18י״ח
1 א

בַּיָּמִ֣ים הָהֵ֔ם אֵ֥ין מֶ֖לֶךְ בְּיִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל וּבַיָּמִ֣ים הָהֵ֗ם שֵׁ֣בֶט הַדָּנִ֞י מְבַקֶּשׁ־ל֤וֹ נַֽחֲלָה֙ לָשֶׁ֔בֶת כִּי֩ לֹֽא־נָ֨פְלָה לּ֜וֹ עַד־הַיּ֥וֹם הַה֛וּא בְּתוֹךְ־שִׁבְטֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל בְּנַחֲלָֽה׃ (ס)

In those days there was no king in Israel, and in those days the tribe of Dan was seeking a territory in which to settle; for to that day no territory had fallen to their lot among the tribes of Israel.

2 ב

וַיִּשְׁלְח֣וּ בְנֵי־דָ֣ן ׀ מִֽמִּשְׁפַּחְתָּ֡ם חֲמִשָּׁ֣ה אֲנָשִׁ֣ים מִקְצוֹתָם֩ אֲנָשִׁ֨ים בְּנֵי־חַ֜יִל מִצָּרְעָ֣ה וּמֵֽאֶשְׁתָּאֹ֗ל לְרַגֵּ֤ל אֶת־הָאָ֙רֶץ֙ וּלְחָקְרָ֔הּ וַיֹּאמְר֣וּ אֲלֵהֶ֔ם לְכ֖וּ חִקְר֣וּ אֶת־הָאָ֑רֶץ וַיָּבֹ֤אוּ הַר־אֶפְרַ֙יִם֙ עַד־בֵּ֣ית מִיכָ֔ה וַיָּלִ֖ינוּ שָֽׁם׃

The Danites sent out five of their number, from their clan seat at Zorah and Eshtaol—valiant men—to spy out the land and explore it. “Go,” they told them, “and explore the land.” When they had advanced into the hill country of Ephraim as far as the house of Micah, they stopped there for the night.

3 ג

הֵ֚מָּה עִם־בֵּ֣ית מִיכָ֔ה וְהֵ֣מָּה הִכִּ֔ירוּ אֶת־ק֥וֹל הַנַּ֖עַר הַלֵּוִ֑י וַיָּס֣וּרוּ שָׁ֗ם וַיֹּ֤אמְרוּ לוֹ֙ מִֽי־הֱבִיאֲךָ֣ הֲלֹ֔ם וּמָֽה־אַתָּ֥ה עֹשֶׂ֛ה בָּזֶ֖ה וּמַה־לְּךָ֥ פֹֽה׃

While in the vicinity of Micah’s house, they recognized the speech of the young Levite, so they went over and asked him, “Who brought you to these parts? What are you doing in this place? What is your business here?”

4 ד

וַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֲלֵהֶ֔ם כָּזֹ֣ה וְכָזֶ֔ה עָ֥שָׂה לִ֖י מִיכָ֑ה וַיִּשְׂכְּרֵ֕נִי וָאֱהִי־ל֖וֹ לְכֹהֵֽן׃

He replied, “Thus and thus Micah did for me—he hired me and I became his priest.”

5 ה

וַיֹּ֥אמְרוּ ל֖וֹ שְׁאַל־נָ֣א בֵאלֹהִ֑ים וְנֵ֣דְעָ֔ה הֲתַצְלִ֣יחַ דַּרְכֵּ֔נוּ אֲשֶׁ֥ר אֲנַ֖חְנוּ הֹלְכִ֥ים עָלֶֽיהָ׃

They said to him, “Please, inquire of God; we would like to know if the mission on which we are going will be successful.”

6 ו

וַיֹּ֧אמֶר לָהֶ֛ם הַכֹּהֵ֖ן לְכ֣וּ לְשָׁל֑וֹם נֹ֣כַח יְהוָ֔ה דַּרְכְּכֶ֖ם אֲשֶׁ֥ר תֵּֽלְכוּ־בָֽהּ׃ (פ)

“Go in peace,” the priest said to them, “the LORD views with favor the mission you are going on.”

