משנה: עָֽבְרוּ אֵילּוּ וְלֹא נַעֲנוּ מְמַעֲטִין בְּמַשָּׂא וּמַתָּן בְּבִנְייָן וּבִנְטִיעָה בְּאֵירוּסִין וּבְנִישּׂוּאִין וּבִשְׁאֵילַת שָׁלוֹם בֵּין אָדָם לַחֲבֵרוֹ כִּבְנֵי אָדָם הַנְּזוּפִין לַמָּקוֹם. הַיְחִידִים חוֹזְרִין וּמִתְעַנִּין עַד שֶׁיֵּצֵא נִיסָן. יָצָא נִיסָן וְיָרְדוּ גְשָׁמִים סִימַן קְלָלָה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר הֲלוֹא קְצִיר חִטִּים הַיּוֹם. MISHNAH: If these passed without rainfall one decreases commercial activity, building, planting, preliminary and definitive marriage, and greetings between people, as persons reprimanded by the Omnipresent. Particular people157As described in the Halakhah. continue to fast up to the end of Nisan. If it rained after the end of Nisan it is a sign3Greek σημεῑον. of curse as it is said, is today not harvest of wheat2471S. 12:17, where Samuel invokes summer rain as a sign of Divine displeasure about the people’s demand for a king.?
הלכה: אָמַר רִבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן לֵוִי. הָדָא דַתְּ אָמַר בְּבִנְייָן שֶׁלְשִׂמְחָה. אֲבָל אִם הָיָה כוֹתְלוֹ גּוֹהֶה סוֹתְרוֹ וּבוֹנֶיהוּ. שְׁמוּאֵל אָמַר. כּוֹתְלָא דְגָנַאי בֵיהּ. HALAKHAH: Rebbi Joshua ben Levi said, that is a building of enjoyment. But if his wall was inclined, he tears it down and rebuilds it2471S. 12:17, where Samuel invokes summer rain as a sign of Divine displeasure about the people’s demand for a king.. Samuel said, the wall were he sleeps248He requires construction only if there is danger to life..
רִבִּי בָּא בַּר כֹהֵן אָמַר קוֹמֵי רִבִּי יָסָא רִבִּי אָחָא בְשֵׁם רִבִּי יַעֲקֹב בַּר אִידִי. אָסוּר לְאָרֵס אִשָּׁה בְעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת. הָדָא דְאַתְּ אָמַר. שֶׁלֹּא לַעֲשׂוֹת סְעוּדַת אֵירוּסִין. הָא לְאָרֵס יְאָרֵס. שְׁמוּאֵל אָמַר. אֲפִילוּ בְתִשְׁעָה בְאַב יְאָרֵס. שֶׁלֹּא יְקַדְּמֶנּוּ אַחֵר. מִחְלְפָה שִׁיטָּתֵיהּ דִּשְׁמוּאֵל. תַּמָּן הוּא אָמַר. אֱלֹהִ֤ים ׀ מ֘וֹשִׁ֤יב יְחִידִ֨ים ׀ בַּ֗יְתָה. בְּמֹאזְנַ֥יִם לַֽעֲל֑וֹת הֵ֜֗מָּה מֵהֶ֥בֶל יָחַֽד׃ וָכָא הוּא אָמַר הָכֵין. אֶלָּא שֶׁלֹּא יְקַדְּמֶנּוּ אַחֵר בִּתְפִילָּה. אֲפִילוּ כֵן לֹא קַייְמָה. 249The parallels are in Ketubot1:1 (Notes 34–42), Yom Tov5:2 (Notes 65ff.) Rebbi Abba bar Cohen said before Rebbi Yose: Rebbi Aḥa in the name of Rebbi Jacob bar Idi: A man may not preliminarily marry on a Friday. That means, to make an engagement feast250Since this would impinge on the Sabbath meal. It is in order to make the preliminary marriage on Friday and arrange the festive meal as Sabbath meal.. This implies that the preliminary marriage itself is permitted. Samuel says, even on the Ninth of Ab251The anniversary of the destruction of both Temples. a preliminary marriage is permitted, lest another forestall him. The argument of Samuel seems inverted. There252A similar argument is in the Babli, Mo`ed qaṭan18b., he says, God puts singles in a house; To rise on scales; they all are of vapor!253Ps. 68:6; 62:10. This means that marriages are pre-ordained in Heaven. (Lev. rabba29(5).) And here, he says so254If marriages are pre-ordained, why should anybody be afraid that another man could snatch the bride pre-selected for him? Another man might by his prayer cause the Heavenly decree to be changed, but this would lead to the early death of one of the partners of the marriage. Babli Soṭa2a, Sanhedrin22a.? That means, that he should not forestall him in prayer. Even so, it would not be permanent.
(בִּשְׁאֵילַת שָׁלוֹם) [הֲלָכָה ט׳.] לֹא כֵן תַּנֵּי. אֵין שׁוֹאֲלִין בִּשְׁלוֹם חֲבֵירִים בְּתִשְׁעָה בְאַב. אֲבָל מֵשִׁיבִין אֶת הָהֶדְיוֹטוֹת בְשָׂפָה רָפָה. לְיָמִים שֶׁבֵּנְתַיִים נִצְרְכָה. (Greetings) [Halakhah 9:]255Corrector’s addition, to be deleted. Was it not stated256Tosephta 3:12.
The implication is that on a full fast day, from evening to evening, greeting is frowned upon. Then it should have been unnecessary to mention this in the Mishnah.: “One does not greet fellows on the Ninth of Av, but one answers common people in a soft manner“257Greek ʼιδιώτης “individual”, a term for the unlearned. One greats them in a weak voice, not to be impolite but hinting that greeting is undesirable on this day. “Fellow” is the appellation of a person careful (and therefore knowledgeable) in matters of tithes and impurity, cf. Introduction to Tractate Demay.? It is needed for the days in between258The Mishnah teaches to refrain from personal greetings all the days of a drought, not only on the Mondays and Thursdays of actual fasts..
יָצָא נִיסָן הַגְּשָׁמִים סִימַן קְלָלָה. אָמַר רִבִּי יוֹסֵי בֵּירִבִּי בּוּן. וּבִלְבַד נִיסָן שֶׁלְתְּקוּפָה. אָמַר רִבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר רַב יִצְחָק. הָדָא דַתְּ אֲמַר. בְּשְׁלֹּא יָֽרְדוּ לָהֶן גְּשָׁמִים מִכְּבָר. אֲבָל אִם יָֽרְדוּ לָהֶן גְּשָׁמִים מִכְּבָר סִימָן בְּרָכָה הֵן. “After the end of Nisan it is a sign of curse.” Rebbi Yose ben Rebbi Abun said, only after a Nisan of equinox259If the spring equinox was in Nisan. But if the month named “Nisan” really should have been the second Adar, one stops praying for rain only after the spring equinox, or if the equinox was in Adar, one has to stop fasting at the end of this month.
Since the calendar rules were promulgated by R. Yose, preceding R. Yose ben R. Abun, one may read the statement as a criticism of these rules which occasionally permit such a deviation. (But it must be remembered that the detailed rules which have come down to us were written up by authors who lived at least 600 years after R. Yose.). Rebbi Samuel ben Rav Isaac said, this you are saying if it did not rain earlier260When rain was really needed.. But if it rained earlier it is a sign of blessing.