Ketubot 60bכתובות ס׳ ב
The William Davidson Talmudתלמוד מהדורת ויליאם דוידסון
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60bס׳ ב

עד עשרים וארבעה חדש דברי רבי מאיר ור' יהודה מתיר בשמונה עשר חדש אמר רבי נתן בר יוסף הן הן דברי בית שמאי הן הן דברי בית הלל שבית שמאי אומרים עשרים וארבעה חדש ובית הלל אומרים שמונה עשר חדש

until twenty-four months from the day the child was born. The reason for this decree is to protect the child. If she remarries she may become pregnant and may not be able to continue nursing, but her second husband will not be obligated to support the child who is not his son. This is the statement of Rabbi Meir. And Rabbi Yehuda permits getting married after eighteen months. Rabbi Natan bar Yosef said: These words are the same as the statement of Beit Shammai, and those words are the same as the statement of Beit Hillel, i.e., this is an ancient dispute, as Beit Shammai say: Twenty-four months, and Beit Hillel say: Eighteen months.

אמר רבן שמעון בן גמליאל אני אכריע לדברי האומר עשרים וארבעה חדש מותרת לינשא בעשרים ואחד חדש לדברי האומר בשמונה עשר חדש מותרת להנשא בחמשה עשר חדש לפי שאין החלב נעכר אלא לאחר שלשה חדשים

Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel said: I will decide. According to the one who says twenty-four months, she may marry after twenty-one months, since even if she gets pregnant, for the first three months of pregnancy she can still continue to nurse. According to the one who says eighteen months, she may marry after fifteen months, since the milk becomes spoiled due to pregnancy only after three months.

אמר עולא הלכה כרבי יהודה ואמר מר עוקבא לי התיר רבי חנינא לשאת לאחר חמשה עשר חדש אריסיה דאביי אתא לקמיה דאביי אמר ליה מהו ליארס בחמשה עשר חדש אמר ליה חדא דר"מ ורבי יהודה הלכה כרבי יהודה ועוד בית שמאי ובית הלל הלכה כבית הלל ואמר עולא הלכה כרבי יהודה ואמר מר עוקבא לי התיר רבי חנינא לשאת לאחר חמשה עשר חדש כל שכן דאת ליארס

Ulla said: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda. And Mar Ukva said: Rabbi Ḥanina allowed me to marry a nursing woman after fifteen months. It is related that Abaye’s tenant farmer came before Abaye to ask a question. He said to him: What is the halakha with regard to betrothing a nursing woman after fifteen months? Abaye said to him: One reason it is permitted is that in disputes between Rabbi Meir and Rabbi Yehuda, the halakha is in accordance with Rabbi Yehuda. And furthermore, this is actually a dispute between earlier tanna’im, and when Beit Shammai and Beit Hillel dispute, the halakha is in accordance with Beit Hillel. And in addition, Ulla said: The halakha is in accordance with Rabbi Yehuda. And Mar Ukva said: Rabbi Ḥanina allowed me to marry after fifteen months, and therefore all the more so you are permitted to betroth her, as you are only betrothing and not marrying her.

כי אתא לקמיה דרב יוסף א"ל רב ושמואל דאמרי תרוייהו צריכה להמתין עשרים וארבעה חדש חוץ מיום שנולד בו וחוץ מיום שנתארסה בו רהט בתריה תלתא פרסי ואמרי לה פרסא בחלא ולא אדרכיה

When Abaye came before Rav Yosef and told him of the incident, Rav Yosef said to him in response: Rav and Shmuel both say: She must wait twenty-four months before even becoming betrothed, excluding the day that the child was born and excluding the day she became betrothed. When Abaye heard this, he ran three parasangs after his tenant farmer, and some say that he ran one parasang [parsa] through sand. He wanted to inform him that he should not rely on the leniency, but rather he should act in accordance with Rav and Shmuel, who prohibited the betrothal, but he did not succeed in catching up to him.

