אין פוסקין יינות לאשה ואם תאמר (הושע ב, ז) אלכה אחרי מאהבי נותני לחמי ומימי צמרי ופשתי שמני ושקויי דברים שהאשה משתוקקת עליהן ומאי נינהו תכשיטין Wines are not allotted to a wife. And if you say that in the verse: “I will go after my lovers who give me my bread and my water, my wool and my flax, my oil and my drink” (Hosea 2:7), “drink [shikkuyai]” is apparently a reference to wine, which indicates that it is usual for a woman to receive wine, this is invalid, since actually shikkuyai is not referring to wine but rather to items that a woman desires [mishtokeket]. And what are these? Jewelry or other ornaments, not wine.
דרש רבי יהודה איש כפר נביריא ואמרי לה איש כפר נפור חיל מנין שאין פוסקין יינות לאשה שנאמר (שמואל א א, ט) ותקם חנה אחרי אכלה בשילה ואחרי שתה שתה ולא שתת Rabbi Yehuda of the village of Neviraya, and some say of the village of Nefor Ḥayil, interpreted a verse: From where is it derived that one does not allot wines for a woman? As it is stated: “So Hannah rose up after she had eaten in Shiloh and after he had drunk” (I Samuel 1:9). It states: “He had drunk,” and not: She had drunk. This teaches that although she ate, she did not drink wine.
אלא מעתה אכלה ולא אכל הכי נמי אנן מדשני קרא בדבוריה קאמרינן מכדי בגוה קא עסיק ואתי מאי טעמא שני ש"מ שתה ולא שתת The Gemara asks: However, if that is so, by the same reasoning, should the phrase “she had eaten,” which is in the feminine, indeed be interpreted to mean that only she ate, and that he did not eat? The Gemara answers: We say this interpretation from the fact that the verse changed its language. Since the verse was already dealing with her, what is the reason that it changed the terminology and did not state: And had drunk, in the feminine? One can learn from this that “he had drunk” means that he drank, but she did not drink.
מיתיבי רגילה נותנין לה רגילה שאני דאמר רב חיננא בר כהנא אמר שמואל רגילה נותנין לה כוס אחד שאינה רגילה נותנין לה שני כוסות The Gemara raises an objection from a baraita: If a woman is accustomed to wine, she is given wine. The Gemara explains: If the woman is accustomed to wine it is different, as Rav Ḥinnana bar Kahana said that Shmuel said: If a woman is accustomed to drinking wine, she is given one cup, and if she is not accustomed to wine, she is given two cups.
מאי קאמר אמר אביי הכי קאמר רגילה בפני בעלה שני כוסות שלא בפני בעלה נותנין לה כוס אחד אינה רגילה בפני בעלה אלא כוס אחד שלא בפני בעלה אין נותנין לה כל עיקר The Gemara asks: What is Shmuel saying? His statement is the opposite of what one would logically expect. Abaye said: This is what he is saying: If she is accustomed to wine, then in the presence of her husband she is given two cups, and if she is not in the presence of her husband she is given one cup. If she is not accustomed to drinking wine, then in the presence of her husband she is given only one cup, and if she is not in the presence of her husband she is not given wine at all.
ואי בעית אימא רגילה נותנין לה לציקי קדירה דא"ר אבהו א"ר יוחנן מעשה בכלתו של נקדימון בן גוריון שפסקו לה חכמים סאתים יין לציקי קדרה מערב שבת לע"ש אמרה להן כך תפסקו לבנותיכם תנא שומרת יבם היתה ולא ענו אחריה אמן And if you wish, say instead: If she is accustomed to wine, she is given wine, but not for drinking, rather for meat pudding [tzikei], made with wine, flour, and leftover meat in a pot. As Rabbi Abbahu said that Rabbi Yoḥanan said: An incident occurred involving the daughter-in-law of Nakdimon ben Guryon, whose husband had died. The Sages apportioned for her from his estate two se’a of wine for pudding, from one Shabbat eve to another. She said to them, as a blessing out of gratitude: So may you apportion for your own daughters an amount as large as this. It was taught: She was a widow waiting for her yavam, and consequently, the Sages did not answer amen after her blessing, as they did not want their daughters to reach her unfortunate state.
