משנה: רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר אַרְבַּע עֶשְׂרֵה סְעוּדוֹת חַייָב אָדָם לוֹכַל בַּסּוּכָּה אַחַת בַּיּוֹם וְאַחַת בַּלַּיְלָה. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים אֵין לַדָּבָר קִיצְבָה חוּץ מִלֵּילֵי יוֹם טוֹב הָרִאשׁוֹן בִּלְבָד. וְעוֹד אָמַר רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר מִי שֶׁלֹּא אָכַל לֵילֵי יוֹם טוֹב הָרִאשׁוֹן מַשְׁלִים בְּלֵילֵי יוֹם טוֹב הָאַחֲרוֹן. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים אֵין לַדָּבָר תַּשְׁלוּמִין וְעַל זֶה נֶאֱמַר מְעוּוָת לֹא יוּכַל לִתְקוֹן וְחֶסְרוֹן לֹא יוּכַל לְהִימָּנוֹת: MISHNAH: Rebbi Eliezer said, a person is obligated to eat fourteen meals in the sukkah, one during daytime and one in the night. But the Sages are saying, there is no fixed amount except only for the night of the first day of the holiday76The start of the holiday of Tabernacles, when the benedictions for the sukkah have to be recited. At all other times one may not eat a meal outside the sukkah, but no meals are prescribed.. In addition, Rebbi Eliezer said, one who did not eat on the first day of the holiday makes it up in the night of the last day of the holiday77The holiday is seven days, with a full holiday at the beginning; also the obligation of sukkah is seven days (Lev. 23:34,42). The eighth day is a separate holiday (Lev. 23:36, Num. 29:35). R. Eliezer counts the meal in the evening of the Eighth Day as making up for the missed one on the First day even though it cannot be valid in the sukkah.. But the Sages are saying, this cannot be made up, and on this it was said78Eccl1:15., what is distorted cannot be fixed, and a deficiency cannot be filled.
הלכה: מַה טַעֲמָא דְרִבִּי לִיעֶזֶר. נֶאֱמַר כָּאן תֵּֽשְׁב֖וּ וְנֶאֱמַר לְהַלָּן וּפֶ֩תַח֩ אֹ֨הֶל מוֹעֵ֜ד יֵשְׁבוּ יוֹמָ֤ם וָלַ֨יְלָה֙. מַה יְשִׁיבָה שֶׁנֶּאֱמְרָה לְהַלָּן עָשָׂה בָהּ אֶת הַלֵּילוֹת כַּיָּמִים אַף יְשִׁיבָה שֶׁנֶּאֱמְרָה כָאן נַעֲשֶׂה בָהּ אֶת הַלֵּילוֹת כַּיָּמִים. רִבִּי יוֹחָנָן בְשֵׁם רִבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל. נֶאֱמַר חֲמִשָּׁה עָשָׂר בַּפֶּסַח וְנֶאֱמַר חֲמִשָּׁה עָשָׂר בְּחַג. מַה חֲמִשָּׁה עָשָׂר שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר בַּפֶּסַח לַיְלָה הָרִאשׁוֹן חוֹבָה וּשְׁאָר כָּל־הַיָּמִים רְשׁוּת אַף חֲמִשָּׁה עָשָׂר שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר בְּחַג לַיְלָה הָרִאשׁוֹן חוֹבָה וּשְׁאָר כָּל־הַיָּמִים רְשׁוּת. חֲבֵרַייָא בָעֵיי. מַה לְהַלָּן עַד שֶׁיִּיכָּֽנְסוּ לַמַּצָּה בְתַאֲוָה וָכָא עַד שֶׁיִּיכָּֽנְסוּ לַסּוּכָּה בְתַאֲוָה. רִבִּי זְעוּרָה בָעֵי. אִי מַה לְהַלָּן עַד שֶׁיֹּאכַל כְּזַיִת מַצָּה. וָכָא עַד שֶׁיֹּאכַל כְּזַיִת דָּגָן [בַּסּוּכָּה]. רִבִּי הוֹשַׁעְיָה אָמַר. כָּל־שִׁבְעָה חוֹבָה. רִבִּי בֶרֶכְיָה אָמַר. פְּלִיגִין. רִבִּי אָבוּנָא אָמַר. לֹא פְלִיגִין. מַה דְאָמַר רִבִּי יוֹחָנָן. בְּשֶׁנָּתַן דַּעְתּוֹ. מַה דְאָמַר רִבִּי הוֹשַׁעְיָה. בְּשֶׁלֹּא נָתַן דַּעְתּוֹ. HALAKHAH: What is Rebbi Eliezer’s reason? It says here79Lev. 23:42., you shall sit, and it says there80Lev. 8:35, misquoted., at the door of the Tent of Meeting they shall sit day and night. Since for the sitting mentioned there He made nights like days81“Day and night” is interpreted as “some time during the day and some time during the night” (Yoma 1:1, Note 81); the same applies here., so also for the sitting mentioned here we shall make nights like days. Rebbi Joḥanan in the name of Rebbi Ismael82In the Babli 27a: in the name of R. Simeon ben Yoṣadaq (R. Joḥanan’s teacher); in the Munich ms. of the Babli R. Ṣadoq.: It is said fifteenth for Passover and it is said fifteenth for Tabernacles. Since for fifteenth said for Passover the first night is obligatory and the remaining days are optional83This is an application of one of R. Ismael’s hermeneutical rules. It is written (Ex. 13:6) seven days you shall eat mazzot, and (Deut. 16:8) six days you shall eat mazzot. R. Ismael’s rule reads: Anything that was in a set and was taken out from the set implies the same for the whole set.” Since the last mentioned verse implies that on the seventh day one need not eat unleavened bread (one may not eat leavened bread, however), the same is true for all seven days of Passover with the only exception of the first night of which it is said explicitly (Ex. 12:18): In the evening you shall eat mazzot., so also for fifteenth said for Tabernacles the first night is obligatory and the remaining days are optional. The colleagues asked, since there only that one comes to eat mazzah with an appetite84Mishnah Pesaḥim10:1: “On Passover eve, starting close to afternoon prayers, a person may not eat until nightfall” (so he shall eat the first mazzah with a good appetite.) There is no similar rule spelled out for Tabernacles; R. Joḥanan’s argument is homiletic but cannot be legal., so also here only they come to eat in the sukkah with appetite? Rebbi Ze`ira asked: Since there only one has to eat mazzah in the volume of an olive85The biblical obligation contained in Ex. 12:18 can only be fulfilled by eating a mazzah in an amount that triggers a biblical obligation to say Grace. But for the sukkah, sitting is prescribed but not eating; the same standards cannot apply., so also here only one has to eat grain [in the sukkah] in the volume of an olive? Rebbi Hoshaia said, the sukkah is obligatory all seven days. Rebbi Berekhiah said, they86R. Joḥanan, who requires a meal only the first night, and R. Hoshaia, who requires it for 7 days. disagree. Rebbi Abuna said, they do not disagree. What Rebbi Joḥanan said, if he put his mind to it; what Rebbi Hoshaia said, if he did not put his mind to it87R. Hoshaia really does not require to eat in the sukkah for 7 days; he is more lenient than R. Joḥanan and requires that once one must come to the sukkah to recite the appropriate benedictions (Halakhah 1:1, Notes 123–126) but this does not necessarily be the first night..
תַּנֵּי בְשֵׁם רִבִּי לִיעֶזֶר. מִי שֶׁלֹּא עָשָׂה סוּכָּתוֹ בְעֶרֶב הָרֶגֶל אַל יַעֲשֶׂנָּה בָרֶגֶל. וְהָתַנֵּי בַּר קַפָּרָא. נָֽפְלָה סוּכָּתוֹ בָרֶגֶל יְקִימֶינָּה בָרֶגֶל. רִבִּי אָחָא בְשֵׁם רִבִּי חִינְנָא. קְנַס קְנָסוֹ רִבִּי לִיעֶזֶר שֶׁלֹּא עָשָׂה סוּכָּתוֹ מֵעֶרֶב הָרֶגֶל. מִחְלְפָה שִׁיטָּתֵיהּ דְּרִבִּי לִיעֶזֶר. תַּמָּן הוּא אָמַר אַרְבַּע עֶשְׂרֵה סְעוּדוֹת חַייָב אָדָם לוֹכַל בַּסּוּכָּה. וָכָא אָמַר הָכֵין. אָמַר רִבִּי אָחָא. לְמִצְוָה הוּשְׁווּהָ. It was stated in Rebbi Eliezer’s name: He who did not make his sukkah before the holiday may not make it on the holiday88Babli 27a/b.. But did not Bar Qappara state, if his sukkah collapsed on the holiday, he shall rebuild it on the holiday. Rebbi Aḥa in the name of Rebbi Ḥinena: Rebbi Eliezer punished him because he did not make his sukkah before the holiday89But he agrees with Bar Qappara to rebuild a sukkah on the intermediary days of the holiday week.. Rebbi Eliezer’s opinion seems inverted. There, he says, a person is obligated to eat fourteen meals in the sukkah, and here he says so90He seems to contradict himself in the Mishnah since he requires a make-up only for the meal in the first night but not for the remaining 13 meals.? Rebbi Aḥa said, they were compared as commandments91In the sukkah and at the consecration of Tent of Meeting the commandment is to sit; while in both cases eating there is implied, it is not spelled out as biblical commandment..