִיצּוֹל הֵימֶנָּה § Rav Tuvi bar Rav Kisna raises a contradiction to Rava and asked: We learned in the mishna that anyone who performs one mitzva has goodness bestowed upon him. This indicates that if one actually performed the mitzva, yes, he is rewarded, but if he did not perform the mitzva, no, he does not receive a reward. He raises a contradiction based on the following statement: If one sits and does not transgress, he receives a reward as one who performs a mitzva, despite the fact that he does not actually perform a mitzva. Rava said to him: There, when it is referring to one who sits and does not transgress, it does not mean that he was merely sitting; rather, it is speaking of a case where an opportunity to commit a sinful act presents itself to him and he is saved from it.
כִּי הָא דְּרַבִּי חֲנִינָא בַּר פַּפֵּי תְּבַעְתֵּיהּ הָהִיא מַטְרוֹנִיתָא אֲמַר מִלְּתָא וּמַלִּי נַפְשֵׁיהּ שִׁיחְנָא וְכִיבָא עֲבַדָה הִיא מִילְּתָא וְאִיתַּסִּי עֲרַק טְשָׁא בְּהָהוּא בֵּי בָנֵי דְּכִי הֲווֹ עָיְילִין בִּתְרֵין אֲפִילּוּ בִּימָמָא הֲווֹ מִיתַּזְּקִי לִמְחַר אֲמַרוּ לֵיהּ רַבָּנַן מַאן נַטְרָךְ אֲמַר לְהוּ שְׁנֵי This is like an incident involving Rabbi Ḥanina bar Pappi, who was enticed by a certain noblewoman [matronita] to engage in sexual intercourse with her. He said a formula of an incantation and was covered with boils and scabs so as to render himself unattractive to her. She performed an act of magic and he was healed. He fled and hid in a bathhouse that was so dangerous, due to the demons that frequented the place, that when two people entered together even during the day they would be harmed. The next day the Sages said to him: Who protected you in that dangerous place? Rabbi Ḥanina bar Pappi said to them: There were angels who appeared like two