תנא כוס אחד יפה לאשה שנים ניוול הוא שלשה תובעת בפה ארבעה אפילו חמור תובעת בשוק ואינה מקפדת אמר רבא לא שנו אלא שאין בעלה עמה אבל בעלה עמה לית לן בה It was taught in a baraita: One cup of wine is good for a woman; two cups is a disgrace, as she will start to become drunk; after three cups, she will become lustful and verbally request sexual intercourse, which is unseemly; after four cups of wine, she will even request intercourse from a donkey in the marketplace, as at this stage she is so drunk that she is not particular about with whom she has relations. Rava said: They taught that a woman should not drink much wine only if her husband is not with her. However, if her husband is with her, we have no problem with it. If she feels an urge for intercourse her husband is available.
והא חנה דבעלה עמה הואי אכסנאי שאני דאמר רב הונא מנין לאכסנאי שאסור בתשמיש המטה שנאמר (שמואל א א, יט) וישכימו בבקר וישתחוו לפני ה' וישובו ויבאו אל ביתם הרמתה וידע אלקנה את חנה אשתו ויזכרה ה' השתא אין מעיקרא לא The Gemara raises a difficulty: But the case of Hannah was one in which her husband was with her, and yet this episode is cited as a source for the halakha that a woman should not drink wine. The Gemara answers: The case of a guest is different, as Rav Huna said: From where is it derived that a guest is prohibited from engaging in conjugal relations? As it is stated: “And they rose up in the morning early, and worshipped before the Lord, and returned, and came to their house to Ramah; and Elkanah knew Hannah his wife; and the Lord remembered her” (I Samuel 1:19). This verse indicates that now, after they returned home, yes, they engaged in relations; at the outset, when they were still in Shiloh, no, they did not. Therefore, Hannah did not drink wine in Shiloh.
חומא דביתהו דאביי אתאי לקמיה דרבא אמרה ליה פסוק לי מזוני פסק לה פסוק לי חמרא א"ל ידענא ביה בנחמני דלא הוה שתי חמרא אמרה ליה חיי דמר דהוי משקי ליה בשופרזי כי האי בהדי דקא מחויא ליה איגלי דרעא נפל נהורא בבי דינא The Gemara relates: Abaye’s wife, Ḥoma, came before Rava after Abaye died, as Rava was the local judge. She said to him: Apportion sustenance for me, as I am entitled to be sustained by Abaye’s heirs. Rava apportioned sustenance for her. She subsequently said to him: Apportion wine for me as well. Rava said to her: I know that Naḥmani, i.e., Abaye, did not drink wine. Since you were not accustomed to drinking wine during your husband’s lifetime, you are not entitled to it after his death. She said to him: By the Master’s life, this is not correct. In fact, he would give me wine to drink in cups [shufrazei] as large as this. She gestured with her hands to show how large the cups were. While she was showing him the size of the cups, her arm became uncovered, and she was so beautiful that it was as though a light had shined in the courtroom.
קם רבא על לביתיה תבעה לבת רב חסדא אמרה ליה בת רב חסדא מאן הוי האידנא בבי דינא אמר לה חומא דביתהו דאביי נפקא אבתרה מחתא לה בקולפי דשידא עד דאפקה לה מכולי מחוזא אמרה לה קטלת ליך תלתא ואתת למיקטל אחרינא Rava arose, went home, and requested intercourse from his wife, the daughter of Rav Ḥisda. The daughter of Rav Ḥisda said to him: Who was just now in the courtroom? Noticing his unusual behavior, she suspected that there must have been a woman in the court. He said to her: Ḥoma, Abaye’s wife, was there. Upon hearing this, Rava’s wife went after Ḥoma and struck her with the lock of a chest [kulpei deshida] until she drove her out of the entire city of Meḥoza, saying to her: You have already killed three men, as Abaye was your third husband, and now you come to kill another one, my husband Rava? Since you showed him your beauty, he will want to marry you.
