אי פיקח הוא מייתי לה לידי שבועה דאורייתא יהיב לה כתובתה באפי חד סהדא וסמיך סהדא קמא אסהדא בתרא ומוקים להו להנך קמאי במלוה
If the husband is perspicacious, he can induce her to become obligated to take an oath by Torah law even in a case where only one witness saw the payment of the marriage contract, as follows: He now gives her the payment of her entire marriage contract in the presence of one witness, and joins the first witness to the last witness, so that there are now two witnesses to the payment of the entire marriage contract. And then, he establishes this first payment, about which the first witness had testified, as a loan, and claims payment of that sum from her, supported by the testimony of the first witness. With regard to this claim, her oath would serve the purpose of exempting her from payment, and it is not connected with a lien on land. Therefore, the witness can obligate her in an oath by Torah law.
מתקיף לה רב שישא בריה דרב אידי היאך סמיך סהדא קמא אסהדא בתרא אלא אמר רב שישא בריה דרב אידי יהיב לה כתובתה באפי סהדא קמא וסהדא בתרא ומוקים לה להנך קמאי בהלואה
Rav Sheisha, son of Rav Idi, objects to this: How can he join the first witness to the last witness when their testimonies do not refer to the same action? Rather, Rav Sheisha, son of Rav Idi, said: He now gives her the payment of her entire marriage contract in the presence of both the first witness and the last witness. And then, he establishes this first payment, about which the first witness had testified, as a loan, and claims payment of that sum from her, supported by the testimony of the first witness.
מתקיף לה רב אשי אכתי יכולה למימר ב' כתובות הואי אלא אמר רב אשי הוא דמודע להו:
Rav Ashi objects to this: The woman can still say: I had two marriage contracts. She can claim that he wrote two marriage contracts and she collected the payments at two separate points in time, but there was never a loan. Rather, Rav Ashi said: It is possible for him to obligate her to take an oath if he informs the two witnesseses that on this occasion he is paying her for the one marriage contract that he wrote. She is then unable to claim that it was a different marriage contract, and he can compel her to take an oath by Torah law about the first payment, which is now established as a loan.
מנכסים משועבדים: תנן התם וכן היתומים לא יפרעו אלא בשבועה
§ The mishna teaches that if a woman comes to claim her marriage contract from liened property that had been sold to a third party, she must first take an oath. We learned in a mishna there (Shevuot 45a): And similarly, orphans can collect payment only by means of an oath.
ממאן אילימא מלוה השתא אביהן שקיל בלא שבועה ואינהו בשבועה אלא ה"ק וכן היתומים מן היתומים לא יפרעו אלא בשבועה
The Gemara asks: From whom can the orphans collect payment only by means of an oath? If we say that they can collect payment only with an oath from one who borrowed money from their father, then it is difficult to understand how this can be so. Now, can it be that their father, the lender, had the right to take payment from the borrower without an oath by relying on the document, and they, the orphans, with regard to whom the Sages were lenient, can claim the loan only by means of an oath? Rather, this is what the mishna is saying: And similarly, the orphans of the lender who come to collect payment from the orphans of the borrower can collect only by means of an oath.
א"ר זריקא אמר רב יהודה לא שנו אלא שאמרו יתומים אמר לנו אבא לויתי ופרעתי אבל אמרו אמר לנו אבא לא לויתי אף בשבועה לא יפרעו
Rav Zerika said that Rav Yehuda said: It was taught that those who take an oath can collect a debt from orphans only if the borrower’s orphans said: Our father said to us: I borrowed and repaid. However, if the orphans said: Our father said to us: I did not borrow, then they may not collect from the orphans even with an oath.
מתקיף לה רבא אדרבה כל האומר לא לויתי כאומר לא פרעתי דמי
Rava objects to this: On the contrary, there is a principle in the halakhot of claims that anyone who says: I did not borrow is considered like one who says: I did not repay. Therefore, when there is evidence that he did borrow, he must pay the entire amount without the lender having to take an oath.
אלא אי אתמר הכי אתמר א"ר זריקא אמר רב יהודה לא שנו אלא שאמרו יתומים אמר לנו אבא לויתי ופרעתי אבל אמרו אמר לנו אבא לא לויתי נפרעין שלא בשבועה שכל האומר לא לויתי כאומר לא פרעתי דמי:
Rather, the Gemara emends the above statement: If it was stated, it was stated like this: Rav Zerika said that Rav Yehuda said: They taught this halakha only if the orphans said: Our father said to us: I borrowed and repaid. However, if they said: Our father said to us: I did not borrow, those who collect debts from them can collect even without an oath, for anyone who says: I did not borrow is considered like one who says: I did not repay.
ונפרעת שלא בפניו לא תפרע אלא בשבועה: אמר רב אחא שר הבירה מעשה בא לפני רבי יצחק באנטוכיא ואמר לא שנו אלא לכתובת אשה משום חינא אבל בעל חוב לא
§ The mishna teaches that one who comes to collect her marriage contract when not in her husband’s presence can collect it only by means of an oath. Rav Aḥa Sar HaBira said: An incident came before Rabbi Yitzḥak in Antioch, and he said: They taught this halakha only with regard to the wife’s marriage contract; she may collect her marriage contract in her husband’s absence, because the Sages wanted men to find favor in the eyes of women. In order to ensure that women would want to marry, the Sages instituted decrees with regard to a marriage contract that are for the woman’s benefit. However, a creditor does not have the right to collect his debt even with an oath if the borrower is absent, in case he has already been paid.
ורבא אמר רב נחמן אפי' בעל חוב שלא יהא כל אחד ואחד נוטל מעותיו של חברו והולך ויושב במדינת הים ואתה נועל דלת בפני לווין:
And Rava said that Rav Naḥman said: Even a creditor can collect payment with an oath in the borrower’s absence, so that each and every person will not take his friend’s money by means of a loan and go and reside in a country overseas to prevent the lender from collecting the money from his property. And if that were to occur, you would be locking the door in the face of borrowers, as no one would be willing to lend them money.
ר"ש אומר כל זמן שתובעת כתובתה וכו': ר"ש אהייא אמר ר' ירמיה אהא ונפרעת שלא בפניו לא תפרע אלא בשבועה לא שנא למזוני ולא שנא לכתובה ואתא ר' שמעון למימר כל זמן שתובעת כתובתה יורשיה משביעין אותה
§ The mishna teaches: Rabbi Shimon says: Whenever she claims her marriage contract, the heirs administer an oath to her. The Gemara asks: To which statement in the mishna is Rabbi Shimon referring? Rabbi Yirmeya said: He is referring to this statement: And one who comes to collect her marriage contract when not in her husband’s presence can collect it only by means of an oath. This implies that the halakha is no different if she comes to claim money from the orphans for sustenance, and it is no different if she demands payment for her marriage contract. And Rabbi Shimon comes to say that whenever she claims her marriage contract the heirs can administer an oath to her that she has not taken anything of theirs.