משנה הֵיכָן הָיוּ הַהִשְׁתַּחֲוִיּוֹת הָאֵילּוּ. אַרְבַּע בַּצָּפוֹן וְאַרְבַּע בַּדָּרוֹם שָׁלשׁ בַּמִּזְרָח וּשְׁתַּיִם בַּמַּעֲרָב כְּנֶגֶד שְׁלֹשָׁה עָשָׂר שְׁעָרִים שְׁעָרִים דְּרוֹמִיִּים סְמוּכִין לַמַּעֲרָב שַׁעַר הָעֶלְיוֹן שַׁעַר הַדֶּלֶק שַׁעַר הַבְּכוֹרוֹת שַׁעַר הַמָּיִם. וְלָמָּה נִקְרָא שְׁמוֹ שַׁעַר הַמַּיִם שֶׁבּוֹ מַכְנִיסִין צְלוֹחִית שֶׁל מַיִם [דף יז.] שֶׁל נִסּוּךְ הַמַּיִם בֶּחָג. רִבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר בֶּן יַעֲקֹב אוֹמֵר בּוֹ הַמַּיִם מְפַכִּים עֲתִידִין לִהְיוֹת יוֹצְאִין מִתַּחַת מִפְתַּן הַבַּיִת. Halakha 2 · MISHNA The previous mishna mentioned that there were thirteen prostrations in the Temple. Where were these prostrations? There were four in the north of the courtyard, four in the south, three in the east and two in the west, as the thirteen prostrations were facing the thirteen gates of the Temple courtyard. The thirteen gates were as follows: The southern ones, listed in order, beginning with the one adjacent to the western side, were the Upper Gate, and the topography of the courtyard was such that there was an incline on the east-west plane, therefore the gate farthest to the west was higher than the other gates; the Gate of Kindling, through which the priests would bring the wood for the arrangement of fire on top of the altar; the Gate of the Firstborn, through which priests would bring the ritually pure firstborn animals to be sacrificed, as it is permitted to slaughter firstborn animals on the southern side of the courtyard; and the Gate of Water. The mishna elaborates: And why was it named the Gate of Water? Since through it they would bring in the vial [17a] of water for the water libation on the festival of Sukkot, as they would ceremoniously draw the water from the Pool of Siloam and bring it to the altar through this gate. Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov says: There was a different reason for this name. It was called the Gate of Water because through it the water would trickle [mefakim], and in the future this water will increase and go out from under the threshold of the House.
לְעוּמָּתָן בַּצָּפוֹן סְמוּכִין בַּמַּעֲרָב שַׁעַר יְכָנְיָה שַׁעַר הַקָּרְבָּן שַׁעַר הַנָּשִׁים שַׁעַר הַשִּׁיר. Facing these gates were the ones in the north, listed in order from the one closest to the west: The Gate of Jeconiah; the Gate of the Offering, through which they would bring the offerings of the most sacred order, as these could be slaughtered only in the northern part of the courtyard; the Gate of Women, where women would enter the courtyard to place their hands on the heads of their offerings; and the Gate of Song, through which they would bring the musical instruments into the courtyard.
וְלָמָּה נִקְרָא שְׁמוֹ שַׁעַר יְכָנְיָה שֶׁבּוֹ יָצָא יְכָנְיָה בְּגָלוּתוֹ. The mishna asks: And why was it called the Gate of Jeconiah? The reason is that through it Jeconiah went out to his exile. Before Jeconiah was exiled by Nebuchadnezzar to Babylon he came to take leave of the Temple, and he left through this gate.
שֶׁבַּמִּזְרָח שַׁעַר נִיקָנוֹר וּשְׁנֵי פִשְׁפְּשִׁין הָיוּ לוֹ אֶחָד בִּימִינוֹ וְאֶחָד בִּשְׂמֹאלוֹ. וּשְׁנַיִם בַּמַּעֲרָב וְלֹא הָיָה לָהֶם שֵׁם׃ The mishna resumes the list with the gates that are in the east: the Gate of Nicanor, which was named after Nicanor, who brought the doors of this gate from Egypt (see Yoma 38a). And the Gate of Nicanor had two wickets [pishpeshin], one on its right and one on its left. And there were two gates in the west that did not have a name, making a total of thirteen gates.
