אֵין פּוֹסְקִין יֵינוֹת לָאִשָּׁה וְאִם תֹּאמַר אֵלְכָה אַחֲרֵי מְאַהֲבַי נוֹתְנֵי לַחְמִי וּמֵימַי צַמְרִי וּפִשְׁתִּי שַׁמְנִי וְשִׁקּוּיָי דְּבָרִים שֶׁהָאִשָּׁה מִשְׁתּוֹקֶקֶת עֲלֵיהֶן וּמַאי נִינְהוּ תַּכְשִׁיטִין Wines are not allotted to a wife. And if you say that in the verse: “I will go after my lovers who give me my bread and my water, my wool and my flax, my oil and my drink” (Hosea 2:7), “drink [shikkuyai]” is apparently a reference to wine, which indicates that it is usual for a woman to receive wine, this is invalid, since actually shikkuyai is not referring to wine but rather to items that a woman desires [mishtokeket]. And what are these? Jewelry or other ornaments, not wine.
דָּרֵשׁ רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אִישׁ כְּפַר נְבִירְיָא וְאָמְרִי לַהּ אִישׁ כְּפַר נְפוֹר חַיִל מִנַּיִן שֶׁאֵין פּוֹסְקִין יֵינוֹת לָאִשָּׁה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וַתָּקׇם חַנָּה אַחֲרֵי אׇכְלָה בְשִׁילֹה וְאַחֲרֵי שָׁתֹה שָׁתָה וְלֹא שָׁתָת Rabbi Yehuda of the village of Neviraya, and some say of the village of Nefor Ḥayil, interpreted a verse: From where is it derived that one does not allot wines for a woman? As it is stated: “So Hannah rose up after she had eaten in Shiloh and after he had drunk” (I Samuel 1:9). It states: “He had drunk,” and not: She had drunk. This teaches that although she ate, she did not drink wine.
אֶלָּא מֵעַתָּה אָכְלָה וְלֹא אׇכְלוֹ הָכִי נָמֵי אֲנַן מִדְּשַׁנִּי קְרָא בְּדִבּוּרֵיהּ קָאָמְרִינַן מִכְּדֵי בְּגַוַּהּ קָא עָסֵיק וְאָתֵי מַאי טַעְמָא שַׁנִּי שְׁמַע מִינַּהּ שָׁתָה וְלֹא שָׁתָת The Gemara asks: However, if that is so, by the same reasoning, should the phrase “she had eaten,” which is in the feminine, indeed be interpreted to mean that only she ate, and that he did not eat? The Gemara answers: We say this interpretation from the fact that the verse changed its language. Since the verse was already dealing with her, what is the reason that it changed the terminology and did not state: And had drunk, in the feminine? One can learn from this that “he had drunk” means that he drank, but she did not drink.
מֵיתִיבִי רְגִילָה נוֹתְנִין לָהּ רְגִילָה שָׁאנֵי דְּאָמַר רַב חִינָּנָא בַּר כָּהֲנָא אָמַר שְׁמוּאֵל רְגִילָה נוֹתְנִין לָהּ כּוֹס אֶחָד שֶׁאֵינָהּ רְגִילָה נוֹתְנִין לָהּ שְׁנֵי כּוֹסוֹת The Gemara raises an objection from a baraita: If a woman is accustomed to wine, she is given wine. The Gemara explains: If the woman is accustomed to wine it is different, as Rav Ḥinnana bar Kahana said that Shmuel said: If a woman is accustomed to drinking wine, she is given one cup, and if she is not accustomed to wine, she is given two cups.
מַאי קָאָמַר אָמַר אַבָּיֵי הָכִי קָאָמַר רְגִילָה בִּפְנֵי בַּעְלָהּ שְׁנֵי כּוֹסוֹת שֶׁלֹּא בִּפְנֵי בַעְלָהּ נוֹתְנִין לָהּ כּוֹס אֶחָד אֵינָהּ רְגִילָה בִּפְנֵי בַעְלָהּ אֶלָּא כּוֹס אֶחָד שֶׁלֹּא בִּפְנֵי בַעְלָהּ אֵין נוֹתְנִין לָהּ כׇּל עִיקָּר The Gemara asks: What is Shmuel saying? His statement is the opposite of what one would logically expect. Abaye said: This is what he is saying: If she is accustomed to wine, then in the presence of her husband she is given two cups, and if she is not in the presence of her husband she is given one cup. If she is not accustomed to drinking wine, then in the presence of her husband she is given only one cup, and if she is not in the presence of her husband she is not given wine at all.
