מֵיתִיבִי מְבָרְכִין לִבְתוּלָה שִׁבְעָה וּלְאַלְמָנָה יוֹם אֶחָד מַאי לָאו אֲפִילּוּ אַלְמָנָה שֶׁנִּשֵּׂאת לְבָחוּר לֹא לְאַלְמוֹן אֲבָל לְבָחוּר מַאי שִׁבְעָה אִי הָכִי לִיתְנֵי מְבָרְכִין לִבְתוּלָה שִׁבְעָה וּלְאַלְמָנָה שֶׁנִּשֵּׂאת לְבָחוּר שִׁבְעָה וּלְאַלְמָנָה יוֹם אֶחָד The Gemara raises an objection from a baraita: One recites a benediction for a virgin who marries for seven days and for a widow who marries for one day. What, is it not even in the case of a widow who is married to a bachelor, that one recites the benediction for one day? The Gemara answers: No, it is only in the case of a widow who is married to a widower that the benediction is recited for one day. The Gemara asks: However, one may then infer that in the case of a widow who is married to a bachelor, what is the halakha? The blessing is recited seven days? If so, let the tanna teach the baraita: One recites a benediction for a virgin who marries for seven days, and for a widow who marries a bachelor seven days, and for a widow marrying a widower for one day. Why was the middle case omitted?
מִילְּתָא פְּסִיקְתָּא קָתָנֵי דְּלֵיכָּא בְּתוּלָה דְּבָצְרָה מִשִּׁבְעָה וְלֵיכָּא אַלְמָנָה דְּבָצְרָה מִיּוֹם אֶחָד Although the tanna could have included that case in the baraita, he taught categorical matters. He preferred to avoid entering into detail, as there is no virgin for whom the benediction is recited fewer than seven days, and there is no widow for whom the benediction is recited for less than one day. However, there are circumstances where even for a widow the benediction is recited for more than one day.
גּוּפָא אָמַר רַב נַחְמָן אָמַר לִי הוּנָא בַּר נָתָן תָּנָא מִנַּיִן לְבִרְכַּת חֲתָנִים בַּעֲשָׂרָה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וַיִּקַּח עֲשָׂרָה אֲנָשִׁים מִזִּקְנֵי הָעִיר וַיֹּאמֶר שְׁבוּ פֹה וְרַבִּי אֲבָהוּ אָמַר מֵהָכָא בְּמַקְהֵלוֹת בָּרְכוּ אֱלֹהִים ה׳ מִמְּקוֹר יִשְׂרָאֵל § Apropos the source for the benediction of the grooms, the Gemara discusses the matter itself. Rav Naḥman said: Huna bar Natan said to me that it was taught: From where is it derived that the benediction of the grooms is recited in a quorum of ten men? It is as it is stated: “And he took ten men of the Elders of the city and said: Sit you here, and they sat” (Ruth 4:2). And Rabbi Abbahu said that the source is from here: “In assemblies [mak’helot], bless God, the Lord, from the source of Israel” (Psalms 68:27). This verse indicates that a congregation [kahal], which contains at least ten men, blesses God when reciting a benediction related to the source of Israel, i.e., conjugal relations, which will lead to the birth of Jewish children.
וְרַב נַחְמָן בְּהַאי קְרָא דְּרַבִּי אֲבָהוּ מַאי דָּרֵישׁ בֵּיהּ מִיבְּעֵי לֵיהּ לְכִדְתַנְיָא הָיָה רַבִּי מֵאִיר אוֹמֵר מִנַּיִן שֶׁאֲפִילּוּ עוּבָּרִים שֶׁבִּמְעֵי אִמָּן אָמְרוּ שִׁירָה עַל הַיָּם שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר בְּמַקְהֵלוֹת בָּרְכוּ אֱלֹהִים ה׳ מִמְּקוֹר יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאִידַּךְ אִם כֵּן לֵימָא קְרָא מִבֶּטֶן מַאי מִמְּקוֹר עַל עִסְקֵי מְקוֹר And what does Rav Naḥman derive from this verse from which Rabbi Abbahu derived that halakha? He requires the verse to derive that which is taught in a baraita: Rabbi Meir would say: From where is it derived that even fetuses in their mother’s womb recited the song at the Red Sea? It is as it is stated in the chapter of Psalms that describes the exodus from Egypt: “In assemblies, bless God, the Lord, from the source of Israel.” Even those fetuses that were still in the source, i.e., the womb, joined the assemblies in blessing God. And the other Sage, Rabbi Abbahu says: If that is the meaning, let the verse say: From the belly of Israel. What is the meaning of the term “source”? Clearly, it is referring to matters related to the source of Israel, i.e., the benediction of the grooms, which must be recited in a congregation, a quorum of ten.