7 ז

וַיֵּלְכוּ֙ חֲמֵ֣שֶׁת הָאֲנָשִׁ֔ים וַיָּבֹ֖אוּ לָ֑יְשָׁה וַיִּרְא֣וּ אֶת־הָעָ֣ם אֲשֶׁר־בְּקִרְבָּ֣הּ יוֹשֶֽׁבֶת־לָ֠בֶטַח כְּמִשְׁפַּ֨ט צִדֹנִ֜ים שֹׁקֵ֣ט ׀ וּבֹטֵ֗חַ וְאֵין־מַכְלִ֨ים דָּבָ֤ר בָּאָ֙רֶץ֙ יוֹרֵ֣שׁ עֶ֔צֶר וּרְחֹקִ֥ים הֵ֙מָּה֙ מִצִּ֣דֹנִ֔ים וְדָבָ֥ר אֵין־לָהֶ֖ם עִם־אָדָֽם׃

The five men went on and came to Laish. They observed the people in it dwelling carefree, after the manner of the Sidonians, a tranquil and unsuspecting people, with no one in the land to molest them and with no hereditary ruler. Moreover, they were distant from the Sidonians and had no dealings with anybody.

8 ח

וַיָּבֹ֙אוּ֙ אֶל־אֲחֵיהֶ֔ם צָרְעָ֖ה וְאֶשְׁתָּאֹ֑ל וַיֹּאמְר֥וּ לָהֶ֛ם אֲחֵיהֶ֖ם מָ֥ה אַתֶּֽם׃

When [the men] came back to their kinsmen at Zorah and Eshtaol, their kinsmen asked them, “How did you fare?”

9 ט

וַיֹּאמְר֗וּ ק֚וּמָה וְנַעֲלֶ֣ה עֲלֵיהֶ֔ם כִּ֤י רָאִ֙ינוּ֙ אֶת־הָאָ֔רֶץ וְהִנֵּ֥ה טוֹבָ֖ה מְאֹ֑ד וְאַתֶּ֣ם מַחְשִׁ֔ים אַל־תֵּעָ֣צְל֔וּ לָלֶ֥כֶת לָבֹ֖א לָרֶ֥שֶׁת אֶת־הָאָֽרֶץ׃

They replied, “Let us go at once and attack them! For we found that the land was very good, and you are sitting idle! Don’t delay; go and invade the land and take possession of it,

10 י

כְּבֹאֲכֶ֞ם תָּבֹ֣אוּ ׀ אֶל־עַ֣ם בֹּטֵ֗חַ וְהָאָ֙רֶץ֙ רַחֲבַ֣ת יָדַ֔יִם כִּֽי־נְתָנָ֥הּ אֱלֹהִ֖ים בְּיֶדְכֶ֑ם מָקוֹם֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר אֵֽין־שָׁ֣ם מַחְס֔וֹר כָּל־דָּבָ֖ר אֲשֶׁ֥ר בָּאָֽרֶץ׃

for God has delivered it into your hand. When you come, you will come to an unsuspecting people; and the land is spacious and nothing on earth is lacking there.”

11 יא

וַיִּסְע֤וּ מִשָּׁם֙ מִמִּשְׁפַּ֣חַת הַדָּנִ֔י מִצָּרְעָ֖ה וּמֵאֶשְׁתָּאֹ֑ל שֵֽׁשׁ־מֵא֣וֹת אִ֔ישׁ חָג֖וּר כְּלֵ֥י מִלְחָמָֽה׃

They departed from there, from the clan seat of the Danites, from Zorah and Eshtaol, six hundred strong, girt with weapons of war.

12 יב

וַֽיַּעֲל֗וּ וַֽיַּחֲנ֛וּ בְּקִרְיַ֥ת יְעָרִ֖ים בִּֽיהוּדָ֑ה עַל־כֵּ֡ן קָרְאוּ֩ לַמָּק֨וֹם הַה֜וּא מַחֲנֵה־דָ֗ן עַ֚ד הַיּ֣וֹם הַזֶּ֔ה הִנֵּ֕ה אַחֲרֵ֖י קִרְיַ֥ת יְעָרִֽים׃

They went up and encamped at Kiriath-jearim in Judah. That is why that place is called “the Camp of Dan” to this day; it lies west of Kiriath-jearim.

13 יג

וַיַּעַבְר֥וּ מִשָּׁ֖ם הַר־אֶפְרָ֑יִם וַיָּבֹ֖אוּ עַד־בֵּ֥ית מִיכָֽה׃

From there they passed on to the hill country of Ephraim and arrived at the house of Micah.

14 יד

וַֽיַּעֲנ֞וּ חֲמֵ֣שֶׁת הָאֲנָשִׁ֗ים הַהֹלְכִים֮ לְרַגֵּל֮ אֶת־הָאָ֣רֶץ לַיִשׁ֒ וַיֹּֽאמְרוּ֙ אֶל־אֲחֵיהֶ֔ם הַיְדַעְתֶּ֗ם כִּ֠י יֵ֣שׁ בַּבָּתִּ֤ים הָאֵ֙לֶּה֙ אֵפ֣וֹד וּתְרָפִ֔ים וּפֶ֖סֶל וּמַסֵּכָ֑ה וְעַתָּ֖ה דְּע֥וּ מַֽה־תַּעֲשֽׂוּ׃

Here the five men who had gone to spy out the Laish region remarked to their kinsmen, “Do you know, there is an ephod in these houses, and teraphim, and a sculptured image and a molten image? Now you know what you have to do.”

15 טו

וַיָּס֣וּרוּ שָׁ֔מָּה וַיָּבֹ֛אוּ אֶל־בֵּֽית־הַנַּ֥עַר הַלֵּוִ֖י בֵּ֣ית מִיכָ֑ה וַיִּשְׁאֲלוּ־ל֖וֹ לְשָׁלֽוֹם׃

So they turned off there and entered the home of the young Levite at Micah’s house and greeted him.

16 טז

וְשֵׁשׁ־מֵא֣וֹת אִ֗ישׁ חֲגוּרִים֙ כְּלֵ֣י מִלְחַמְתָּ֔ם נִצָּבִ֖ים פֶּ֣תַח הַשָּׁ֑עַר אֲשֶׁ֖ר מִבְּנֵי־דָֽן׃

The six hundred Danite men, girt with their weapons of war, stood at the entrance of the gate,

17 יז

וַֽיַּעֲל֞וּ חֲמֵ֣שֶׁת הָאֲנָשִׁ֗ים הַהֹלְכִים֮ לְרַגֵּ֣ל אֶת־הָאָרֶץ֒ בָּ֣אוּ שָׁ֔מָּה לָקְח֗וּ אֶת־הַפֶּ֙סֶל֙ וְאֶת־הָ֣אֵפ֔וֹד וְאֶת־הַתְּרָפִ֖ים וְאֶת־הַמַּסֵּכָ֑ה וְהַכֹּהֵ֗ן נִצָּב֙ פֶּ֣תַח הַשַּׁ֔עַר וְשֵׁשׁ־מֵא֣וֹת הָאִ֔ישׁ הֶחָג֖וּר כְּלֵ֥י הַמִּלְחָמָֽה׃

while the five men who had gone to spy out the land went inside and took the sculptured image, the ephod, the teraphim, and the molten image. The priest was standing at the entrance of the gate, and the six hundred men girt with their weapons of war,

18 יח

וְאֵ֗לֶּה בָּ֚אוּ בֵּ֣ית מִיכָ֔ה וַיִּקְחוּ֙ אֶת־פֶּ֣סֶל הָאֵפ֔וֹד וְאֶת־הַתְּרָפִ֖ים וְאֶת־הַמַּסֵּכָ֑ה וַיֹּ֤אמֶר אֲלֵיהֶם֙ הַכֹּהֵ֔ן מָ֥ה אַתֶּ֖ם עֹשִֽׂים׃

while those men entered Micah’s house and took the sculptured image, the molten image, the ephod, and the household gods. The priest said to them, “What are you doing?”

19 יט

וַיֹּאמְרוּ֩ ל֨וֹ הַחֲרֵ֜שׁ שִֽׂים־יָדְךָ֤ עַל־פִּ֙יךָ֙ וְלֵ֣ךְ עִמָּ֔נוּ וֶֽהְיֵה־לָ֖נוּ לְאָ֣ב וּלְכֹהֵ֑ן הֲט֣וֹב ׀ הֱיוֹתְךָ֣ כֹהֵ֗ן לְבֵית֙ אִ֣ישׁ אֶחָ֔ד א֚וֹ הֱיוֹתְךָ֣ כֹהֵ֔ן לְשֵׁ֥בֶט וּלְמִשְׁפָּחָ֖ה בְּיִשְׂרָאֵֽל׃

But they said to him, “Be quiet; put your hand on your mouth! Come with us and be our father and priest. Would you rather be priest to one man’s household or be priest to a tribe and clan in Israel?”

20 כ

וַיִּיטַב֙ לֵ֣ב הַכֹּהֵ֔ן וַיִּקַּח֙ אֶת־הָ֣אֵפ֔וֹד וְאֶת־הַתְּרָפִ֖ים וְאֶת־הַפָּ֑סֶל וַיָּבֹ֖א בְּקֶ֥רֶב הָעָֽם׃

The priest was delighted. He took the ephod, the household gods, and the sculptured image, and he joined the people.

21 כא

וַיִּפְנ֖וּ וַיֵּלֵ֑כוּ וַיָּשִׂ֨ימוּ אֶת־הַטַּ֧ף וְאֶת־הַמִּקְנֶ֛ה וְאֶת־הַכְּבוּדָּ֖ה לִפְנֵיהֶֽם׃

They set out again, placing the children, the cattle, and their household goods in front.

22 כב

הֵ֥מָּה הִרְחִ֖יקוּ מִבֵּ֣ית מִיכָ֑ה וְהָאֲנָשִׁ֗ים אֲשֶׁ֤ר בַּבָּתִּים֙ אֲשֶׁר֙ עִם־בֵּ֣ית מִיכָ֔ה נִֽזְעֲק֔וּ וַיַּדְבִּ֖יקוּ אֶת־בְּנֵי־דָֽן׃

They had already gone some distance from Micah’s house, when the men in the houses near Micah’s mustered and caught up with the Danites.

23 כג

וַֽיִּקְרְאוּ֙ אֶל־בְּנֵי־דָ֔ן וַיַּסֵּ֖בּוּ פְּנֵיהֶ֑ם וַיֹּאמְר֣וּ לְמִיכָ֔ה מַה־לְּךָ֖ כִּ֥י נִזְעָֽקְתָּ׃

They called out to the Danites, who turned around and said to Micah, “What’s the matter? Why have you mustered?”

24 כד

וַיֹּ֡אמֶר אֶת־אֱלֹהַי֩ אֲשֶׁר־עָשִׂ֨יתִי לְקַחְתֶּ֧ם וְֽאֶת־הַכֹּהֵ֛ן וַתֵּלְכ֖וּ וּמַה־לִּ֣י ע֑וֹד וּמַה־זֶּ֛ה תֹּאמְר֥וּ אֵלַ֖י מַה־לָּֽךְ׃

He said, “You have taken my priest and the gods that I made, and walked off! What do I have left? How can you ask, ‘What’s the matter’?”

25 כה

וַיֹּאמְר֤וּ אֵלָיו֙ בְּנֵי־דָ֔ן אַל־תַּשְׁמַ֥ע קוֹלְךָ֖ עִמָּ֑נוּ פֶּֽן־יִפְגְּע֣וּ בָכֶ֗ם אֲנָשִׁים֙ מָ֣רֵי נֶ֔פֶשׁ וְאָסַפְתָּ֥ה נַפְשְׁךָ֖ וְנֶ֥פֶשׁ בֵּיתֶֽךָ׃

But the Danites replied, “Don’t do any shouting at us, or some desperate men might attack you, and you and your family would lose your lives.”

26 כו

וַיֵּלְכ֥וּ בְנֵי־דָ֖ן לְדַרְכָּ֑ם וַיַּ֣רְא מִיכָ֗ה כִּי־חֲזָקִ֥ים הֵ֙מָּה֙ מִמֶּ֔נּוּ וַיִּ֖פֶן וַיָּ֥שָׁב אֶל־בֵּיתֽוֹ׃

So Micah, realizing that they were stronger than he, turned back and went home; and the Danites went on their way,

27 כז

וְהֵ֨מָּה לָקְח֜וּ אֵ֧ת אֲשֶׁר־עָשָׂ֣ה מִיכָ֗ה וְֽאֶת־הַכֹּהֵן֮ אֲשֶׁ֣ר הָיָה־לוֹ֒ וַיָּבֹ֣אוּ עַל־לַ֗יִשׁ עַל־עַם֙ שֹׁקֵ֣ט וּבֹטֵ֔חַ וַיַּכּ֥וּ אוֹתָ֖ם לְפִי־חָ֑רֶב וְאֶת־הָעִ֖יר שָׂרְפ֥וּ בָאֵֽשׁ׃

taking the things Micah had made and the priest he had acquired. They proceeded to Laish, a people tranquil and unsuspecting, and they put them to the sword and burned down the town.

28 כח

וְאֵ֨ין מַצִּ֜יל כִּ֧י רְֽחוֹקָה־הִ֣יא מִצִּיד֗וֹן וְדָבָ֤ר אֵין־לָהֶם֙ עִם־אָדָ֔ם וְהִ֕יא בָּעֵ֖מֶק אֲשֶׁ֣ר לְבֵית־רְח֑וֹב וַיִּבְנ֥וּ אֶת־הָעִ֖יר וַיֵּ֥שְׁבוּ בָֽהּ׃

There was none to come to the rescue, for it was distant from Sidon and they had no dealings with anyone; it lay in the valley of Beth-rehob. They rebuilt the town and settled there,

29 כט

וַיִּקְרְא֤וּ שֵׁם־הָעִיר֙ דָּ֔ן בְּשֵׁם֙ דָּ֣ן אֲבִיהֶ֔ם אֲשֶׁ֥ר יוּלַּ֖ד לְיִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל וְאוּלָ֛ם לַ֥יִשׁ שֵׁם־הָעִ֖יר לָרִאשֹׁנָֽה׃

and they named the town Dan, after their ancestor Dan who was Israel’s son. Originally, however, the name of the town was Laish.

30 ל

וַיָּקִ֧ימוּ לָהֶ֛ם בְּנֵי־דָ֖ן אֶת־הַפָּ֑סֶל וִ֠יהוֹנָתָן בֶּן־גֵּרְשֹׁ֨ם בֶּן־מְנַשֶּׁ֜ה ה֣וּא וּבָנָ֗יו הָי֤וּ כֹהֲנִים֙ לְשֵׁ֣בֶט הַדָּנִ֔י עַד־י֖וֹם גְּל֥וֹת הָאָֽרֶץ׃

The Danites set up the sculptured image for themselves; and Jonathan son of Gershom son of Manasseh, and his descendants, served as priests to the Danite tribe until the land went into exile.

31 לא

וַיָּשִׂ֣ימוּ לָהֶ֔ם אֶת־פֶּ֥סֶל מִיכָ֖ה אֲשֶׁ֣ר עָשָׂ֑ה כָּל־יְמֵ֛י הֱי֥וֹת בֵּית־הָאֱלֹהִ֖ים בְּשִׁלֹֽה׃ (פ)

They maintained the sculptured image that Micah had made throughout the time that the House of God stood at Shiloh.

18:30י״ח:ל׳
1 א

בן מנשה. מפני כבודו של משה כתוב נו"ן לשנות את השם, ונכתב תלויה לומר שלא היה מנשה אלא משה:

Ben Menasheh. In deference to Moshe, the letter "nun" was included, thus altering the name. It is scripturally suspended to indicate that he was actually not Menasheh, but Moshe.10Bava Basra 109b.

2 ב

עד יום גלות הארץ. בימי סנחריב בגלות ראשונה:

Until the day of the exile from the land. During the time of Sancheriv, at the first exile.

Bava Batra 109b:8בבא בתרא ק״ט ב:ח
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109bק״ט ב

ואי אתה מעביר נחלה מן האב אפילו במקום בת אם כן לא נכתוב רחמנא והעברתם

but you do not pass an inheritance from the father even in a case where there is a daughter, so that the father precedes the daughter in the order of inheritance? The Gemara answers: If so, the Merciful One would not write: “Then you shall pass the inheritance to his daughter” (Numbers 27:8). This indicates that the logical order of inheritance is being overridden, as the fact that the daughter precedes the brothers of the deceased is due to her being a closer relative of his. It is obvious that the Torah intends that she precede even the father.

ולמאן דנפקא ליה מוהעברתם האי שארו מאי עביד ליה מיבעי ליה לכדתניא שארו זו אשתו מלמד שהבעל יורש את אשתו

Having quoted two derivations for the halakha that the father precedes the brothers, the Gemara proceeds to discuss them and asks: And according to the one who derives it from the term: “And you shall pass,” what does he do with this term: “His kinsman,” which was said to refer to the father? The Gemara answers: He requires it for that which is taught in a baraita: “His kinsman.” This is referring to his wife, and the Torah teaches that a husband inherits from his wife.

ולמאן דנפקא ליה משארו האי והעברתם מאי עביד ליה מיבעי ליה לכדתניא רבי אומר בכולן נאמר בהן נתינה וכאן נאמרה בהן העברה שאין לך שמעביר נחלה משבט לשבט אלא בת הואיל ובנה ובעלה יורשין אותה

The Gemara asks: And according to the one who derives it from the term: “His kinsman,” what does he do with this term: “And you shall pass”? He requires it for that which is taught in a baraita, that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi says: In the context of all of the relatives listed in the passage detailing the laws of inheritance, it is stated concerning them with the terminology of giving, and only here, in the context of daughters, it is stated concerning them with the terminology of passing. This teaches us that you have no one who passes an inheritance of land in Eretz Yisrael from one tribe to another except for a daughter, since her son and husband inherit from her.

וממאי דשארו זה האב דכתיב (ויקרא יח, יב) שאר אביך הוא אימא שארו זו האם דכתיב (ויקרא יח, יג) שאר אמך היא

§ The Gemara returns to discuss the interpretation of the term: “His kinsman” (Numbers 27:11). And from where does one know to derive that with regard to the term: “His kinsman [she’ero],” this is referring to the father, as it is written in the context of forbidden sexual relations: “She is your father’s kinswoman [she’er]” (Leviticus 18:12)? Perhaps one should say instead: “His kinswoman,” this is referring to the mother, as it is also written: “For she is your mother’s kinswoman [she’er]” (Leviticus 18:13).

אמר רבא אמר קרא (במדבר כז, יא) ממשפחתו וירש אותה משפחת אב קרויה משפחה משפחת אם אינה קרויה משפחה דכתיב (במדבר א, ב) למשפחותם לבית אבותם

Rava said in response that the verse states: “Then you shall give his inheritance to his kinsman who is next to him of his family, and he shall inherit it” (Numbers 27:11), emphasizing that “kinsman” is referring specifically to someone who is of his family, and it is the father’s family that is called one’s family, while one’s mother’s family is not called one’s family. Proof for this is found in another verse, as it is written: “By their families, by their fathers’ houses” (Numbers 1:2).

ומשפחת אם אינה קרויה משפחה והא כתיב (שופטים יז, ז) ויהי נער מבית לחם יהודה ממשפחת יהודה והוא לוי והוא גר שם הא גופא קשיא אמרת והוא לוי אלמא מלוי אתי ממשפחת יהודה אלמא מיהודה אתי אלא לאו דאבוה מלוי ואימיה מיהודה וקאמר ממשפחת יהודה

The Gemara raises a difficulty: And is one’s mother’s family indeed not called one’s family? But it is written in the episode of Micah forming an idol to be worshipped: “And there was a young man of Bethlehem in Judah of the family of Judah who was a Levite, and he sojourned there” (Judges 17:7). The Gemara explains the difficulty: This matter itself is difficult. You said: “Who was a Levite,” as apparently he came from the tribe of Levi, but the verse says: “Of the family of Judah,” so apparently he came from the tribe of Judah. Rather, is it not that his father was from the tribe of Levi and his mother was from the tribe of Judah, and yet the verse says that he was: “Of the family of Judah”? This appears to prove that one’s mother’s family is also called his family.

אמר רבא בר רב חנן לא גברא דשמיה לוי אי הכי היינו דקאמר מיכה (שופטים יז, יג) עתה ידעתי כי ייטיב ה' לי כי היה לי הלוי לכהן אין דאיתרמי ליה גברא דשמיה לוי

Rava bar Rav Ḥanan said in response: No, the verse speaks of a man whose name was Levi, but his father was of the tribe of Judah. The Gemara asks: If that is so, how is that which Micah said when that man agreed to serve as his priest: “Now I know that the Lord will do me good, seeing that I have a Levite as my priest” (Judges 17:13), understood? It is understood only if he was an actual Levite, not if he was from the tribe of Judah and named Levi. Rava bar Rav Ḥanan responded: Yes, it is understood. Micah understood the fact that a man whose name is Levi happened upon him as an auspicious sign.

וכי לוי שמו והלא יהונתן שמו שנאמ' (שופטים יח, ל) ויהונתן בן גרשם בן מנשה הוא ובניו היו כהנים לשבט הדני אמר ליה וליטעמיך וכי בן מנשה הוא והלא בן משה הוא דכתיב (דברי הימים א כג, טו) בני משה גרשם ואליעזר

The Gemara asks further: But is it so that his name was indeed Levi; but wasn’t Jonathan his name, as it is stated: “And Jonathan, the son of Gershom, the son of Manasseh, he and his sons were priests to the tribe of the Danites” (Judges 18:30)? Rava bar Rav Ḥanan said to him: And according to your reasoning, that his name was not Levi but he was from the tribe of Levi, there is also a difficulty from that same verse: But is it so that he was the son of Manasseh; but wasn’t he the son of Moses, as it is written: “The sons of Moses: Gershom and Eliezer” (I Chronicles 23:15)?

אלא מתוך שעשה מעשה מנשה תלאו הכתוב במנשה הכא נמי מתוך שעשה מעשה מנשה דאתי מיהודה תלאו הכתוב ביהודה

Rava bar Rav Ḥanan explains the verse: Rather, although he was the son of Moses, because he acted as Manasseh the king of Judah, who was notorious for idol worship, acted, the verse linked him to Manasseh by calling him “the son of Manasseh.” Here too, in the verse from which you seek to prove that one’s mother’s family is called one’s family, since he acted as Manasseh, who came from the tribe of Judah, acted, the verse linked him to Judah by stating that he was “of the family of Judah,” but he was, in fact, a Levite.

אמר רבי יוחנן משום רבי שמעון בן יוחי מכאן שתולין את הקלקלה במקולקל רבי יוסי בר חנינא אמר מהכא (מלכים א א, ו) וגם הוא טוב תואר מאד ואותו ילדה אחרי אבשלום והלא אדניה בן חגית ואבשלום בן מעכה אלא מתוך שעשה מעשה אבשלום דמרד במלכות תלאו הכתוב באבשלום (ה"נ מתוך שעשה מעשה מנשה תלאו הכתוב במנשה)

In connection with this, Rabbi Yoḥanan says in the name of Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai: From here it is learned that corruption is linked to one who is corrupt, as this man was linked to Manasseh and Judah despite having no familial connection to them. Rabbi Yosei bar Ḥanina says: That concept can be seen from here, in the matter of Adonijah, the son of David: “And he was also a very handsome man; and she gave birth to him after Absalom,” (I Kings 1:6) but Adonijah wasn’t the son of Haggith and Absalom was the son of Maachah, so why does the verse state: “And she gave birth to him after Absalom,” as if they were sons of the same mother? Rather, since Adonijah acted in a manner fit for Absalom, who also rebelled against the monarchy, the verse linked him to Absalom, referring to him as his full brother. Here too, with regard to Jonathan, since he acted as Manasseh acted, the verse linked him to Manasseh.

אמר רבי אלעזר לעולם ידבק אדם בטובים שהרי משה שנשא בת יתרו יצא ממנו יהונתן אהרן שנשא בת עמינדב יצא ממנו פנחס

§ In connection with the story of Jonathan, son of Manasseh, the Gemara cites a related statement. Rabbi Elazar says: A person should always cleave to good people, meaning one should marry a woman from a good family, as this is beneficial for the offspring of that marriage. As in the case of Moses, who married a daughter of Yitro, who was a priest of idolatry, Jonathan, who was also a priest of idolatry, descended from him, while in the case of Aaron, who married the daughter of Amminadab, who was of distinguished lineage in the tribe of Judah, Pinehas descended from him.

ופנחס לאו מיתרו אתי והא כתיב (שמות ו, כה) ואלעזר בן אהרן לקח לו מבנות פוטיאל לו לאשה מאי לאו דאתי מיתרו שפיטם עגלים לע"ז לא דאתי מיוסף שפטפט ביצרו

The Gemara asks: And did Pinehas not also come from Yitro? But it is written: “And Elazar, Aaron’s son, took one of the daughters of Putiel as a wife; and she bore him Pinehas” (Exodus 6:25). What, is it not stating that Pinehas came from the family of Yitro, who was also called Putiel because he fattened [pittem] calves for idol worship? The Gemara answers: No, it is stating that he came from Joseph, who battled [shepitpet] with his desire by resisting the advances of Potiphar’s wife.

והלא שבטים מבזים אותו ואומרים ראיתם בן פוטי זה בן שפיטם אבי אמו עגלים לע"ז יהרוג נשיא שבט מישראל

The Gemara asks: But didn’t the tribes denigrated him after he killed Zimri (see Numbers, chapter 25), and would say of him: Have you seen this son of Puti, the son of he whose mother’s father fattened calves for idol worship? Should such a man kill a prince of a tribe of Israel?