וְאִי בָּעֵית אֵימָא רְגִילָה נוֹתְנִין לָהּ לְצִיקֵי קְדֵירָה דְּאָמַר רַבִּי אֲבָהוּ אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן מַעֲשֶׂה בְּכַלָּתוֹ שֶׁל נַקְדִּימוֹן בֶּן גּוּרְיוֹן שֶׁפָּסְקוּ לָהּ חֲכָמִים סָאתַיִם יַיִן לְצִיקֵי קְדֵרָה מֵעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת לְעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת אָמְרָה לָהֶן כָּךְ תִּפְסְקוּ לִבְנוֹתֵיכֶם תָּנָא שׁוֹמֶרֶת יָבָם הָיְתָה וְלֹא עָנוּ אַחֲרֶיהָ אָמֵן And if you wish, say instead: If she is accustomed to wine, she is given wine, but not for drinking, rather for meat pudding [tzikei], made with wine, flour, and leftover meat in a pot. As Rabbi Abbahu said that Rabbi Yoḥanan said: An incident occurred involving the daughter-in-law of Nakdimon ben Guryon, whose husband had died. The Sages apportioned for her from his estate two se’a of wine for pudding, from one Shabbat eve to another. She said to them, as a blessing out of gratitude: So may you apportion for your own daughters an amount as large as this. It was taught: She was a widow waiting for her yavam, and consequently, the Sages did not answer amen after her blessing, as they did not want their daughters to reach her unfortunate state.
תָּנָא כּוֹס אֶחָד יָפֶה לָאִשָּׁה שְׁנַיִם נִיוּוּל הוּא שְׁלֹשָׁה תּוֹבַעַת בַּפֶּה אַרְבָּעָה אֲפִילּוּ חֲמוֹר תּוֹבַעַת בַּשּׁוּק וְאֵינָהּ מַקְפֶּדֶת אָמַר רָבָא לֹא שָׁנוּ אֶלָּא שֶׁאֵין בַּעְלָהּ עִמָּהּ אֲבָל בַּעְלָהּ עִמָּהּ לֵית לַן בַּהּ It was taught in a baraita: One cup of wine is good for a woman; two cups is a disgrace, as she will start to become drunk; after three cups, she will become lustful and verbally request sexual intercourse, which is unseemly; after four cups of wine, she will even request intercourse from a donkey in the marketplace, as at this stage she is so drunk that she is not particular about with whom she has relations. Rava said: They taught that a woman should not drink much wine only if her husband is not with her. However, if her husband is with her, we have no problem with it. If she feels an urge for intercourse her husband is available.
וְהָא חַנָּה דְּבַעְלָהּ עִמָּהּ הֲוַאי אַכְסְנַאי שָׁאנֵי דְּאָמַר רַב הוּנָא מִנַּיִן לְאַכְסְנַאי שֶׁאָסוּר בְּתַשְׁמִישׁ הַמִּטָּה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וַיַּשְׁכִּימוּ בַבֹּקֶר וַיִּשְׁתַּחֲווּ לִפְנֵי ה׳ וַיָּשׁוּבוּ וַיָּבֹאוּ אֶל בֵּיתָם הָרָמָתָה וַיֵּדַע אֶלְקָנָה אֶת חַנָּה אִשְׁתּוֹ וַיִּזְכְּרֶהָ ה׳ הַשְׁתָּא אִין מֵעִיקָּרָא לָא The Gemara raises a difficulty: But the case of Hannah was one in which her husband was with her, and yet this episode is cited as a source for the halakha that a woman should not drink wine. The Gemara answers: The case of a guest is different, as Rav Huna said: From where is it derived that a guest is prohibited from engaging in conjugal relations? As it is stated: “And they rose up in the morning early, and worshipped before the Lord, and returned, and came to their house to Ramah; and Elkanah knew Hannah his wife; and the Lord remembered her” (I Samuel 1:19). This verse indicates that now, after they returned home, yes, they engaged in relations; at the outset, when they were still in Shiloh, no, they did not. Therefore, Hannah did not drink wine in Shiloh.
חוּמָא דְּבֵיתְהוּ דְּאַבָּיֵי אֲתַאי לְקַמֵּיהּ דְּרָבָא אֲמַרָה לֵיהּ פְּסוֹק לִי מְזוֹנֵי פְּסַק לַהּ פְּסוֹק לִי חַמְרָא אֲמַר לֵיהּ יָדַעְנָא בֵּיהּ בְּנַחְמָנִי דְּלָא הֲוָה שָׁתֵי חַמְרָא אֲמַרָה לֵיהּ חַיֵּי דְּמָר דַּהֲוָה מַשְׁקֵי לִי בְּשׁוּפְרָזֵי כִּי הַאי בַּהֲדֵי דְּקָא מַחְוְיָא לֵיהּ אִיגַּלִּי דְּרָעַאּ נְפַל נְהוֹרָא בְּבֵי דִינָא The Gemara relates: Abaye’s wife, Ḥoma, came before Rava after Abaye died, as Rava was the local judge. She said to him: Apportion sustenance for me, as I am entitled to be sustained by Abaye’s heirs. Rava apportioned sustenance for her. She subsequently said to him: Apportion wine for me as well. Rava said to her: I know that Naḥmani, i.e., Abaye, did not drink wine. Since you were not accustomed to drinking wine during your husband’s lifetime, you are not entitled to it after his death. She said to him: By the Master’s life, this is not correct. In fact, he would give me wine to drink in cups [shufrazei] as large as this. She gestured with her hands to show how large the cups were. While she was showing him the size of the cups, her arm became uncovered, and she was so beautiful that it was as though a light had shined in the courtroom.
קָם רָבָא עָל לְבֵיתֵיהּ תַּבְעַהּ לְבַת רַב חִסְדָּא אֲמַרָה לֵיהּ בַּת רַב חִסְדָּא מַאן הֲוַי הָאִידָּנָא בְּבֵי דִּינָא אֲמַר לַהּ חוּמָא דְּבֵיתְהוּ דְּאַבָּיֵי נָפְקָא אַבָּתְרַהּ מָחֲתָא לָהּ בְּקוּלְפֵי דְשִׁידָּא עַד דְּאַפְּקַהּ לַהּ מִכּוּלֵּי מָחוֹזָא אָמְרָה לַהּ קְטַלְתְּ לִיךְ תְּלָתָא וְאָתֵת לְמִיקְטַל אַחֲרִינָא Rava arose, went home, and requested intercourse from his wife, the daughter of Rav Ḥisda. The daughter of Rav Ḥisda said to him: Who was just now in the courtroom? Noticing his unusual behavior, she suspected that there must have been a woman in the court. He said to her: Ḥoma, Abaye’s wife, was there. Upon hearing this, Rava’s wife went after Ḥoma and struck her with the lock of a chest [kulpei deshida] until she drove her out of the entire city of Meḥoza, saying to her: You have already killed three men, as Abaye was your third husband, and now you come to kill another one, my husband Rava? Since you showed him your beauty, he will want to marry you.
דְּבֵיתְהוּ דְּרַב יוֹסֵף בְּרֵיהּ דְּרָבָא אֲתַאי לְקַמֵּיהּ דְּרַב נְחֶמְיָה בְּרֵיהּ דְּרַב יוֹסֵף אֲמַרָה לֵיהּ פְּסוֹק לִי מְזוֹנֵי פְּסַק לַהּ פְּסוֹק לִי חַמְרָא פְּסַק לַהּ אֲמַר לַהּ יָדַעְנָא בְּהוּ בִּבְנֵי מָחוֹזָא דְּשָׁתוּ חַמְרָא The Gemara relates a similar incident: The wife of Rav Yosef, son of Rava, came before Rav Neḥemya, son of Rav Yosef, for judgment. She said to him: Apportion sustenance for me. Rav Neḥemya apportioned a certain amount of sustenance for her. She said to him: Apportion wine for me as well. He apportioned wine for her. He said to her: I know that the residents of Meḥoza are accustomed to drinking wine, and therefore you, too, are entitled to wine, in accordance with the local custom.