וְרַבִּי אֲבָהוּ בְּהַאי קְרָא דְּרַב נַחְמָן מַאי דָּרֵישׁ בֵּיהּ הָהוּא מִיבְּעֵי לֵיהּ לְמִידְרַשׁ עַמּוֹנִי וְלֹא עַמּוֹנִית מוֹאָבִי וְלֹא מוֹאָבִית דְּאִי סָלְקָא דַעְתָּךְ לִבְרָכָה לָא סַגִּיא דְּלָאו זְקֵנִים And what does Rabbi Abbahu derive from this verse from which Rav Naḥman derived his halakha? He requires the verse stating that Boaz assembled ten men in order to teach that the Torah prohibition with regard to marrying members of the nations of Ammon and Moab is limited to a male Ammonite and not a female Ammonite, and to a male Moabite and not a female Moabite, as, if it would enter your mind that Boaz gathered the men only to recite a benediction, would it not have been sufficient if they were not Elders? From the fact that he convened a quorum of Elders, apparently it was to engage in halakhic discourse and to issue a halakhic ruling.
וְאִידַּךְ אִי סָלְקָא דַּעְתָּךְ לְמִידְרַשׁ לָא סַגִּיא דְּלָאו עֲשָׂרָה אִין לְפַרְסוֹמֵי מִילְּתָא וּכְדַאֲמַר לֵיהּ שְׁמוּאֵל לְרַב חָנָא בַּגְדָּתָאָה פּוֹק וְאַיְיתִי לִי בֵּי עַשְׂרָה וְאֵימָא לָךְ בְּאַנְפַּיְיהוּ הַמְזַכֶּה לְעוּבָּר קָנָה וְהִלְכְתָא הַמְזַכֶּה לְעוּבָּר לֹא קָנָה And the other Sage, Rav Naḥman, would reject that proof. If it would enter your mind that he gathered the men in order to teach a halakha, would it not have been sufficient if they were not ten? The Gemara answers: Yes, in fact a quorum of ten is not necessary to issue a halakhic ruling. Nevertheless, Boaz convened ten Elders to publicize the matter, as Shmuel said to Rav Ḥana of Baghdad: Go and bring me an assembly of ten men and I will say to you before them a halakha that I seek to disseminate: With regard to one who transfers ownership of an object to a fetus, the fetus acquires it, although it has not yet entered the world. Boaz too assembled ten Elders to publicize the matter. Apropos the halakha that Shmuel publicized, the Gemara rules: And the halakha is: With regard to one who transfers ownership of an object to a fetus, the fetus does not acquire it.
תָּנוּ רַבָּנַן מְבָרְכִין בִּרְכַּת חֲתָנִים בְּבֵית חֲתָנִים רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר אַף בְּבֵית הָאֵרוּסִין מְבָרְכִין אוֹתָהּ The Sages taught in a baraita: One recites the benediction of the grooms in the house of the grooms, when the bride enters into the wedding canopy. Rabbi Yehuda said: One recites it even in the house of the betrothal, at the time of the betrothal.
אָמַר אַבָּיֵי וּבִיהוּדָה שָׁנוּ מִפְּנֵי שֶׁמִּתְיַיחֵד עִמָּהּ Abaye said: And the Sages taught the statement of Rabbi Yehuda in Judea because there the custom was that the groom be secluded with his betrothed, leading to the concern lest he engage in conjugal relations with her. Therefore, the blessing is recited already at that stage.
תַּנְיָא אִידַּךְ מְבָרְכִין בִּרְכַּת חֲתָנִים בְּבֵית חֲתָנִים וּבִרְכַּת אֵרוּסִין בְּבֵית הָאֵרוּסִין בִּרְכַּת הָאֵרוּסִין מַאי מְבָרֵךְ רָבִין בַּר רַב אַדָּא וְרַבָּה בַּר רַב אַדָּא תַּרְוַיְיהוּ מִשְּׁמֵיהּ דְּרַב יְהוּדָה אָמְרִי בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה ה׳ אֱלֹהֵינוּ מֶלֶךְ הָעוֹלָם אֲשֶׁר קִדְּשָׁנוּ בְּמִצְוֹתָיו וְצִוָּנוּ עַל הָעֲרָיוֹת וְאָסַר לָנוּ אֶת הָאֲרוּסוֹת וְהִתִּיר לָנוּ אֶת הַנְּשׂוּאוֹת עַל יְדֵי חוּפָּה וְקִדּוּשִׁין רַב אַחָא בְּרֵיהּ דְּרָבָא מְסַיֵּים בַּהּ מִשְּׁמֵיהּ דְּרַב יְהוּדָה בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה ה׳ מְקַדֵּשׁ יִשְׂרָאֵל עַל יְדֵי חוּפָּה וְקִדּוּשִׁין It is taught in another baraita: One recites the benediction of the grooms in the house of the grooms, and the benediction of the betrothal in the house of the betrothal. With regard to the benediction of the betrothal, what formula does one recite? Ravin bar Rav Adda and Rabba bar Rav Adda both said in the name of Rav Yehuda: Blessed are You, Lord our God, King of the universe, Who sanctified us through His mitzvot, and commanded us concerning the forbidden relatives, and prohibited to us those women who are betrothed, and permitted to us those women who are married by means of the wedding canopy and betrothal. Rav Aḥa, son of Rava, concludes the blessing in the name of Rav Yehuda: Blessed are You, Lord, Who sanctifies Israel by means of the wedding canopy and betrothal.
מַאן דְּלָא חָתֵים מִידֵּי דְּהָוֵה אַבִּרְכַּת פֵּרוֹת וְאַבִּרְכַּת מִצְוֹת וּמַאן דְּחָתֵים מִידֵּי דְּהָוֵה אַקִּידּוּשָׁא One who does not conclude the benediction of the betrothal in accordance with the opinion of Rav Aḥa, but instead recites it without a concluding blessing, deems the formula of this blessing just as the formula is in the blessing recited over fruits and the blessing recited over mitzvot, in which the words: Blessed are You, Lord, appear only at the beginning of the blessing. And one who concludes the benediction of the betrothal in accordance with the opinion of Rav Aḥa, deems the formula of this blessing just as the formula is in the blessing of kiddush, in which the words: Blessed are You, Lord, appears both at the beginning and the conclusion of the blessing.
תָּנוּ רַבָּנַן מְבָרְכִין בִּרְכַּת חֲתָנִים בַּעֲשָׂרָה כׇּל שִׁבְעָה אָמַר רַב יְהוּדָה וְהוּא שֶׁבָּאוּ פָּנִים חֲדָשׁוֹת § The Sages taught: One recites the benediction of the grooms in a quorum of ten men all seven days of the wedding celebration. Rav Yehuda said: And that is the case only when new faces who did not previously participate in the festivities came to join the celebration.
מַאי מְבָרֵךְ אָמַר רַב יְהוּדָה בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה ה׳ אֱלֹהֵינוּ מֶלֶךְ הָעוֹלָם The Gemara asks: What blessings does one recite? Rav Yehuda said that these are the seven blessings: Blessed are You, Lord our God, King of the universe,