אמר אביי האי מילתא דאמור רבנן אפילו ביעתא בכותחא לא לישרי איניש במקום רביה לא משום דמיחזי כאפקירותא אלא משום דלא מסתייעא מילתא למימרא דהא אנא הוה גמירנא ליה להא דרב ושמואל אפי' הכי לא מסתייעא לי מילתא למימר

Abaye said that he learned from this situation that which the Sages said: A person should not permit even eating an egg in kutaḥ, a dish made with milk, in his teacher’s vicinity. This this is a very simple ruling, as an egg is not meat and may unquestionably be eaten with milk. There are no stringencies that apply to this case, but nevertheless one should not rule even on such a halakha in his teacher’s vicinity. Abaye explained that this is not because it appears disrespectful to teach halakha in one’s teacher’s vicinity, as this is a simple matter that does not require great knowledge of halakha, rather because he will not be successful in saying the matter correctly. An illustration of this principle is what just happened, since I had learned this halakha of Rav and Shmuel, and even so I was unsuccessful in saying it correctly, as I ruled in the vicinity of my teacher, Rav Yosef.

ת"ר נתנה בנה למינקת או גמלתו או מת מותרת לינשא מיד רב פפא ורב הונא בריה דרב יהושע סבור למיעבד עובדא כי הא מתניתא אמרה להו ההיא סבתא בדידי הוה עובדא ואסר לי רב נחמן

§ The Sages taught: If a woman gave her child to a wet nurse during the waiting period, or weaned him, or the child died, she is permitted to marry immediately. It is related that Rav Pappa and Rav Huna, son of Rav Yehoshua, thought to act in accordance with this baraita. However, a certain old woman said to them: There was an incident in which I was involved with regard to this issue and Rav Naḥman prohibited it for me.

איני והא רב נחמן שרא להו לבי ריש גלותא שאני בי ריש גלותא דלא הדר בהו

The Gemara asks: Is that so? Didn’t Rav Naḥman permit this for the members of the Exilarch’s household? The Gemara answers: The Exilarch’s household is different, since people employed by them do not renege out of fear of the consequences. Consequently, if a woman from that household arranges a wet nurse for her child, it is certain that the wet nurse will keep her commitment, whereas with other people there is a danger that if the mother remarries the child might be left without anyone to feed him.

אמר להו רב פפי ואתון לא תסברוה מהא דתניא הרי שהיתה רדופה לילך לבית אביה או שהיה לה כעס בבית בעלה או שהיה בעלה חבוש בבית האסורין או שהלך בעלה למדינת הים או שהיה בעלה זקן או חולה או שהיתה עקרה וזקנה איילונית וקטנה והמפלת אחר מיתת בעלה ושאינה ראויה לילד כולן צריכות להמתין שלשה חדשים דברי ר"מ

Rav Pappi said to Rav Pappa and Rav Huna, son of Rav Yehoshua: And do you not maintain that such a marriage is prohibited from that which is taught in a baraita: If a woman frequently went to her father’s house and had been there for a long time; or she had been angry with her husband and separated from him while still in his house; or her husband had been incarcerated in prison; or her husband had gone overseas; or her husband had been old or ill; or if she was a barren woman, or elderly, or a sexually underdeveloped woman, or a minor girl; or if she had miscarried after the death of her husband; or if she was unfit to give birth for any other reason, although in any of these cases there is no concern that she might be pregnant, they must all wait at least three months. The Sages said that a woman must wait for three months between marriages, so there would be no doubt as to who is the father of any child she may give birth to, and they did not distinguish between different women with regard to this decree. This is the statement of Rabbi Meir.

רבי יוסי מתיר ליארס ולינשא מיד ואמר רב נחמן אמר שמואל הלכה כרבי מאיר בגזירותיו

However, Rabbi Yosei permits all the aforementioned women to be betrothed and to marry immediately, since there is no concern that they may be pregnant. And Rav Naḥman said that Shmuel said: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Meir with regard to all of his decrees. In every place where Rabbi Meir was stringent so as to avoid possibility of error, the halakha is in accordance with his opinion. Consequently, this ruling should apply also to a nursing mother who wishes to remarry; the restriction should apply equally to a woman who had given her child to a wet nurse, or who had weaned him, or whose child had died.

אמרי ליה לאו אדעתין והלכתא מת מותר גמלתו אסור מר בר רב אשי אמר אפילו מת נמי אסור דלמא קטלה ליה ואזלא ומינסבא הוה עובדא וחנקתיה ולא היא ההיא שוטה הואי דלא עבדי נשי דחנקן בנייהו:

They answered him: The matter was not in our mind, meaning that we had forgotten this principle. Nevertheless, the Gemara concludes: The halakha is that if a nursing mother’s child died, the mother is permitted to marry immediately, but if she had weaned him, she is prohibited from marrying, lest she forcibly wean him prematurely. Mar bar Rav Ashi said: Even if the child died, she is also prohibited from marrying, because if it were permitted when the child dies, there would be concern that she might kill him and then go and get married. It is related that there was an incident where a woman strangled her child for this reason. The Gemara concludes that that is not so, i.e., this incident does not affect the halakha. That woman was insane, and since women do not ordinarily strangle their children, one need not be concerned about this happening.

תנו רבנן הרי שנתנו לה בן להניק הרי זו לא תניק עמו לא בנה ולא בן חברתה פסקה קימעא אוכלת הרבה לא תאכל עמו דברים הרעים לחלב

§ The Sages taught: If someone gave a child to a wet nurse, and she agreed to nurse him for payment, she may not nurse her own child or another woman’s child together with him, in order that she not take away milk from the child she is being paid to nurse. Even if she fixed a small allowance for food with the payment for nursing, she must nevertheless eat large quantities so that she will have enough milk. And she may not eat together with him, i.e., while she is nursing the child, things that are bad for her milk.

השתא בנה אמרת לא בן חברתה מיבעיא מהו דתימא בנה הוא דחייס עילויה ממציא ליה טפי אבל בן חברתה אי לאו דהוה לה מותר לא הוה ממציא ליה קא משמע לן

The Gemara asks about this baraita: Now that you said that she may not nurse her own child together with her client’s child, is it necessary to say that she cannot nurse another woman’s child? The Gemara answers: Lest you say that the prohibition is limited to her child, as there is a concern that since she favors him, she will feed him more milk than the other child, but with regard to another woman’s child, if she did not have surplus milk she would not feed him, and therefore it should be permitted, the baraita therefore teaches us not to distinguish between the cases.

פסקה קימעא אוכלת הרבה מהיכא אמר רב ששת משלה

The baraita said that even if she fixed a small allowance for food, she must eat large quantities. The Gemara asks: From where should she get this food if the allowance cannot cover it? Rav Sheshet said: From her own funds. Because she accepted an obligation to nurse the child, she must take the necessary steps to fulfill her obligation.

לא תאכל עמו דברים הרעים מאי נינהו א"ר כהנא כגון כשות וחזיז ודגים קטנים ואדמה אביי אמר אפילו קרא וחבושא רב פפא אמר אפילו קרא וכופרא רב אשי אמר אפי' כמכא והרסנא מינייהו פסקי חלבא מינייהו עכרי חלבא:

The baraita said: She may not eat together with him things that are bad for her milk. The Gemara asks: What are these foods that are detrimental for milk? Rav Kahana said: For example, hops; and young, green grain sprouts; small fish; and soil. Abaye said: Even pumpkin and quince. Rav Pappa said: Even pumpkin and palm branches with small, unripe dates. Rav Ashi said: Even kutaḥ [kamka] and small fried fish. All these items are bad, as some cause milk to dry up and some cause milk to spoil.

דמשמשא בי ריחיא הוו לה בני נכפי דמשמשא על ארעא הוו לה בני שמוטי דדרכא על רמא דחמרא הוו לה בני גירדני דאכלה חרדלא הוו לה בני זלזלני דאכלה תחלי הוו לה בני דולפני דאכלה מוניני הוו לה בני מציצי עינא דאכלה גרגושתא הוו לה בני מכוערי דשתיא שיכרא הוו לה בני אוכמי דאכלה בישרא ושתיא חמרא הוו לה בני

The Gemara cites other possible consequences of a mother’s behavior that could affect her children: A woman who engages in intercourse in a mill will have epileptic children; one who engages in intercourse on the ground will have long-necked children; one who steps on a donkey’s dung when pregnant will have bald children; one who eats mustard during pregnancy will have gluttonous children; one who eats garden cress [taḥlei] will have tearful children; one who eats fish brine [moninei] will have children with blinking eyes; one who eats soil will have ugly children; one who drinks intoxicating liquor will have black children; one who eats meat and drinks wine during pregnancy will have children who are