דְּבֵיתְהוּ דְּרַב יוֹסֵף בְּרֵיהּ דְּרַב מְנַשְּׁיָא מִדְּוִיל אֲתַאי לְקַמֵּיהּ דְּרַב יוֹסֵף אֲמַרָה לֵיהּ פְּסוֹק לִי מְזוֹנֵי פְּסַק לַהּ פְּסוֹק לִי חַמְרָא פְּסַק לַהּ פְּסוֹק לִי שִׁירָאֵי אֲמַר לַהּ שִׁירָאֵי לְמָה אֲמַרָה לֵיהּ לָךְ וּלְחַבְרָךְ וּלְחַבְרוּרָךְ Similarly, the wife of Rav Yosef, son of Rav Menashya of D’vil, came before Rav Yosef. She said to him: Apportion sustenance for me. He apportioned sustenance for her. She added: Apportion wine for me. He apportioned wine for her. She continued: Apportion silk garments for me. Rav Yosef said to her: Why do you need silk garments? She said to him: For you, for your friends, and for your friends’ friends. Even as a widow, I should not have to be ashamed in front of you and your colleagues.
וְנוֹתֵן לָהּ מִטָּה וּמַפָּץ וְכוּ׳ מַפָּץ וּמַחְצֶלֶת לְמָה לַהּ דְּיָהֵב לַהּ אָמַר רַב פָּפָּא בְּאַתְרָא דִּנְהִיגִי דְּמָלוּ פּוּרְיָא בְּחַבְלֵי דְּמַבְגַּר לַהּ § The mishna taught: And he must give her a bed, a soft mat, and a hard mat. The Gemara asks: Why does he need to give her a soft mat and a hard mat if she already has a bed? Rav Pappa said: The mishna is speaking of a place where it is the custom to fill a bed with ropes. Because these ropes cause her suffering and age [mevager] her, she covers them with a mat, which serves as a kind of mattress upon which she can lie in comfort.
תָּנוּ רַבָּנַן אֵין נוֹתְנִין לָהּ כַּר וָכֶסֶת מִשּׁוּם רַבִּי נָתָן אָמְרוּ נוֹתְנִין לָהּ כַּר וָכֶסֶת הֵיכִי דָמֵי אִי דְּאוֹרְחַהּ מַאי טַעְמָא דְּתַנָּא קַמָּא וְאִי דְּלָאו אוֹרְחַהּ מַאי טַעְמָא דְּרַבִּי נָתָן The Sages taught: One does not give a poor woman a pillow and a cushion. In the name of Rabbi Natan, they said: One does give her a pillow and a cushion. The Gemara asks: What are the circumstances? If it is her usual manner to use a pillow and cushion, what is the reason for the opinion of the first tanna that she is not given these items? And if it is not her usual manner, what is the reason for the opinion of Rabbi Natan?
לָא צְרִיכָא כְּגוֹן דְּאוֹרְחֵיהּ דִּידֵיהּ וְלָאו אוֹרְחַהּ דִּידַהּ תַּנָּא קַמָּא סָבַר אָמַר לַהּ כִּי אָזֵילְנָא שָׁקֵילְנָא לְהוּ וְכִי אָתֵינָא מַיְיתֵינָא לְהוּ בַּהֲדַאי וְרַבִּי נָתָן סָבַר אָמַרָה לֵיהּ זִימְנִין דְּמִיתְרְמֵי בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת וְלָא מָצֵית מַיְיתֵת לְהוּ וְשָׁקְלַתְּ לְהוּ לְדִידִי וּמַגְנֵית לִי עַל אַרְעָא The Gemara answers: No, it is necessary in a case where it is his manner to use a pillow and cushion, but it is not her manner. The first tanna holds that the husband says to her: When I go away from you, I will take my bedding with me, and when I come back I will bring it with me. And Rabbi Natan holds that she can say to him: Sometimes it happens that you arrive at twilight and you are unable to bring it with you, and you will take my bedding and you will make me lie on the ground. Therefore, I require extra pillows and cushions.
וְנוֹתֵן לָהּ כִּפָּה אֲמַר לֵיהּ רַב פָּפָּא לְאַבָּיֵי § The mishna further taught: And he must give her a cap, and shoes every Festival, and clothes once a year. Rav Pappa said to Abaye: