Ketubot 91bכתובות צ״א ב
The William Davidson Talmudתלמוד מהדורת ויליאם דוידסון
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91bצ״א ב

זכו בהן יורשין כך מועטין ונתרבו זכו בהן יורשין

the heirs acquired rights to the mothers’ marriage contracts due to the value of the estate when their father died, so too, in a case where the properties were few and the value subsequently appreciated, the heirs have acquired rights to divide the entire estate equally, due to the value of the estate when their father died.

(סימן אלף ומאה מצוה בכתובה יעקב זקף שדותיו בדברים עסיקין):

§ This is a mnemonic device for the following halakhot, which are connected in one way or another to the problem being dealt with in the mishna: One thousand, and one hundred, mitzva, in the marriage contract, Ya’akov, set up, his fields, with words, disputants.

ההוא גברא דהוו מסקי ביה אלפא זוזי הוו ליה תרי אפדני זבינהו חדא בחמש מאה וחדא בחמש מאה אתא בעל חוב טרפא לחדא מינייהו הדר קטריף לאידך

There was a certain man who had a creditor with a claim of one thousand dinars against him. He had two mansions [appedanei]. He sold them, one for five hundred and the other one also for five hundred. The creditor came and repossessed one of them from the purchaser, as the repayment of part of his debt. He subsequently sought to repossess the other mansion as well, in payment for the remainder of his debt.

שקל אלפא זוזי וקא אזיל לגביה א"ל אי שויא לך אלפא זוזי לחיי ואי לא שקיל אלפא זוזי ואיסתלק

The purchaser took one thousand dinars and went to the creditor. He said to him: If the first mansion that you repossessed is worth one thousand dinars to you, very well, let it be yours in exchange for the entire sum that is owed to you, and if not, take these one thousand dinars and abrogate your rights to both of the mansions, leaving them both in my possession.

סבר רמי בר חמא למימר היינו מתני' אם אמרו יתומים הרי אנו מעלין על נכסי אבינו יפה דינר

Rami bar Ḥama thought to say that this case is identical to that which is taught in the mishna: If the orphans say: We inflate the value of our father’s property by a dinar, the court does not listen to them. This appears to be the case here as well, and the value of the mansion should not be assessed at higher than its market value.

א"ל רבא מי דמי התם אית להו פסידא ליתמי הכא מי אית ליה פסידא אלפא יהיב ואלפא שקיל

Rava said to him: Are the two cases comparable? There, in the mishna, the other orphans whose mother’s marriage contract was of lesser value will suffer a financial loss if the property is assessed at a value greater than it is actually worth. Here, in the case of the creditor, does he incur a loss? He lent one thousand dinars and took one thousand dinars; consequently, it would be cruel on his part to refuse to take the money and to insist on taking the second mansion from the purchaser.

וטירפא בכמה כתבינן

The Gemara asks: If the creditor decided to hold on to the first mansion and to forgive the remainder of the debt, what amount is written in the document of authorization to repossess liened property, through which the purchaser will claim compensation from the seller? The purchaser had paid only five hundred dinars for the mansion that was repossessed, but the repossession of that mansion earned the seller one thousand dinars, as his entire debt was paid off.

רבינא אמר באלפא רב עוירא אמר בחמש מאה והלכתא בחמש מאה

Ravina said: It is written for one thousand dinars. Rav Avira said: It is written for five hundred dinars; the fact that the creditor forgave the full amount of the debt in exchange for this house was his own personal decision and does not reflect an increase in the property value of the house. The Gemara concludes: The halakha is that it is written for five hundred dinars.

ההוא גברא דהוו מסקי ביה מאה זוזי הוו ליה תרי קטיני דארעא חד זבינהו בחמשין וחד בחמשין אתא בעל חוב טרפא לחד מינייהו הדר אתא וקטריף לאידך

It is also related that there was a certain man who had a creditor with a claim of one hundred dinars against him. He had two small tracts of land. He sold one for fifty and he also sold the other one for fifty. The creditor came and repossessed one of them from the purchaser as the collection of part of his debt. He subsequently came, seeking to repossess the other tract of land as well, as payment for the rest of the debt owed to him.

שקל ק' זוזי וקאזיל לגביה וא"ל אי שויא לך ק' זוזי לחיי ואי לא שקול ק' זוזי ואיסתלק

The purchaser took one hundred dinars and went to the creditor. He said to him: If this tract is worth one hundred dinars to you, very well, and if not, take one hundred dinars and abrogate your rights to both of the tracts, leaving them both in my possession.

סבר רב יוסף למימר היינו מתני' אם אמרו יתומים כו' א"ל אביי מי דמי התם אית להו פסידא ליתמי הכא מאי פסידא אית ליה מאה יהיב מאה שקיל

Rav Yosef thought to say that this case is identical to that which is taught in the mishna, whereby if the orphans say: We inflate the value of our father’s property by a dinar, the court does not listen to them. Abaye said to him: Are the two cases comparable? There, in the mishna, the other orphans suffer a financial loss if the property is assessed at a value greater than it is actually worth; here, what loss does the creditor incur? He lent one hundred dinars and took one hundred dinars. It would be cruel on his part to refuse to take the money and to insist on taking the land from the purchaser.

וטירפא בכמה כתבינן רבינא אמר במאה רב עוירא אמר בחמשין והלכתא בחמשין

The Gemara asks: If the creditor decided to hold on to the first mansion and to forgive the remainder of the debt, what amount is written in the document of authorization to repossess liened property, through which the purchaser will claim compensation from the seller? Ravina said that it is written for one hundred. Rav Avira said it is written for fifty. The Gemara concludes: The halakha is that it is written for fifty dinars.

ההוא גברא דהוו מסקי ביה מאה זוזי שכיב שבק קטינא דארעא דהוה שויא חמשין זוזי אתא בעל חוב וקטריף ליה אזול יתמי יהבו ליה חמשין זוזי הדר קטריף לה

The Gemara relates that there was a certain man who had a creditor with a claim of one hundred dinars against him. He died and left a small tract of land worth fifty dinars. The creditor came and repossessed it. The orphans came and gave him fifty dinars and redeemed the property from him. He returned and repossessed it again in order to collect the remainder of the debt.

אתו לקמיה דאביי אמר להן מצוה על היתומים לפרוע חוב אביהן הני קמאי מצוה עבדיתו השתא כי טריף בדין קטריף

They came before Abaye to complain. He said to them: It is a mitzva for orphans to settle their father’s debt. Consequently, with the money you paid the creditor initially, you performed a mitzva, as you partially settled a debt your father owed. However, this payment did not cancel the lien on the property, and so now, when he repossesses the land, he is repossesses it lawfully.

ולא אמרן דלא אמרו ליה הני חמשין זוזי דמי דארעא קטינא אבל אמרו ליה הני חמשין זוזי דמי ארעא קטינא סלוקי סלקוה

The Gemara notes: And we said this ruling only in a case where the orphans did not say to the creditor: These fifty dinars are payment for the small tract of land. However, if they said to him: These fifty dinars are payment for the small tract of land, they have successfully removed him from the land and he has no further claim to it.

ההוא גברא דזבנה לכתובתה דאימיה בטובת הנאה וא"ל אי אתיא אם ומערערא לא מפצינא לך

§ The Gemara relates that there was a certain man who sold the rights to his mother’s marriage contract for a certain financial advantage, i.e., he received a certain sum on the condition that if he would inherit his mother’s marriage contract, which would occur if his mother’s husband would die prior to his mother, the purchaser would obtain the right to collect the money. And he told the purchaser: If my mother comes and objects to the sale, I will not reimburse you for your purchase.

שכיבא אימיה ולא איערערא ואתא איהו וקא מערער סבר רמי בר חמא למימר איהו במקום אימיה קאי א"ל רבא נהי דאחריות דידה לא קביל עליה אחריות דידיה מי לא קביל

His mother died after her husband died, and had not objected to the sale. He, however, came and contested the sale. Rami bar Ḥama thought to say that he stands in his mother’s place and since he is her proxy, he has the right to object to the sale. Rava said to him: Granted that he did not take upon himself to guarantee the sale against his mother’s objections, but did he not take upon himself to guarantee it against his own objections? When he sold the right to collect the marriage contract, he most certainly guaranteed that he would not renege on the sale.

אמר רמי בר חמא ראובן שמכר שדה לשמעון שלא באחריות ואתא שמעון ומכרה לראובן באחריות

The Gemara relates a similar discussion. Rami bar Ḥama said: If Reuven sold a field to Shimon without a guarantee, and Shimon came and sold the field back to Reuven, but he sold it with a guarantee that if the field is repossessed, he will compensate the buyer for his loss,