Ketubot 7aכתובות ז׳ א
The William Davidson Talmudתלמוד מהדורת ויליאם דוידסון
Save "Ketubot 7a"
Toggle Reader Menu Display Settings
7aז׳ א

פטור התם פקיד ועקיר הכא פקיד ולא עקיר

he is exempt. In this case, exempt means permitted ab initio. Ostensibly, intercourse with a virgin is comparable to creating an opening in an abscess. Why then, would intercourse with a virgin be forbidden on Shabbat? The Gemara rejects the proof: There, the pus in the abscess is pooled in one place and completely removed from the vessels in the flesh. In creating the opening, he creates nothing enduring. Here, however, in the case of the ruptured hymen, even according to the opinion that the blood is pooled, it is not completely removed from the blood vessels in the flesh. Through intercourse, the blood is removed from its place, which constitutes an aspect of a prohibited labor.

רבי אמי שרא למיבעל בתחלה בשבת אמרי ליה רבנן והא לא כתיבא כתובתה אמר להו אתפסוה מטלטלין

The Gemara relates: Rav Ami permitted one to engage in intercourse with his virgin wife for the first time on Shabbat. The Sages said to him: But her marriage contract is not yet written. Engaging in conjugal relations with one’s wife without a marriage contract is considered an act of promiscuity. He said to them: Have her seize a portion of her husband’s movable property equivalent to the value of her marriage contract, and that will serve as a deposit until he writes the marriage contract. He may then engage in sexual relations with her.

רב זביד שרא למיבעל בתחלה בשבת איכא דאמרי רב זביד גופיה בעל בתחלה בשבת

The Gemara relates: Rav Zevid permitted one to engage in intercourse with his virgin wife for the first time on Shabbat. There are those who say: Rav Zevid himself engaged in intercourse with his virgin wife for the first time on Shabbat.

רב יהודה שרא למיבעל בתחלה ביו"ט אמר רב פפי משמיה דרבא לא תימא ביו"ט דשרי הא בשבת אסור דהוא הדין דאפילו בשבת נמי שרי ומעשה שהיה כך היה

It was further related: Rav Yehuda permitted one to engage in intercourse with his virgin wife for the first time on a Festival. Rav Pappi said in the name of Rava: Do not infer and say: It is on a Festival that it is permitted, but on Shabbat it is prohibited, similar to actions involving food preparation, which are permitted on Festivals and prohibited on Shabbat, as the same is true that even on Shabbat it is permitted. And the reason Rav Yehuda issued his ruling with regard to a Festival is due to the fact that the incident that took place, took place in this way.

רב פפא משמיה דרבא אמר ביו"ט שרי בשבת אסור א"ל רב פפי לרב פפא מאי דעתיך מתוך שהותרה חבורה לצורך הותרה נמי שלא לצורך אלא מעתה מותר לעשות מוגמר ביו"ט דמתוך שהותרה הבערה לצורך הותרה נמי שלא לצורך

Rav Pappa said in the name of Rava: According to Rav Yehuda, on a Festival it is permitted, on Shabbat it is prohibited. Rav Pappi said to Rav Pappa: What is your thinking? Is it: Since causing a wound was permitted on a Festival when performed for the purpose of food preparation, it was also permitted when not performed for the purpose of food preparation? If that is so, it would be permitted to prepare incense [mugmar] on a Festival due to the following reason: Since kindling a fire was permitted on a Festival when performed for the purpose of food preparation, it was also permitted when not performed for the purpose of food preparation.

אמר ליה עליך אמר קרא (שמות יב, טז) אך אשר יאכל לכל נפש דבר השוה לכל נפש

Rav Pappa said to him: It is about your assertion that the verse states with regard to a Festival: “Save that which every person must eat, that alone may be done by you” (Exodus 12:16), indicating a matter that is equal for every person. Incense is burned only by those who are particularly delicate. It is not equally utilized by everyone, and therefore it is not permitted. Intercourse, on the other hand, is universally practiced.

אמר ליה רב אחא בריה דרבא לרב אשי אלא מעתה נזדמן לו צבי ביו"ט הואיל ואינו שוה לכל נפש ה"נ דאסור למשחטיה אמר ליה אנא דבר הצורך לכל נפש קאמינא צבי צריך לכל נפש הוא

Rav Aḥa, son of Rava, said to Rav Ashi: If that is so, if a deer happened to come into his possession on a Festival, since it is not a food that is equal for every person, would the ruling also be that it is prohibited to slaughter it? Rav Ashi said to him: I said a matter that is a need for every person, and deer meat is a matter that although difficult to acquire, is a need for every person. Incense, even when available, is not universally utilized.

אמר רבי יעקב בר אידי הורה רבי יוחנן בציידן אסור לבעול בתחלה בשבת ומי איכא הוראה לאיסור

Rabbi Ya’akov bar Idi said: Rabbi Yoḥanan issued a ruling in the city of Tzaidan: It is prohibited to engage in intercourse with one’s virgin wife for the first time on Shabbat. The Gemara asks: And is there a ruling issued to prohibit an action? Typically, that language is utilized in reference to a firmly established ruling. A stringent ruling can be issued even based on uncertainty. In contrast, a lenient ruling can be issued only if the matter is clearly established by means of tradition or the reasoning of the Sage issuing the ruling.

אין והתנן הורוה בית הלל שתהא נזירה עוד שבע שנים אחרות

The Gemara answers: Yes, that language is used with regard to a stringent ruling, as didn’t we learn the following in a mishna (Nazir 19b): When Queen Helene’s son went to war, she took a vow to be a nazirite for seven years, and she fulfilled that vow for the duration of her stay in the Diaspora? When she immigrated to Eretz Yisrael, Beit Hillel issued a ruling that she shall be a nazirite for seven additional years. Apparently, rulings are issued to prohibit an action as well.

ואי נמי כי הא דתניא חוט השדרה שנפסק ברובו דברי רבי ר' יעקב אומר אפי' ניקב הורה רבי כר' יעקב אמר רב הונא אין הלכה כר' יעקב

And alternatively, this is similar to that which is taught in a baraita: If a majority of the spinal cord of an animal is severed, the animal is a tereifa; this is the statement of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi. Rabbi Ya’akov says: Even if the spinal cord is perforated but otherwise intact, the animal is a tereifa. The baraita continues: Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi issued a ruling in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Ya’akov. Here too, the term: Issue a ruling, is employed with regard to a stringent ruling. Rav Huna said: Despite the fact that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi ruled in accordance with his opinion, the halakha is not in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Ya’akov, but rather it is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi. This is one version of this discussion.

רב נחמן בר יצחק מתני הכי אמר ר' אבהו שאל ר' ישמעאל בן יעקב דמן צור את רבי יוחנן בציידן ואנא שמעי מהו לבעול בתחלה בשבת ואמר ליה אסור והלכתא מותר לבעול בתחלה בשבת:

Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak taught this alternative version of the ruling of Rabbi Yoḥanan. Rav Abbahu said: Rabbi Yishmael ben Ya’akov, who is from Tyre, asked Rabbi Yoḥanan in Tzaidan, and I heard the exchange: What is the halakha with regard to engaging in intercourse with one’s virgin wife for the first time on Shabbat? And he said to him: It is prohibited. The Gemara concludes: And the halakha is that it is permitted to engage in intercourse with one’s virgin wife for the first time on Shabbat, and one need not be concerned lest he cause a wound, create an opening, or initiate bleeding.

אמר רבי חלבו אמר רב הונא א"ר אבא בר זבדא אמר רב אחת בתולה ואחת אלמנה טעונה ברכה ומי אמר רב הונא הכי והאמר רב הונא אלמנה אינה טעונה ברכה לא קשיא כאן בבחור שנשא אלמנה כאן באלמון שנשא אלמנה

§ Rabbi Ḥelbo said that Rav Huna said that Rabbi Abba bar Rav Zavda said that Rav said: Both a virgin and a widow who marry require that the benediction of the grooms be recited. The Gemara asks: Did Rav Huna say that? But didn’t Rav Huna say: A widow does not require that a benediction be recited? The Gemara answers: This is not difficult. Here, where Rav Huna said that a widow requires a benediction, it is with regard to a bachelor who married a widow. There, where Rav Huna said she does not require a benediction, it is with regard to a widower who married a widow.

ואלמון שנשא אלמנה לא והאמר רב נחמן אמר לי הונא בר נתן תנא מנין לברכת חתנים בעשרה שנאמר (רות ד, ב) ויקח עשרה אנשים מזקני העיר ויאמר שבו פה וישבו ובועז אלמון שנשא אלמנה הוה

The Gemara asks: And does a widower who married a widow not require a benediction to be recited? But didn’t Rav Naḥman say: Huna bar Natan said to me that it was taught: From where is it derived that the benediction of the grooms is recited in a quorum of ten men? It is as it is stated with regard to Boaz, who married Ruth: “And he took ten men of the Elders of the city and said: Sit you here, and they sat” (Ruth 4:2). And when Boaz married Ruth, he was a widower marrying a widow. As that is the primary source for the obligation to recite the benediction, apparently the benediction is recited even in that case.

מאי אינה טעונה ברכה דאמר רב הונא אינה טעונה ברכה כל ז' אבל יום אחד טעונה ברכה

The Gemara answers: What is the meaning of: Does not require a benediction, that Rav Huna stated? It means that she does not require a benediction all seven days of the wedding celebration, but everyone agrees that for one day, she requires that a benediction be recited.

אלא הא דתניא שקדו חכמים על תקנת בנות ישראל שיהא שמח עמה ג' ימים במאי אי בבחור האמרת שבעה אי באלמון האמרת יום אחד

The Gemara asks: However, that which is taught in a baraita, that the Sages were assiduous in seeing to the well-being of Jewish women, ensuring that the groom will rejoice with her three days, and that is why they established that a widow is married on Thursday, with regard to what circumstance is the baraita speaking? If it is with regard to a bachelor who marries a widow, didn’t you say he celebrates seven days; why then did the Sages see to a mere three-day celebration? If it is with regard to a widower who marries a widow, didn’t you say he celebrates for one day? Why then did the Sages see to a three-day celebration?

איבעית אימא באלמון יום אחד לברכה ושלשה לשמחה ואיבעית אימא בבחור שבעה לברכה ושלשה לשמחה

The Gemara answers that this can be resolved in several manners. If you wish, say: In the case of a widower marrying a widow, there is one day for benediction and three days for celebration. The wedding is scheduled on Thursday to facilitate a three-day celebration. And if you wish, say instead: In the case of a bachelor marrying a widow, there are seven days for benediction and there are three days for celebration, during which he must refrain from going to work.