הלכה מַתְנִיתָה דְּאַבָּא יוֹסֵה בֶן חָנִין. דְּאַבָּא יוֹסֵה בֶן חָנִין אָמַר. כְּנֶגֶד שְׁלֹשָׁה עָשָׂר שְׁעָרִים. בְּרַם כְּרַבָּנִן שִׁבְעָה שְׁעָרִים הָיוּ בָעֲזָרָה. עַל דָּעְתּוֹן דְּרָבָּנִן אֵיכָן הָיוּ הַהִשְׁתַּחֲוִיּוֹת הַלָלוּ. GEMARA: The mishna taught that there were thirteen gates in the courtyard. The Gemara notes that the mishna is in accordance with the opinion of Abba Yosei ben Yoḥanan, who said in Middot 2:6 that the thirteen prostrations were performed opposite the thirteen gates. However, according to the opinion of the Rabbis, in Middot 1:4, there were only seven gates in the courtyard. Consequently, according to the opinion of the Rabbis, where were these thirteen prostrations performed, if there weren’t a corresponding number of gates?
כַּהִיא דְתַנִּינָן תַּמָּן. וּשְׁלשׁ עֶשְׂרֵה פְרָצוֹת הָיוּ בוֹ שֶׁפְּרָצוּם מַלְכֵי יָווָן. חָֽזְרוּ וּגְדָרוּם וְגָֽזְרוּ כְּנֶגְדָּן שְׁלשׁ עֶשְׂרֵה הִשְׁתַּחֲוָיוֹת. The Gemara answers that the prostrations correspond to that which we learned in a mishna there (see Middot 2:3): There were thirteen breaches in the soreg, the lattice fence between the walls of the courtyard and the Temple Mount, that the kings of Greece breached. They did this to allow foreigners to enter the courtyard and to demonstrate that this area was not reserved exclusively for priests. And the sons of the Hasmonean dynasty returned and fenced in those breaches, and decreed that thirteen prostrations should be performed opposite them. Anyone who encircled the courtyard and passed by one of the places where a breach had been sealed would prostrate in gratitude to God for removing Greek control and the decrees against the Jews of Eretz Yisrael.
כְּתִיב וְהָיָ֣ה ׀ בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֗וּא יֵֽצְא֤וּ מַֽיִם־חַיִּים֙ מִיר֣וּשָׁלַ֔ם וגו׳. תַּנֵּי. בֵּית קוֹדֶשׁ הַקָּדָשִׁים עַד הַפָּרָכוֹת כְּקַרְנֵי סִילַיי וּבִילַיי. The Gemara expands upon the idea expressed by Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov that in the future the water from the Gate of Water will increase and emerge from under the threshold of the House: It is written in a prophecy concerning the end of days: “And it shall come to pass in that day, that living waters shall go out from Jerusalem: Half of them toward the eastern sea, and half of them toward the western sea; in summer and in winter shall it be” (Zechariah 14:8), and it was taught in a baraita: From the house of the Holy of Holies to the curtain, the stream of water will be as thin as the antennae of silai and khilai, two types of snails.
מִן הַפָּרָכוֹת עַד מִזְבַּח הַזָּהָב כְּקַרְנֵי חֲגָבִים. מִמִּזְבַּח הַזָּהָב וְעַד הָעֲזָרוֹת כְּחוּט שֶׁל שְׁיתִי. מִן הָעֲזָרוֹת וְעַד מִפְתַּן הַבַּיִת כְּחוּט שֶׁל עֶרֶב. מִיכָּן וָהֵילַךְ כְּמִפִּי הַפַּךְ. From the veil to the golden altar the stream of water will increase slightly until it is like the antennae of grasshoppers. From the place of the golden altar to the courtyards it will further increase to the thickness of a thread of the warp of a loom. From the courtyards to the threshold of the House the stream will widen to the size of a thread of the woof, which was thicker than the thread of the warp. From here onward the stream will reach the width of a stream of liquid poured from the mouth of a cruse.
וְהִנֵּה־מַ֣יִם מְפַכִּ֔ים מִן־הַכָּתֵ֖ף הַיְמָנִֽית: כְּתִיב בְּצֵאת־הָאִ֥ישׁ קָדִ֖ים וְקָ֣ו בְּיָד֑וֹ וַיָּ֤מָד אֶ֨לֶף֙ בָּֽאַמָּ֔ה וַיַּֽעֲבִרֵ֥נִי בַמַּ֖יִם מֵ֥י אָפְסָֽיִם׃ עַד קַרְסוּלֵהּ. וַיָּ֣מָד אֶ֔לֶף וַיַּֽעֲבִרֵ֥נִי בַמַּ֖יִם מַ֣יִם בִּרְכָּיִים. עַד בִּרְכַּייָא. The Gemara cites another baraita on this topic. It is written: “And, behold, there trickled forth waters on the right side. When the man went forth eastward with the line in his hand, he measured a thousand cubits, and he caused me to pass through the waters, waters that were to the ankles” (Ezekiel 47:2–3). This verse teaches that at a distance of a thousand cubits the height of the water was up to the ankles. The next verse states: “Again he measured a thousand, and caused me to pass through the waters, waters that were to the knees,” which indicates that after an additional thousand cubits the water was up to the knees.
וַיָּ֣מָד אֶ֔לֶף וַיַּֽעֲבִרֵ֖נִי מֵ֥י מָתְנָֽיִם׃ עַד מָתְנַייָא. מִיכָּן וְהֵילַךְ וַיָּ֣מָד אֶ֔לֶף נַ֕חַל אֲשֶׁ֥ר לֹֽא־אוּכַ֖ל לַעֲבֹ֑ר. אֲפִילוּ לִיבּוּרְנִין גְּדוֹלָה אֵינָהּ יְכוֹלָה לַעֲבוֹר בּוֹ. The verse continues: “Again he measured a thousand, and caused me to pass through waters that were to the loins” (Ezekiel 47:4), which teaches that after the next thousand cubits the height of the water rose until the loins. From here onward the water continued to rise, until “he measured a thousand; and it was a river that I could not pass through” (Ezekiel 47:5). After the last thousand cubits the water was so high that even a large Liburnian ship, a type of a warship, could not pass through the current.
מַה טַעֲמָא וְצִ֥י אַדִּ֖יר לֹ֥א יַעַבְרֶֽנּוּ׃ מִפְּנֵי מַה כִּֽי־גָא֤וּ הַמַּ֨יִם֙ מֵ֣י שָׂ֔חוּ. מָהוּ מֵ֣י שָׂ֔חוּ. מִלְּשׁוֹט. אָמַר רִבִּי חוּנָה. בְּאַתְרִין צְווָחִין לְשַׁייְטָא סְחוּנָא. וּפֵרַ֤שׂ יָדָיו֙ בְּקִרְבּ֔וֹ כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֛ר יְפָרֵ֥שׂ הַשּׂוֹחֶה לִשְׂח֑וֹת What is the explanation of the verse: “Neither shall gallant ship pass thereby” (Isaiah 33:21). Why? “For the waters were risen, waters to swim in [mei saḥu], a river that could not be passed through” (Ezekiel 47:5). What is the meaning of the phrase mei saḥu? It means that the water flowed so fast and high it prevented one from swimming. Similarly, Rav Ḥuna said to clarify the meaning of the word “saḥu”: In our locale they call swimming saḥona, as in the verse: “And when he shall spread forth his hands in its midst, as he who swims spreads forth his hands to swim [hasoḥeh lisḥot]” (Isaiah 25:11).
מָהוּ לִשְׂחוֹת. אָמַר רִבִּי יוֹסֵי בֵּירִבִּי בּוּן. מַיִין דְּמִתְמַלְּלִין בְּעָֽלְמָא. The Gemara presents an alternate explanation for this verse. What is the meaning of “waters to swim in [saḥu]”? Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Bun, said: Water that is discussed in the world. The term saḥu is associated with siḥa, which means discussion or conversation. The verse indicates that this river will be the topic of every discussion, due to its high waters and strong current.
כְּתִיב בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֗וּא יִֽהְיֶה֙ מָק֣וֹר נִפְתָּ֔ח לְבֵ֥ית דָּוִ֖יד וּלְיֹוֹשְׁבֵי יְרֽוּשָׁלָ֑ם לְחַטַּ֖את וּלְנִידָּה: The Gemara continues to discuss this river. It is written: “In that day there shall be a fountain opened to the house of David and to the inhabitants of Jerusalem, for purification and for sprinkling” (Zechariah 13:1). This river will be used for the purification of the house of David and the inhabitants of Jerusalem. The Gemara asks: Since this river can serve to purify any member of the Jewish people, why did the verse single out the house of David and the inhabitants of Jerusalem?
רִבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר נַחְמָן בְּשֵׁם רִבִּי יוֹנָתָן. מִבֵּית דָּוִד וְעַד יוֹשְׁבֵי יְרוּשָׁלִָם כְּשֵׁרִים לְנִדָּה וּלְחַטָּאת. מִיכָּן וְהֵילַךְ מֵי תַעֲרוּבוֹת הֵן. כְּשֵׁירִים לְנִדָּה וּפְסוּלִים לְמֵי חַטָּאת. The Gemara answers: The verse is not listing those who are fit to be purified by this river. Rather, it is delineating the various parts of this river that serve different functions. As Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥman explained in the name of Rabbi Yonatan: From the dwelling place of the house of David until the residences of the inhabitants of Jerusalem, the water in this river is considered running spring water, which is fit for the purpose of purifying a menstruating woman, as well as for use in the waters of purification, i.e., spring water that was mixed with the ashes of the Red Heifer. From here onward it is considered combined water, a mixture of spring and rain water, which is fit for the purification of a menstruating woman but unfit for the waters of purification.
אָמַר רִבִּי לָֽעְזָר. מִבֵּית דָּוִד וְעַד יוֹשְׁבֵי יְרוּשָׁלִָם כְּשֵׁרִים לְנִדָּה וּלְחַטָּאת. מִיכָּן וְהֵילַךְ מֵי קַטֵּיפְרֵיסוֹת הֵן. פְּסוּלִין לְנִדָּה וּלְחַטָּאת. The Gemara presents an alternate explanation of the verse. Rabbi Elazar said: From the palace of the house of David until the residences of the inhabitants of Jerusalem, the water is fit for the purification of a menstruating woman as well as for the waters of purification. From here onward, it is considered water running down slopes [ketafrisot], and is unfit both for the purification of a menstruating woman and for the waters of purification.
כְּתִיב וַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֵלַי֘ הַמַּ֤יִם הָאֵ֨לֶּה֙ וֽוֹצְאִ֗ים אֶל־הַגְּלִילָה֙ הַקַּדְמוֹנָ֔ה זֶה יַם שֶׁלְסַמְכו. וְיָרְֽד֖וּ עַל־הָֽעֲרָבָ֑ה זֶה יַם שֶׁלְטִיבֵּרִיָּא. In Ezekiel’s prophecy concerning this river, it is further written: “Then he said to me: These waters issue forth toward the eastern region, and shall go down into the Arabah; and when they shall enter into the sea, into the sea of the putrid waters, the waters shall be healed” (Ezekiel 47:8). This eastern region mentioned in this verse is the Sea of Samkhu, which is the modern Hula Lake in the northern Galilee. “And shall go down into the Arabah,” this phrase refers to the Sea of Tiberias, i.e., the Sea of Galilee.
וּבָ֣אוּ הַיָּ֔מָּה זֶה יַם הַמֶּלַח. אֶל־הַיָּ֥מָּה הַמּֽוּצָאִ֖ים זֶה הַיָּם הַגָּדוֹל. וְלָמָּה נִקְרָא שְׁמוֹ הַמּוֹצָאִים. כְּנֶגֵד שְׁנֵי פְעָמִים שֶׁיָּצָא. [אֶחָד בְּדוֹר אֱנוֹשׁ וְאֶחָד בְּדוֹר פְּלָגָה.] “And when they shall enter into the sea,” this is the Dead Sea. “Into the sea of the putrid waters [mutza’im],” this is the Great Sea, the Mediterranean Sea. And why was it called mutza’im, which literally means taken out? This corresponds to the two occasions that the sea went out and overran the dry land, once in the Generation of Enosh, when idolatry proliferated, and once in the Generation of the Dispersion, i.e., that of the Tower of Babel.
רִבִּי לָֽעְזְר בְּשֵׁם רִבִּי חֲנִינָה. בָּרִאשׁוֹנָה יָצְא עַד קַלַבְּרִיָה וּבַשְׁנִייָה יָצָא עַד קֵפֵי בֶּרְבֶּרִיָה. רִִבִּי אָחָא בְשֵׁם רִבִּי חֲנִינָה. בָּרִאשׁוֹנָה יָצְא עַד קֵפֵי בֶּרְבֶּרִיָה וּבַשְׁנִייָה יָצָא עַד עַכּוֹ וְעַד יָפוֹ. Until where did the sea overrun the dry land? Rabbi Elazar said in the name of Rabbi Ḥanina: In the first instance, the Generation of Enosh, it went out until Calabria, in southern Italy, and in the second instance, the Generation of Dispersion, it went out until the rocks of Barbary in North Africa. Rabbi Aḥa said in the name of Rabbi Ḥanina: In the first instance the sea went out until the rocks of Barbary, and in the second instance it went out until Akko and until Jaffa.
עַד־פֹּ֣ה תָ֭בוֹא וְלֹ֣א תוֹסִיף. עַד עַכּוֹ תָבוֹא וְלֹא תוֹסִיף. וּפֹ֥א יָ֝שִׁ֗ית בִּגְא֥וֹן גַּלֶּֽיךָ׃ עַד יָפוֹ אָשִׁית גְּאוֹן גַּלֶּיךָ. The Gemara adds that there is support for this claim from the verse: “Thus far [ad po] you shall come, but no further, and here your proud waves shall be stayed” (Job 38:11). The phrase ad po is similar in meaning to ad ko, which alludes to the city of Akko. The verse is saying that until Akko you shall come, but no further. Likewise, in the last part of the verse: “And here [ufo] your proud waves shall be stayed,” the similarity between the words ufo and Yafo, Jaffa, hints that until Jaffa your proud waves shall be stayed.
נִיחָא יָמָּא רַבָּא יַמָּא דְמִלְחָא. בִּשְׁבִיל לְמִיתְקָן. יַמָּה דְטִיבֵּרִיָּא יַמָּה דְסַמְכוֹ. The Gemara stated above that the waters of the river that emerge from the Temple Mount will reach four seas: The Sea of Samkhu, the Sea of Tiberias, the Dead Sea, and the Mediterranean Sea. The Gemara asks: It works out well that the river will reach the Great Sea, i.e., the Mediterranean Sea, and the Dead Sea, in order to sweeten them, and render them drinkable, as they contain saltwater. However, with regard to the Sea of Tiberias, and the Sea of Samkhu, whose water is already sweet, for what purpose will this river reach them?
לְרַבּוֹת דְּגָתָם. לְמִינָה֙ תִּהְיֶ֣ה דְגָתָ֔ם. לְמִינֵי מִינִים תִּהְיֶה דְגָתָם. תַּנֵּי. אָמַר רַבָּן שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל. מַעֲשֶׂה וְהָלַכְתִּי לְצַייְדָן וְהֵבִיאוּ לְפָנַיי יוֹתֵר מִשְׁלֹשׁ מֵאוֹת מִינֵי דָגִים בְּתַמְחוּי אֶחָד. The Gemara responds that when the water of this river reaches these seas, their waters will be blessed by an increase in the number of their fish, as it is written with regard to this river: “Their fish shall be after their kinds” (Ezekiel 47:10). This verse teaches that their fish will be of multiple kinds, great in number and variety. It was likewise taught in a baraita that Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel said: There was an incident in which I went to Sidon, north of the Sea of Galilee, and they brought before me more than three hundred kinds of fish in one pot.
וְנִרְפּ֥אוּ הַמָּֽיִם. בְּצֹּאתָ֧יו וּגְבָאָ֛יו וְלֹ֥א יֵרָֽפְא֖וּ לְמֶ֥לַח נִתָּֽנוּ׃ כְּתִיב וְנִרְפּ֥אוּ הַמָּֽיִם וְאַתְּ אָמַרְתָּ. וְלֹ֥א יֵרָֽפְא֖וּ הַמַּיִם. מָקוֹם הוּא שֶׁשְּׁמוֹ וְלֹ֥א יֵרָֽפְא֖וּ. The Gemara continues to interpret the verses in Ezekiel: “And the waters shall be healed…But its miry places and its marshes shall not be healed; they shall be given for salt” (Ezekiel 47:8–11). The Gemara points out an apparent contradiction: It is written: “And the waters shall be healed,” and yet you say that the waters shall not be healed? The Gemara responds that it is a place called Velo Yerafu, which means: They will not be healed. This verse is detailing the locations where the waters will heal, namely the miry places, the marshes, and a place called Velo Yerafu.
כְּתִיב וְעַֽל־הַנַּ֣חַל יַעֲלֶ֣ה עַל־שְׂפָת֣וֹ מִזֶּ֣ה ׀ וּמִזֶּ֣ה ׀ כָּל־עֵץ־מַֽ֠אֲכָל לֹֽא־יִבֹּל עָלֵ֜הוּ וְלֹֽא־יִתֹּ֣ם פִּרְי֗וֹ לָחֳֽדָשָׁיו֙ יְבַכֵּ֔ר. It is further written there: “And by the river upon its bank, on this side and on that side, shall grow every tree for food, whose leaf shall not wither, neither shall its fruit fail; it shall bring forth new fruit every month, because its waters issue out of the Temple; and its fruit shall be for food, and its leaf for healing” (Ezekiel 47:12). What is the meaning of the phrase “it shall bring forth new fruit every month”?
תַּנֵּי אָמַר רִבִּי יְהוּדָה. לְפִי שֶׁבָּעוֹלָם הַזֶּה תְּבוּאָה עוֹשָׂה לְשִׁשָּׁה חֳדָשִׁים וְאִילָן עוֹשֶׂה לִשְׁנֵים עָשָׂר חוֹדֶשׁ. אֲבָל לְעָתִיד לָבוֹא הַתְּבוּאָה עוֹשָׂה לְחוֹדֶשׁ אֶחָד וְאִילָן עוֹשֶׂה לִשְׁנֵי חֳדָשִׁים. It was taught in a baraita that Rabbi Yehuda said: The meaning of the verse is that in this world, grain produces a crop six months after it is planted, and a tree produces fruit twelve months after its fruit is harvested. However, in the future, grain will produce crops in one month, and a tree will produce fruit in two months.
מַה טַעֲמֵיהּ. לָחֳֽדָשָׁיו֙ יְבַכֵּ֔ר. What is the explanation of the words in the verse: “It shall bring forth new fruit every month [ḥodashav]?” The term ḥodashav, which incorporates the plural of the word month, indicates that the fruit will grow in two months. As the time required for grain to ripen is half the time of that of fruit, grain will ripen in a single month.
אָמַר רִבִּי יוֹסֵי. לְפִי שֶׁבָּעוֹלָם הַַזֶּה הַתְּבוּאָה עוֹשָׂה לְשִׁשָּׁה חֳדָשִׁים וְאִילָן עוֹשֶׂה לִשְׁנֵים עָשָׂר חוֹדֶשׁ. אֲבָל לְעָתִיד לָבוֹא הַתְּבוּאָה עוֹשָׂה לַחֲמִשָּׁה עָשָׂר יוֹם וְאִילָן עוֹשֶׂה לְחוֹדֶשׁ אֶחָד. שֶׁכֵּן מָצָאנוּ שֶׁעָשָׂת הַתְּבוּאָה בִימֵי יוֹאֵל לַחֲמִשָּׁה עָשָׂר יוֹם וְקָרֵב מִמֶּנָּה הָעוֹמֵר. This Gemara presents a dissenting opinion. Rabbi Yosei said: The meaning of the verse is that in this world grain produces a crop six months after it is planted, while a tree produces fruit twelve months after its fruit is harvested. However, in the future, grain will produce crops in fifteen days, and a tree will produce fruit in one month, as we found that grain produced a crop in the days of Joel that ripened in fifteen days, and the omer offering was brought from that grain on the sixteenth of Nisan. In that year they brought the omer offering from grain fifteen days after it was sown.
מַה טַעֲמֵיהּ. וּבְנֵ֣י צִיּ֗וֹן גִּ֤ילוּ וְשִׂמְחוּ֙ בַּֽײ אֱלֹֽהֵיכֶ֔ם כִּֽי־נָתַ֥ן לָכֶ֛ם אֶת־הַמּוֹרֶ֖ה לִצְדָקָ֑ה וַיּ֣וֹרֶד לָכֶ֗ם גֶּ֛שֶׁם יוֹרֶה וּמַלְק֖וֹשׁ בָּֽרִאשֽׁוֹן׃ What is the explanation of the verse: “Be glad then, you children of Zion, and rejoice in the Lord your God; for He gives you the first rain in just measure, and He causes the rain to come down for you, the first rain and the latter rain, at the first” (Joel 2:23)? The Sages explain that there was a severe drought that year, and the first rains fell only on the first of Nisan (see Ta’anit 5a). The prophet commanded the people to plant their fields, and they found sufficient seeds to sow the fields. The second rains fell on the fifth of Nisan, and miraculously the grain ripened so quickly that they were able to bring the omer offering from that grain on the sixteenth of the month. In the future the grain will ripen as quickly as it did then.
מַה מְקַייֵם רִבִּי יוֹסֵי לָחֳֽדָשָׁיו֙ יְבַכֵּ֔ר. בְּכָל־חוֹדֶשׁ וָחוֹדֶשׁ יְבַכֵּר. The Gemara asks: And how does Rabbi Yosei establish the meaning of the verse: “It shall bring forth new fruit every month,” which apparently indicates that fruit will grow in two months? He explains that the verse means that each and every month the tree will bring forth fruit.
וְעָלֵה֖וּ לִתְרוּפָֽה: רִבִּי יוֹחָנָן אָמַר. תַּרְפֵּיהּ מְצַץ עָלֵיהּ וֹתָרַף מְזוֹנֵהּ. The aforementioned verse states: “And its leaf for healing [terufa]” (Ezekiel 47:12). The Sages dispute the meaning of this phrase. Rabbi Yoḥanan said: The word terufa with a tav is similar to terufa with a tet, which means food. Therefore the verse means: For its food he sucks the leaves of the tree that grows on the banks of that river, and ingests their sustenance, as the leaves of this tree nourish as much as its fruit.
רַב וּשְׁמוּאֵל. חַד אָמַר. לְהַתִּיר פֶּה שֶׁלְמָעֲלָן. וְחוֹרָנָה אָמַר. לְהַתִּיר פֶּה שֶׁלְמַטָּן. רִבִּי חֲנִינָה וְרִבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן לֵוִי. חַד אָמַר לְהַתִּיר פֶּה עֲקָרוֹת. וְחוֹרָנָה אָמַר. לְהַתִּיר פֶּה אִילְּמִים. Rav and Shmuel both interpreted terufa as an allusion to lehatir pe, to release the mouth, but differed over the exact meaning. One said it means to release the upper mouth, i.e., to open the mouth of a mute person, such that he will be able to speak if he eats from the fruit of this tree. And the other one said it means to release the lower mouth, a reference to the womb; a barren woman who eats from this tree will be able to conceive. Rabbi Ḥanina and Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi disagree in a similar manner. One said the verse means to release the mouth of infertility, and the other one said it means to open the mouth of the mute.
אַתְּ מוֹצֵא. בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁעָלָה נְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר לְכָאן בָּא וְיָשַׁב לוֹ בְדִיפְנֵי שֶׁלְאַנְטִוֹכִיָּה וְיָֽצָאָה סַנְהֶדְרִין גְּדוֹלָה לִקְרָאתוֹ וְאָֽמְרָה לוֹ. הִגִּיעַ זְמַן הַבַּיִת הַזֶּה לִיחָרֵב. אָמַר לָהֶן. אוֹתוֹ שֶׁהִמְלַכְתִּי אוֹתוֹ עֲלֵיכֶם תְּנוּהוּ לִי וַאֲנִי הוֹלֵךְ לִי. In its list of the gates in the Temple, the mishna stated: Facing the gates in the south were additional gates in the north, etc. One of the gates in the north was the Gate of Jeconiah, through which this king departed for exile. The Gemara relates that you find at the time that Nebuchadnezzar ascended to Eretz Yisrael to remove Jeconiah, Jehoiachin, from his throne, three months after he had crowned him instead of his father Jehoiakim. He came and settled in Dofnei of Antioch, where he set up his camp. And the Great Sanhedrin came out to greet him and said to him: Has the time come for this House to be destroyed? Is that the purpose for which you have arrived? He said to them: The king that I crowned to rule over you, give him to me as a captive and I will go.
בָּאוּ וְאָֽמְרוּ לִיהוֹיָכִין מֶלֶךְ יְהוּדָה. נְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר בָּעֵי לָךְ. כֵּיוָן שֶׁשָּׁמַע מֵהֶן כָּךְ נָטַל מַפְתֵּיחוֹת שֶׁלְבֵית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ. עָלָה לְגַגּוֹ שֶׁלְהֵיכָל. אָמַר לָפָנָיו. רִבּוֹנוֹ שֶׁלְעוֹלָם. לִכְשֶׁעָבַר הָיִינוּ נֶאֱמָנִין לָךְ וְהָיוּ מַפְתֵּיחוֹתֵיךָ מְסוּרִין לָנוּ. עַכְשָׁיו שֶׁאֵין אָנוּ נֶאֱמָנִין הֲרֵי מַפְתֵּיחוֹתֵיךָ מְסוּרִין לָךְ. תְּרֵין אֲמוֹרִין. חַד אָמַר. זְרָקָן וְעוֹד לֹא יָרְֽדוּ. וְחוֹרָנָה אָמַר. רָאָה כְמִין יָד נוֹטַלְּתַן מִיָּדוֹ. כֵּיוָן שֶׁרָאוּ כָּל־חוֹרֵי [דף יז:] יְהוּדָה כֵן עָלוּ לְרֹאשׁ גַּגּוֹתֵיהֶן וְנָֽפְלוּ וָמֵתוּ. הָדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב מַשָּׂא֭ גֵּ֣יא חִיזָּיוֹן מַה־לָּ֣ךְ אֵיפוֹא כִּֽי־עָלִ֥ית כּוּלָּךְ לַגַּגּֽוֹת. תְּשֻׁא֣וֹת ׀ מְלֵאָ֗ה עִ֚יר הֽוֹמִיָּ֔ה וגו׳. They came and said to Jehoiachin, king of Judea: Nebuchadnezzar requires that you be taken into captivity to Babylon. When he heard this from them, he took the keys of the Temple and ascended to the roof of the Sanctuary and said before Him: Master of the Universe, in the past we were faithful to You and Your keys were handed over to us. Now that we are not faithful, Your keys are handed over to You. Two amora’im dispute what happened next: One said that Jehoiachin took the keys and threw them up to the heavens and they have not yet descended from there. And one said that the likeness of a hand came and took them from his hand. When all [17b] the nobles of [ḥorei] Judea saw what had occurred, they went up to the top of their roofs and fell and died. This is as it is written: “The burden concerning the Valley of Vision. What ails you now, that you have wholly gone up to the housetops, you that are full of uproar, a tumultuous city, a joyous town? Your slain are not slain with the sword, nor dead in battle” (Isaiah 22:1–2). Isaiah prophesies about Jerusalem, the Valley of Vision, which will be conquered by Nebuchadnezzar, crying: What ails you, Jerusalem, that your nobles will go up to the rooftops and fall to their deaths? Your dead will not be slain with the sword or in battle; they will die by falling from the rooftops.