משנה: הִדְלָה עָלֶיהָ אֶת הַגֶּפֶן אֶת הַדְּלַעַת וְאֶת הַקִּיסּוֹס וְסִיכֵּךְ עַל גַּבָּן פְּסוּלָה. אִם הָיָה הַסִּיכּוּךְ הַרְבֵּה מֵהֶן אוֹ שֶׁקְּצָצָן כְּשֵׁירָה. וְזֶה הַכְּלָל דָּבָר שֶׁהוּא מְקַבֵּל טוּמְאָה וְאֵין גִּידּוּלָיו מִן הָאָרֶץ אֵין מְסַכְּכִין בּוֹ. וְכָל־דָּבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְקַבֵּל טוּמְאָה וְגִידּוּלוֹ מִן הָאָרֶץ מְסַכְּכִין בּוֹ׃ MISHNAH: If he drew over it a vine, or squash, or ivy140Greek κισσός, ‘ο., and used it as roofing, it is disqualified. But if the roofing was more than these141If cut vegetal material was more than 50% of the thatching and the remainder still connected to the ground. or he cut them off from their roots142Even after the roof is finished. it is qualified. This is the principle: One does not thatch with anything which may become impure or is not grown from the earth. But with anything which may not become impure and is grown from the earth one does thatch.
הלכה: רִבִּי בָּא בְשֵׁם רַב. וְהוּא שֶׁיִּדְלֶה אוֹתָן (לְכָאן) [לְכָךְ]. רִבִּי יַעֲקֹב בַּר אָחָא בְשֵׁם רִבִּי זְעוּרָא. צָרִיךְ לְנַעֲנֵעַ. אָמַר רִבִּי יוֹסֵה. תַּרְתֵּיהוֹן לְקוּלָּא. הִידְלָה אוֹתָן (לְכָאן) [לְכָךְ] אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא נִעֲנֵעַ. נִעֲנֵעַ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא הִידְלָה אוֹתָן (לְכָאן) [לְכָךְ]. HALAKHAH: Rebbi Abba in the name of Rav: Only if he drew them (on the spot) [for this purpose]. Rebbi Jacob bar Aḥa in the name of Rebbi Ze`ira: He needs to move it. Rebbi Yose said, both of them are for leniency. If he drew them (on the spot) [for this purpose] even if he did not move it; if he moved it even if he did not draw them (on the spot) [for this purpose]143Creepers used for roofing become qualified after being cut from their roots only if either they were put there for this purpose or were moved after cutting..
רִבִּי בָּא חִינְנָא בַּר שֶׁלֶמְיָא רַב יִרְמְיָה בְשֵׁם רַב. סִיכְּכָהּ בִּשְׁלַבִּיּוֹת (כְּשֵׁירָה) [פְּסוּלָה]. בִּזְכָרִים כְּשֵׁירָה. בִּנְקֵיבוֹת פְּסוּלָה. סִיכְּכָהּ בָּאֲנִיצֵי פִשְׁתָּן פְּסוּלָה. בְּהוּצֲנֵי פִשְׁתָּן כְּשֵׁירָה. סִיכְּכָהּ בַּחֲבָלִים. אִית תַּנָּיֵי תַנֵּי. כְּשֵׁירָה. וְאִית תַּנָּיֵי תַנֵּי. פְּסוּלָה. מָאן דָּמַר. כְּשֵׁירָה. בַּחֲבָלִים שֶׁלְסִיב. וּמָאן דָּמַר. פְּסוּלָה. בַּחֲבָלִים שֶׁלְפִּשְׁתָּן. Rebbi Abba, Ḥinena bar Shelemia, Rav Jeremiah in the name of Rav: If he used steps of ladders for roofing it is (qualified) [disqualified]144Wooden ladders are implements and as such subject to impurity. Steps are shaped at the ends; while they have no concavity which would make them susceptible to impurity, they are implements not to be used.. Male parts, it is qualified145Wooden parts which are straight rods are impervious to impurity.. Female parts, it is disqualified146Wooden parts with cavities are subject to impurity.. If he roofed with bundles of flax147Bleached flax is subject to impurity as textile., it is disqualified, with raw flax it is qualified. If he roofed it with ropes, there are Tannaim who state, qualified, and there are Tannaim who state, disqualified. He who said qualified, with bast ropes148Made from palm bast which is not considered textile.; but he who said disqualified, with linen ropes.
אָמַר רִבִּי יוֹחָנָן. בְּאָ֨סְפְּךָ֔ מִֽגָּרְנְךָ֖ וּמִיִּקְבֶֽךָ. מִפְּסוֹלֶת שֶׁבַּגּוֹרֶן וְשֶׁבַּיֶּקֶב אַתְּ עוֹשֶׂה לָךְ סְכַךְ. רִבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן לָקִישׁ אָמַר. וְאֵיד יַֽעֲלֶ֣ה מִן־הָאָ֑רֶץ. אָמַר רִבִּי תַנְחוּמָה. דֵּין כְּדַעְתֵּיהּ וְדֵין כְּדַעְתֵּיּהּ. רִבִּי יוֹחָנָן דּוּ אָמַר. עֲנָנִים מִלְּמַעֲלָה הָיוּ. דּוּ יְלִיף לָהּ מֵאָ֨סְפְּךָ֔. רִבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן לָקִישׁ אָמַר. עֲנָנִים מִלְּמַטָּן הָיוּ. דּוּ יְלִיף לָהּ מֵעֲנָנִים. אָמַר רִבִּי אַבִּין. דֵּין כְּדַעְתֵּיהּ וְדֵין כְּדַעְתֵּיהּ. רִבִּי יוֹחָנָן דּוּ מְדַמֵּי לָהּ בִּמְשַׁלֵּחַ לַחֲבֵירוֹ חָבִית וְקַנְקַנָּהּ. רִבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן לָקִישׁ דּוּ מְדַמֵּי לָהּ כָּהֵן דַּאֲמַר לְחַבְרֵיהּ. שְׁלַח קּוּפַּתָּךְ וְסַב לָךְ חִיטִּין. Rebbi Joḥanan said, when you collect from your threshing floor and your wine press149Deut. 16:13.. From the waste of the threshing floor and the wine press you make your thatching150The verse in Deut. describes the festival of Tabernacles which, as the name indicates, is characterized by the obligation to dwell in a sukkah. The verse hints at the rule of the Mishnah that the roof of the sukkah has to be made from agricultural waste (which is grown from the earth but as waste is not subject to impurity even if cut and wetted. It is possible that R. Joḥanan reads אספ like Arabic “to have regret” to have waste rather than usable produce.) Babli 12a.. Rebbi Simeon ben Laqish said, and mist rose from the earth151Gen. 2:6. This refers to the standard interpretation of Lev. 23:43 that the Children of Israel dwelt in huts in the desert, when in reality they dwelt in tents. Therefore the ‘huts” are taken as the Divine cloud cover which shielded the encampment (as spelled out in the Targumim to Lev. 23:43), which R. Simeon ben Laqish takes as formed by mist from the earth; thatching has to imitate the cloud cover arising from the earth. Babli 11b.. Rebbi Tanḥuma said, each of them follows his own opinion. Rebbi Joḥanan who said that the clouds were above infers it from when you collect. Rebbi Simeon ben Laqish who said that the clouds were below infers it from the clouds. Rebbi Abbin said, each of them follows his own opinion. Rebbi Joḥanan compares it to one who sends to another an amphora and its pitcher. Rebbi Simeon ben Laqish compares it to one who says to another, bring your box and take wheat for yourself152R. Joḥanan also agrees that the roof of the sukkah has to symbolize clouds. He does not agree that clouds are generated by mist from the earth but are sent by God to give rain to the farmers. R. Simeon ben Laqish is presumed to think that clouds are generated by the earth and then filled with rain by God. Both agree that the sukkah is a charm to assure abundant rain in the coming wet season. Detailed argument Gen. rabba13(10)..