Ketubot 106a:2-3כתובות ק״ו א:ב׳-ג׳
The William Davidson Talmudתלמוד מהדורת ויליאם דוידסון
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106aק״ו א

האי עשה והאי עשה עשה דכבוד תורה עדיף סלקיה לדינא דיתמי ואחתיה לדיניה כיון דחזא בעל דיניה יקרא דקא עביד ליה איסתתם טענתיה:

This is a positive mitzva, for judges to judge cases properly, and this is a positive mitzva, to honor Torah scholars and their families. Rav Naḥman concluded that the positive mitzva of giving honor to the Torah takes precedence. Therefore, he put aside the case of the orphans and settled down to judge the case of that man, under the mistaken assumption that he was a relative of Rav Anan. Once the other litigant saw the honor being accorded to that man by the judge, he grew nervous until his mouth, i.e., his ability to argue his claim, became closed, and he lost the case. In this manner, justice was perverted by Rav Anan, albeit unwittingly and indirectly.

רב ענן הוה רגיל אליהו דאתי גביה דהוה מתני ליה סדר דאליהו כיון דעבד הכי איסתלק יתיב בתעניתא ובעא רחמי ואתא כי אתא הוה מבעית ליה בעותי

Elijah the Prophet was accustomed to come and visit Rav Anan, as the prophet was teaching him the statements that would later be recorded in the volume Seder deEliyahu, the Order of Elijah. Once Rav Anan did this and caused a miscarriage of justice, Elijah departed. Rav Anan sat in observance of a fast and prayed for mercy, and Elijah came back. However, when Elijah came after that, he would scare him, as he would appear in frightening forms.

ועבד תיבותא ויתיב קמיה עד דאפיק ליה סידריה והיינו דאמרי סדר דאליהו רבה סדר אליהו זוטא

And Rav Anan made a box where he settled himself down and he sat before Elijah until he took out for him, i.e., taught him, all of his Seder. And this is what the Sages mean when they say: Seder deEliyahu Rabba, the Major Order of Elijah, and Seder Eliyahu Zuta, the Minor Order of Elijah, as the first order was taught prior to this incident and the second came after it.

בשני דרב יוסף הוה ריתחא אמרי ליה רבנן לרב יוסף ליבעי מר רחמי אמר להו השתא ומה אלישע דכי הוו רבנן מיפטרי מקמיה הוו פיישי תרי אלפן ומאתן רבנן בעידן ריתחא לא הוה בעי רחמי אנא איבעי רחמי

§ The Gemara relates: In the years of Rav Yosef there was a divine anger, manifested by world hunger. The Sages said to Rav Yosef: Let the Master pray for mercy concerning this decree. He said to them: Now, if in the case of the prophet Elisha, when the Sages would take their leave of him, 2,200 Sages would remain behind whom he would support from his own pocket, and yet he would not pray for mercy at a time of divine anger and famine, should I pray for mercy?

וממאי דפיישי הכי דכתיב (מלכים ב ד, מג) ויאמר משרתו מה אתן זה לפני מאה איש מאי לפני מאה איש אילימא דכולהו לפני מאה איש בשני בצורת טובא הוו אלא דכל חד וחד קמי מאה איש

The Gemara asks: And from where is it derived that this number of scholars would remain behind with Elisha? As it is written: “And his servant said: How should I set this before a hundred men” (II Kings 4:43). What is the meaning of “before a hundred men”? If we say that all of the gifts that he had received, i.e., the first fruits, twenty loaves of barley, and fresh ears of corn mentioned in the preceding verse, were meant to be placed before one hundred men, in years of drought and famine this was a good deal of food, which would have sufficed for them. Rather, it must mean that each and every one of the loaves was to be placed before one hundred men. Since he had twenty loaves plus two meals of first-fruits and ears of corn, there must have been 2,200 people present.

כי הוו מיפטרי רבנן מבי רב הוו פיישי אלפא ומאתן רבנן מבי רב הונא הוו פיישי תמני מאה רבנן רב הונא הוה דריש בתליסר אמוראי כי הוו קיימי רבנן ממתיבתא דרב הונא ונפצי גלימייהו הוה סליק אבקא וכסי ליה ליומא ואמרי במערבא קמו ליה ממתיבתא דרב הונא בבלאה

§ Incidentally, the Gemara relates: When the Sages would take their leave from the school of Rav, 1,200 Sages would remain behind to continue their studies. When the Sages would take their leave from the school of Rav Huna, eight hundred Sages would remain behind. Rav Huna would expound the lesson by means of thirteen speakers, who would repeat his statements to the crowds that had gathered to hear him. When the Sages would arise from listening to lectures in the yeshiva of Rav Huna and dust off their cloaks, the dust would rise and block out the sun, forming a dust cloud that could be seen from afar. And they would say in the West, in Eretz Yisrael: The scholars have just arisen in the yeshiva of Rav Huna the Babylonian.

כי מיפטרי רבנן מבי רבה ורב יוסף הוו פיישי ארבע מאה רבנן וקרו לנפשייהו יתמי כי הוו מיפטרי רבנן מבי אביי ואמרי לה מבי רב פפא ואמרי לה מבי רב אשי הוו פיישי מאתן רבנן וקרו נפשייהו יתמי דיתמי

When the Sages would take their leave from the school of Rabba and Rav Yosef, four hundred Sages would remain behind, and they would refer to themselves as orphans, as they were the only ones left from the entire crowd. When the Sages would take their leave from the school of Abaye, and some say from the school of Rav Pappa, and some say from the school of Rav Ashi, two hundred scholars would remain behind, and they would refer to themselves as orphans of orphans.

א"ר יצחק בר רדיפא א"ר אמי מבקרי מומין שבירושלים היו נוטלין שכרן מתרומת הלשכה אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל ת"ח המלמדין הלכות שחיטה לכהנים היו נוטלין שכרן מתרומת הלשכה

§ The Gemara returns to the issue of those who receive their wages from public funds. Rabbi Yitzḥak bar Redifa said that Rabbi Ami said: Inspectors of blemishes of consecrated animals in Jerusalem, who would examine all animals brought to be sacrificed in the Temple to verify that they were free of any blemishes that would disqualify them from being sacrificed on the altar, would take their wages from the collection of the Temple treasury chamber. Rav Yehuda said that Shmuel said: Torah scholars who teach the halakhot of slaughter to the priests of the Temple would take their wages from the collection of the chamber.

אמר רב גידל אמר רב ת"ח המלמדים הלכות קמיצה לכהנים נוטלין שכרן מתרומת הלשכה אמר רבה בר בר חנה אמר ר' יוחנן מגיהי ספרים שבירושלים היו נוטלין שכרן מתרומת הלשכה

Rav Giddel said that Rav said: Torah scholars who teach the halakhot of the removal of a handful to the priests would take their wages from the collection of the chamber. All these scholars were constantly engaged in work necessary for the functioning of the Temple, and therefore they would receive their wages from the Temple treasury. Rabba bar bar Ḥana said that Rabbi Yoḥanan said: The proofreaders of the Torah scrolls in Jerusalem would take their wages from the collection of the chamber.

אמר רב נחמן אמר רב נשים האורגות בפרכות נוטלות שכרן מתרומת הלשכה ואני אומר מקדשי בדק הבית הואיל ופרכות תחת בנין עשויות

Rav Naḥman said that Rav said: The women who weave the curtains that separate the Temple Sanctuary from the Holy of Holies would take their wages from the collection of the chamber. Rav Naḥman added: But I say that they would not be paid from the collection of the chamber; rather, their salary would come from the funds consecrated for Temple maintenance. Why? Since the curtains served in place of the solid construction of the building, they were part of the Temple itself. Therefore, any work performed for the curtains should be paid for from money allocated for building purposes, not from the funds collected to pay for offerings and the daily needs of the Temple.

מיתיבי נשים האורגות בפרכות ובית גרמו על מעשה לחם הפנים ובית אבטינס על מעשה הקטרת כולן היו נוטלות שכרן מתרומת הלשכה

The Gemara raises an objection to this: The women who weave the curtains, and the house of Garmu, who were in charge of the preparation of the shewbread, and the house of Avtinas, who were in charge of the preparation of the incense, all would take their wages from the collection of the chamber. This contradicts Rav Naḥman’s claim.

התם בדבבי דאמר רבי זירא אמר רב שלשה עשר פרכות היו במקדש שני שבעה כנגד שבעה שערים אחד לפתחו של היכל ואחד לפתחו של אולם ב' בדביר ב' כנגדן בעליה:

The Gemara answers: There, it is referring to the curtains of the gates, which were not considered part of the actual Temple building but were decorative in purpose. As Rabbi Zeira said that Rav said: There were thirteen curtains in the Second Temple, seven opposite, i.e., on the inside of, seven gates, one at the entrance to the Sanctuary, one at the entrance to the Entrance Hall, two additional curtains within the partition, in the Holy of Holies in place of the one-cubit partition, and two corresponding to them above in the upper chamber.

ת"ר נשים המגדלות בניהן לפרה היו נוטלות שכרן מתרומת הלשכה אבא שאול אומר נשים יקרות שבירושלים היו זנות אותן ומפרנסות אותן

The Sages taught: With regard to the women who raise their children for the red heifer, i.e., who would raise their children in special places so that they would live their entire lives up to that point in a state of ritual purity, enabling them to draw the water for the purposes of the ritual of the red heifer, these women would take their wages from the collection of the chamber. Abba Shaul said: Their wages would not come from the collection of the chamber. Instead, wealthy and prominent women of Jerusalem would sustain them and provide them with a livelihood.

בעא מיניה רב הונא מרב

Rav Huna raised a dilemma before Rav: