משנה: עַל הָרְבִיעִית הוּא אוֹמֵר מִי שֶׁעָנָה אֶת שְׁמוּאֵל בַּמִּצְפָּה הוּא יַעֶנֶה אֶתְכֶם וְיִשְׁמַע בְּקוֹל צַעֲקַתְכֶם הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה. בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה ה׳ שׁוֹמֵעַ צְעָקָה. MISHNAH: On the fourth he says147The second additional benediction, with doxology appropriate for a recitation of Zikhronot.: “He Who answered Samuel at Miṣpah may answer you and hear your vociferation today. Praise to You, Eternal, Who hears vociferation.
הלכה: כָּתוּב וַיִקָּֽבְצ֣וּ הַ֠מִּצְפָּתָה וַיִּֽשְֽׁאֲבוּ־מַ֜יִם וַיִּשְׁפְּכ֣וּ ׀ לִפְנֵ֣י יְי. וְכִי מַיִם שָֽׁפְכוּ. אֶלָּא מָלַמֵּד שֶׁשָֽׁפְכוּ אֶת לִבָּם כַּמַּיִם. (וַיֹּ֣אמְרוּ שָׁ֔ם) [וַיֹּאמֶר שְׁמוּאֵל] חָטָא֭נוּ לַֽיי אָמַר רִבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר רַב יִצְחָק. לָבַשׁ שְׁמוּאֵל חַלּוּקָּן שֶׁלְכָּל־יִשְׂרָאֵל. אָמַר לְפָנָיו. רִבּוֹן הָעוֹלָמִים. כְּלוּם אַתְּ דָּן אֶת הָאָדָם אֶלָּא עַל שֶׁהוּא אוֹמֵר לְפָנֶיךָ. לֹא חָטָאתִי. הִנְנִי֙ נִשְׁפָּ֣ט אוֹתָ֔ךְ עַל־אוֹמְרֵךְ לֹ֥א חָטָֽאתִי׃ וָאֵלּוּ אוֹמְרִין לְפָנֶיךָ חָטָא֭נוּ. HALAKHAH: It is written1571S. 7:6.: They assembled at Miṣpah, drew water, and poured it out before the Eternal. Did they pour out water? But it teaches that they poured out their heart like water158Since water libations are authorized only in the central Sanctuary on Tabernacles, this pouring out cannot refer to a sacral act. The explanation given here is found in Targum Jonathan ad loc., Midrash Sam. 13, Midrash Psalms add. 119:77; quoted by Rashi ad loc. This has to be the original meaning of the verse, as noted by S. R. Driver (Notes on the Hebrew Text and the Topography of the Books of Samuel2, Oxford 1913) following A. B. Ehrlich, (Randglossen zur Hebräischen Bibel, vol. 3): “LXX add ארצה, perhaps rightly: the water was poured out not as a libation (for which יִסְּכוּ would have been said), but probably as a symbolic act implying a complete separation from sin: sin was to be cast away as water poured out upon the earth (2S. 14:4).”. (They said there)[Samuel said] we sinned before the Eternal159The (scribe’s text) is the MT; [the corrector’s] is unsupported.. Rebbi Samuel bar Rav Isaac said, Samuel wore the robe of all of Israel160The verse does not mention any prayer of Samuel at this occasion; one has to explain why the Mishnah refers to Samuel and not the entire people. Wearing the robe of all of Israel means arguing for all of Israel.. He said before Him: Master of the worlds, do You not judge a person only if he says before You, “I did not sin”? I shall sit in judgment over you because you said, I did not sin161Jer. 2:35.. But those said before You “we sinned”.