משנה אַרְבָּעָה חוֹתָמוֹת הָיוּ בַּמִּקְדָּשׁ וְכָתוּב עֲלֵיהֶן עֵגֶל זָכָר גְּדִי וְחוֹטֵא. בֶּן עַזַּאי אוֹמֵר חֲמִשָּׁה הָיוּ וַאֲרָמִית כָּתוּב עֲלֵיהֶן עֵגֶל דָכָר גְּדִי חוֹטֵא דַּל וְחוֹטֵא עָשִׁיר. Halakha 3 · MISHNA This mishna provides details of the functions performed by Yoḥanan ben Pineḥas and Aḥiyya, the officials mentioned in the first mishna of this chapter, which concerns the seals and libations. There were four seals in the Temple that confirmed that the bearer had paid for the libations that accompanied his offering. And one of the following inscriptions was written on them: Calf; male, i.e., a ram; kid; and sinner, i.e., a leper, as leprosy is a punishment for one of seven sins (see Arakhin 16a). Conversely, ben Azzai says: There were five seals, and the following was written upon them in Aramaic, not Hebrew: Calf, male, kid, poor sinner, and rich sinner.
עֵגֶל מְשַׁמֵּשׁ עִם נִסְכֵּי בָּקָר גְּדוֹלִים וּקְטַנִּים זְכָרִים וּנְקֵבוֹת. גְּדִי מְשַׁמֵּשׁ עִם נִיסְכֵּי צֹאן גְּדוֹלִים וּקְטַנִּים זְכָרִים וּנְקֵיבוֹת חוּץ מִשֶּׁל אֵילִים. אַיִל מְשַׁמֵּשׁ עִם נִיסְכֵּי אֵילִים בִּלְבָד. חוֹטֵא מְשַׁמֵּשׁ עִם נִיסְכֵּי שָׁלֹשׁ בְּהֵמוֹת שֶׁל מְצוֹרָע: The mishna explains the significance of each of the four aforementioned seals. The calf seal serves as a payment receipt for libations of cattle offerings, whether they are large or small, male or female, as all offerings from the cow family are accompanied by the same libation. The kid seal serves for libations of sheep or goat offerings, whether large or small, male or female, except for those of rams aged thirteen months and older. The ram seal, which was earlier called the male seal, serves exclusively for ram libations. The sinner seal serves for libations of the three animal offerings of a leper, for the completion of his purification.
מִי שֶׁהוּא מְבַקֵּשׁ נְסָכִים הוֹלֵךְ לוֹ אֵצֶל יוֹחָנָן שֶׁהוּא מְמוּנֶּה עַל הַחוֹתָמוֹת נוֹתֵן לוֹ מָעוֹת וּמְקַבֵּל מִמֶּנּוּ חוֹתָם. בָּא לוֹ אֵצֶל אֲחִייָה שֶׁהוּא מְמוּנֶּה עַל הַנְּסָכִים וְנוֹתֵן לוֹ חוֹתָם וּמְקַבֵּל מִמֶּנּוּ נְסָכִים. One who seeks libations for his offering goes to Yoḥanan, the official who was responsible for the seals, and gives him the appropriate sum of money and receives a seal from him. With that seal he subsequently comes to Aḥiyya, who was responsible for the libations, and gives him Yoḥanan’s seal and receives his libations from him.
וְלָעֶרֶב בָּאִין זֶה אֵצֶל זֶה וַאֲחִייָה מוֹצִיא אֶת הַחוֹתָמוֹת וּמְקַבֵּל כְּנֶגְדָּן מָעוֹת. אִם פָּחֲתוּ פָחֲתוֹ לוֹ וִישַׁלֵּם יוֹחָנָן מִבֵּיתוֹ. וְאִם הוֹתִירוּ הוֹתִירוּ לַהֶקְדֵּשׁ שֶׁיַּד הֶקְדֵּשׁ לָעֶלְיוֹנָה׃ In the evening, Yoḥanan and Aḥiyya would get together to reconcile their accounts, and Aḥiyya would take out the seals he had received and accept the money Yoḥanan had received in exchange for them. If the money was less than the value of the seals, they were less to him, i.e., Yoḥanan would bear the loss, and Yoḥanan would have to pay the difference to the Temple treasury from his own property. And if there was some money left over, i.e., the total money was greater than the value of the seals, they were left over to the benefit of the Temple treasury of consecrated property, as the Temple treasury always has the upper hand.
מִי שֶׁאָבַד חוֹתָמוֹ מַמְתִּינִין לוֹ עַד הָעֶרֶב. אִם מָֽצְאוּ לוֹ כְּדֵי חוֹתָמוֹ נוֹתְנִין לוֹ. וְאִם לָאו לֹא הָיוּ נוֹתְנִין לוֹ. וְשֵׁם הַיּוֹם כָּתוּב עֲלֵיהֶן מִפְּנֵי הָרַמָּאִין׃ With regard to one who lost his seal that he purchased from Yoḥanan, Yoḥanan and Aḥiyya would wait to resolve his problem until the evening. And when they added their accounts in the evening, if they found for him a surplus of money equivalent to the value of his seal, they would give him the corresponding libations. And if not, they would not give him libations. And the name of the day of the week was written upon the seals because of the cheats. They might try to use old seals that had been lost by the Temple officials or by someone who had brought an offering at an earlier date, so as to receive libations in a deceitful manner.
הלכה וּכְבֶן עַזַּאי חוֹטֵא [דָּל] לָמָּה. הָיָה מֵבִיא לוּגוֹ עִמּוֹ. בְּרַם כְּרַבָּנִן מֵבִיא גְדִי. GEMARA: The Gemara asks: And according to the opinion of ben Azzai, why was it necessary to have a seal labeled poor sinner? The Gemara answers: Ben Azzai maintains that a poor leper would have to bring his log of oil with him. This is referring to the additional oil required for the leper’s purification (Leviticus 14:15–18), some of which is sprinkled on the altar while the rest is applied to the leper’s ear, thumb, big toe, and head. According to ben Azzai, a leper would purchase this additional oil from Aḥiyya, and therefore he required a separate seal for each log of oil. However, according to the opinion of the Rabbis, a poor leper brings only the kid seal purchased from Yoḥanan, by which he receives the oil for his meal offering, and he must use his own private oil for the additional log.
נִיסְכֵי רָחֵל מַה. מִן מַה דְתַנִּינָן. גְּדִי מְשַׁמֵּשׁ נִיסְכֵּי צֹאן גְּדוֹלִים וּקְטַנִּים זְכָרִים וּנְקֵבוֹת. הָדָא אָֽמְרָה. נִיסְכֵּי רָחֵל כְנִיסְכֵּי גְדִי. כְּתִיב כָּ֣כָה יֵּֽעָשֶׂ֗ה לַשּׁוֹר֙ הָֽאֶחָ֔ד א֖וֹ לָאַ֣יִל הָֽאֶחָ֑ד אֽוֹ־לַשֶּׂ֥ה בַכְּבָשִׂ֖ים א֥וֹ בָֽעִזִּֽים: The mishna mentions only the libations for kids, referring to both sheep and goats that are less than one year old, and for rams, which are adult male sheep. The Gemara asks: What amounts are brought for the libations of a lamb, i.e., a female sheep in its second year? Are they the same as those of a kid or a ram? The Gemara answers that this halakha may be inferred from that which we learned in the mishna, that the kid seal serves for libations of sheep offerings, whether large or small, male or female. That ruling says, i.e., indicates, that the libations of a lamb are like the libations of a kid. The Gemara adds that this is derived from a verse that equates the two libations, as it is written: “Thus shall it be done for each bull, or for each ram, or for each of the lambs, or of the kids” (Numbers 15:11).
מְלַמֵּד שֶׁלֹּא חִילֵּק בֵּין נִיסְכֵּי עֵגֶל לְנִיסְכֵּי שׁוֹר. שֶׁהָיָה בְדִין. בֶּן הַצֹּאן טָעוּן נְסָכִים [וּ]בֶן הַבָּקָר טָעוּן נְסָכִים. אִם מָצָאנוּ שֶׁחִלֵּק בֵּין נִיסְכֵּי כֶּבֶשׂ לְנִיסְכֵּי אַיִל [דף טו.] לְכָךְ נַחֲלוֹק בֵּין נִיסְכֵּי עֵגֶל לְנִיסְכֵּי שׁוֹר. תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר כָּ֣כָה יֵּֽעָשֶׂ֗ה לַשּׁוֹר֙ הָֽאֶחָ֔ד. מַגִּיד שֶׁלֹּא חִילֵּק בֵּין נִיסְכֵּי עֵגֶל לְנִיסְכֵּי שׁוֹר. The Gemara inquires further: Why is it stated: For each bull? The verse teaches that The Torah does not differentiate between the libations of a calf, which is less than a year old, and the libations of a bull, which is at least one year old. The Gemara explains: This is because it was fitting to differentiate between them, in light of the fact that both the offspring of a sheep requires libations and the offspring of a cow requires libations. If we find that the Torah differentiates between the libations of a sheep in its first year, whose meal offering is one isaron of fine flour, and the libations of a ram, a male sheep thirteen months old and older, whose meal-offering is two isaron, [15a] then we should likewise differentiate between the libations of a calf and the libations of a bull. In order to indicate that this is not the case, the aforementioned verse states: “Thus shall it be done for each bull,” which teaches that the Torah does not differentiate between the libations of a calf and the libations of a bull.