דביתהו דרב יוסף בריה דרבא אתאי לקמיה דרב נחמיה בריה דרב יוסף אמרה ליה פסוק לי מזוני פסק לה פסוק לי חמרא פסק לה אמר לה ידענא בהו בבני מחוזא דשתו חמרא The Gemara relates a similar incident: The wife of Rav Yosef, son of Rava, came before Rav Neḥemya, son of Rav Yosef, for judgment. She said to him: Apportion sustenance for me. Rav Neḥemya apportioned a certain amount of sustenance for her. She said to him: Apportion wine for me as well. He apportioned wine for her. He said to her: I know that the residents of Meḥoza are accustomed to drinking wine, and therefore you, too, are entitled to wine, in accordance with the local custom.
דביתהו דרב יוסף בריה דרב מנשיא מדויל אתאי לקמיה דרב יוסף א"ל פסוק לי מזוני פסק לה פסוק לי חמרא פסק לה פסוק לי שיראי אמר לה שיראי למה אמרה ליה לך ולחברך ולחברורך: Similarly, the wife of Rav Yosef, son of Rav Menashya of D’vil, came before Rav Yosef. She said to him: Apportion sustenance for me. He apportioned sustenance for her. She added: Apportion wine for me. He apportioned wine for her. She continued: Apportion silk garments for me. Rav Yosef said to her: Why do you need silk garments? She said to him: For you, for your friends, and for your friends’ friends. Even as a widow, I should not have to be ashamed in front of you and your colleagues.
ונותן לה מטה ומפץ וכו': מפץ ומחצלת למה לה דיהב לה אמר רב פפא באתרא דנהיגי דמלו פוריא בחבלי דמבגר לה § The mishna taught: And he must give her a bed, a soft mat, and a hard mat. The Gemara asks: Why does he need to give her a soft mat and a hard mat if she already has a bed? Rav Pappa said: The mishna is speaking of a place where it is the custom to fill a bed with ropes. Because these ropes cause her suffering and age [mevager] her, she covers them with a mat, which serves as a kind of mattress upon which she can lie in comfort.
ת"ר אין נותנין לה כר וכסת משום ר' נתן אמרו נותנין לה כר וכסת היכי דמי אי דאורחה מאי טעמא דת"ק ואי דלאו אורחה מ"ט דרבי נתן The Sages taught: One does not give a poor woman a pillow and a cushion. In the name of Rabbi Natan, they said: One does give her a pillow and a cushion. The Gemara asks: What are the circumstances? If it is her usual manner to use a pillow and cushion, what is the reason for the opinion of the first tanna that she is not given these items? And if it is not her usual manner, what is the reason for the opinion of Rabbi Natan?
לא צריכא כגון דאורחיה דידיה ולאו אורחה דידה תנא קמא סבר אמר לה כי אזילנא שקילנא להו וכי אתינא מייתינא להו בהדאי ורבי נתן סבר אמרה ליה זימנין דמיתרמי בין השמשות ולא מצית מייתי להו ושקלת להו לדידי ומגנית לי על ארעא: The Gemara answers: No, it is necessary in a case where it is his manner to use a pillow and cushion, but it is not her manner. The first tanna holds that the husband says to her: When I go away from you, I will take my bedding with me, and when I come back I will bring it with me. And Rabbi Natan holds that she can say to him: Sometimes it happens that you arrive at twilight and you are unable to bring it with you, and you will take my bedding and you will make me lie on the ground. Therefore, I require extra pillows and cushions.
ונותן לה כפה: אמר ליה רב פפא לאביי § The mishna further taught: And he must give her a cap, and shoes every Festival, and clothes once a year. Rav Pappa said to Abaye: