משנה: בַּיִת שֶׁנִּפְחַת וְסִיכֵּךְ עַל גַּבָּיו אִם יֵשׁ בֵּין הַכּוֹתֶל לַסִּיכּוּךְ אַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת פְּסוּלָה. וְכֵן בְּחָצֵר שֶׁהִיא מוּקֶּפֶת אֶכְסֶדְרָא. סוּכָּה גְדוֹלָה שֶׁהִקִּיפוּהָ דָבָר שֶׁאֵין מְסַכְּכִים בּוֹ אִם יֵשׁ תַּחְתָּיו אַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת פְּסוּלָה: MISHNAH: If a house partially collapsed199A one story building of which part of the roof collapsed while all of the walls are standing. The only part of a sukkah for which R. Ḥiyya biblically requires new material expressly for the holiday is the roof. Therefore the remaining house may be used as a sukkah if the hole in the middle of the roof is patched over. and he thatched over it, it is disqualified if from the walls to the thatching it is four cubits200As was stated earlier, a solid roof adjacent or connected to the walls is considered part of the wall, not of the roof. But this is accepted only up to a distance of 4 cubits from the nearest wall. Empty space is acceptable only up to 3 hand-breadths, disqualified material up to 4 cubits.. The same holds for a courtyard which is surrounded by a walkway201,The entire courtyard may be turned into a sukkah using qualified thatching, with the walls of the houses bordering the courtyard forming its walls, on condition that the roof of the walkway be less than 4 cubits wide.15Greek ’εξέδρα ‘η, a covered walkway. Cf. Eruvin Chapter 1, Note 88.. A large sukkah is disqualified if it202The qualified roofing. The makers of the sukkah did not have sufficient material to extend the qualified roof from wall to wall. Then it is much better to fill the remaining space to the walls by disqualified material which disqualifies only by 4 cubits than to leave it empty which disqualifies by 3 hand-breadths. was surrounded by material which cannot be used for thatching covering four cubits203The sukkah is qualified only if no place 4 cubits away from the nearest wall is directly below disqualified material..
הלכה: תַּנֵּי רִבִּי חִייָה. אֲוִיר פָּסוּל פּוֹסֵל בִּשְׁלֹשָׁה טְפָחִים. סְּכָךְ פָּסוּל אֵינוֹ פוֹסֵל אֶלָּא בְאַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת. אָמַר רִבִּי יוֹסֵה. אַף אֲנָן תַּנִּינָן תַּרְתֵּיהוֹן. אֲוִיר פָּסוּל פּוֹסֵל בִּשְׁלֹשָׁה טְפָחִים. דְּתַנִּינָן. הִרְחִיק אֶת הַסִּיכּוּךְ מִן הַדְּפָנוֹת שְׁלשָׁה טְפָחִים פְּסוּלָה: סְּכָךְ פָּסוּל אֵינוֹ פוֹסֵל אֶלָּא בְאַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת. דְּתַנִּינָן. בַּיִת שֶׁנִּפְחַת וְסִיכֵּךְ עַל גַּבָּיו. אִם יֵשׁ מִן הַכּוֹתֶל לַסִּיכּוּךְ אַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת פְּסוּלָה. הָא פָּחוּת מִיכֵּן כְּשֵׁירָה. מַהוּ לִישׁוֹן תַּחְתָּיו. הָתִיב רִבִּי יִצְחָק בֶּן אֶלְיָשִׁיב. הֲרֵי טִיט הַנָּרוּק מַשְׁלִים בְּמִקְוֶה וְאֵין מַטְבִּילִין בּוֹ. וְהָכָא מַשְׁלִים בְּסוּכָּה וְאָסוּר לִישָׁן תַּחְתָּיו. חִזְקִיָּה אָמַר. מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהִיא נִרְאִית כְּדוֹפַן עֲקוּמָה. תַּנֵּי רִבִּי הוֹשַׁעְיָה. מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהִיא נִרְאֵית כְּדוֹפַן עֲקוּמָה. רִבִּי בָּא רִבִּי חִייָה בְשֵׁם רִבִּי יוֹחָנָן. מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהִיא נִרְאֵית כְּדוֹפַן עֲקוּמָה. רִבִּי זְעוּרָה רִבִּי יַסָּא בְשֵׁם כַּהֲנָא. מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהִיא נִרְאֵית כְּדוֹפַן עֲקוּמָה. אָמַר רִבִּי יוֹנָה לְרִבִּי יוֹסֵי. וְלָמָּה לֵי נָן אָֽמְרִינָן. מִשּׁוּם שֶׁאֵין סְּכָךְ פָּסוּל פוֹסֵל אֶלָּא בְאַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת. HALAKHAH: Rebbi Ḥiyya stated: Disqualified space disqualifies in three hand-breadths; disqualified roofing disqualifies in four cubits. Rebbi Yose said, we have stated both. “Disqualified space disqualifies in three hand-breadths,” as we have stated: “If the roofing is three hand-breadths distant from the walls it is disqualified192The sukkah is disqualified if along any wall the roofing is not within 3 horizontal hand-breadths..” “Disqualified roofing disqualifies in four cubits,” as we have stated: “If a house partially collapsed and he thatched over it, it is disqualified if from the walls to the thatching it is four cubits200As was stated earlier, a solid roof adjacent or connected to the walls is considered part of the wall, not of the roof. But this is accepted only up to a distance of 4 cubits from the nearest wall. Empty space is acceptable only up to 3 hand-breadths, disqualified material up to 4 cubits..” Therefore less is qualified. May one sleep under that? Rebbi Isaac ben Elyashiv answered: pourable mud completes a miqweh but one may not immerse in it, here also it completes the sukkah but one may not sleep under it204The answer is to a question asked not here but in Berakhot7:1 (Notes 19–29) about the interconnection between rules referring to distinct domains. A miqweh can be used to remove impurities only if it contains 40 se`ah of water, about 135 gallons. If there is not enough clear water, the required volume can be obtained by adding mud which is so moist that it can be poured from a bucket (Mishnah Miqwaot7:1.) R. Eliezer forbids to immerse oneself in mud (Mishnah Miqwaot2:10) but R. Joshua permits. The argument has to be rejected here since R. Joshua will agree that disqualified roofing adjacent to a wall is considered wall, not roofing. Babli 19a.. Ḥizqiah said, because it looks like a bent wall205In his opinion the ruling is a later rabbinic one based on an explicit argument.. Rebbi Hoshaia stated, because it looks like a bent wall. Rebbi Abba, Rebbi Ḥiyya in the name of Rebbi Joḥanan, because it looks like a bent wall. Rebbi Ze`ira, Rebbi Yasa in the name of Cahana, because it looks like a bent wall. Rebbi Jonah said to Rebbi Yose, why do we not say, because disqualified roofing only disqualifies in four cubits206In his opinion, this belongs to the traditional rules of sukkah, predating any rabbinic establishment.?