א֖וֹ לָאַ֣יִל לָמָּה נֶאֱמַר. שֶׁהָיָה בְדִין. אִם מָצָאנוּ שֶׁחִלֵּק בֵּין נִיסְכֵּי בֶּן שָׁנָה לְנִסְכֵּי בֶּן שְׁתַּיִם לְכָךְ נַחֲלוֹק בֵּין נִיסְכֵּי שְׁתַּיִם לְנִיסְכֵּי שָׁלֹשׁ. תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר א֖וֹ לָאַ֣יִל הָֽאֶחָ֑ד. The Gemara asks: Why does the verse state: “Or for each ram,” as the details of the ram libations were specified in the previous verses (Numbers 15:6–7)? The Gemara explains that this verse is necessary because it would be fitting to argue as follows: If we have found that the Torah differentiated between the libations of a one-year-old sheep and the libations of a two-year-old sheep, i.e., a sheep in its second year, which is already called a ram, then we should differentiate between the libations of a two-year-old and the libations of a three-year-old ram. In order to indicate that this is not the case, the verse states: “Or for each ram,” which teaches that the libations for rams of all ages are identical.
אֽוֹ־לַשֶּׂ֥ה בַכְּבָשִׂי֭ם. לָמָּה נֶאֱמַר. שֶׁהָיָה בְדִין. אִם מָצָאנוּ שֶׁחִלֵּק בֵּין נִיסְכֵּי כֶבֶשׂ לְנִיסְכֵּי אַיִל לְכָךְ נַחֲלוֹק בֵּין נִיסְכֵּי כִשְׂבָּה לְנִיסְכֵּי רָחֵל. תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר אֽוֹ־לַשֶּׂ֥ה בַכְּבָשִׂי֭ם. The Gemara similarly asks: Why does the verse state: “Or for each of the lambs,” as the details of the lamb libations were provided in the previous verses (Numbers 15:4–5)? The Gemara explains that this phrase is necessary because it would be fitting to argue as follows: If we have found that the Torah differentiated between the libations of a lamb in its first year and the libations of ram that is thirteen months or older, then we should likewise differentiate between the libations of a full-grown ewe in its second year and the libations of a female lamb in its first year. In order to indicate that this is not the case, the verse states: “Or for each of the lambs,” which teaches that the libations for female sheep of all ages are identical.
א֥וֹ בָֽעִזִּֽים: לָמָּה נֶאֱמַר. שֶׁהָיָה בְדִין. אִם מָצָאנוּ שֶׁחִלֵּק בֵּין נִיסְכֵּי כֶבֶשׂ לְנִיסְכֵּי אַיִל לְכָךְ נַחֲלוֹק בֵּין נִיסְכֵּי גְדִי לְנִיסְכֵּי תַּיִשׁ. תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר א֥וֹ בָֽעִזִּֽים. הִקִּישׁ קָטָן שֶׁבָּעִזִּים לְגָדוֹל שֶׁבַּתְּייָשִׁים. מַה זֶה בִשְׁלֹשָׁה לוּגִּין אַף זֶה בִשְׁלֹשָׁה לוּגִּין. The Gemara continues: Why does the verse state: “Or of the goats,” which are also part of the sheep family? The Gemara explains that this phrase is necessary because it would be fitting to argue as follows: If we have found that the Torah differentiated between the libations of a lamb in its first year and the libations of a ram that is thirteen months or old, then we should likewise differentiate between the libations of a kid, a young goat, and the libations of a full-grown goat. In order to indicate that this is not the case, the verse states: “Or of the kids,” and thereby juxtaposes the libations for the youngest of the kids and those of the oldest of the goats: Just as the libations of this young kid consist of three log of wine, so too, the libations of that full-grown goat consist of three log.
הַגַּע עַצְמָךְ שֶׁזִּיווֵג אוֹתוֹ הַיּוֹם. שֵׁם מִשְׁמָר הָיָה כָתוּב עָלָיו. The mishna states: And the name of the day of the week was written upon the seals, to deter cheats. The Gemara points out a problem: Consider the following situation yourself. Suppose that a cheat found a seal and circumvented this precaution by waiting until the same day the next week, at which point he could match up [ziyyeig] his seal with that day. He would be able to collect the libations deceitfully a week later. The Gemara answers: The name of the priestly watch that served in the Temple that week was also written on it, as each watch serves in the Temple only twice a year.
הַגַּע עַצְמָךְ שֶׁזִּיווֵג אוֹתוֹ הַמִּשְׁמָר. שֵׁם הַיּוֹם שֵׁם שַׁבָּת שֵׁם חוֹדֶשׁ הָיָה כָתוּב עֲלֵיהֶן. אֲפִילוּ לְזַוֵּיג אֵינוֹ מָצוּי לְזַוֵּיג. The Gemara retorts that even this is not a sufficient precaution. After all, consider for yourself that a cheat can wait half a year and match up with that watch and collect the libations. The Gemara explains that the name of the day; the name, i.e., the number, of the week within the month; and the name of the month were all written on it. Consequently, even if a cheat wanted to match up the seal with a similar day, there is no identical day to be found with which to match it up.