משנה שֶׁל בֵּית רַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל הָיָה נִכְנָס וְשִׁקְלוֹ בֵּין אֶצְבְּעוֹתָיו וְזוֹרְקוֹ לִפְנֵי הַתּוֹרֵם וְהַתּוֹרֵם מִתְכַּוֵּין וְדוֹחֲקוֹ לַקּוּפָּה. Halakha 3 · MISHNA In order to indicate the importance that was attached to the ceremony of the collection of the Temple treasury chamber, the mishna relates that the members of the house of Rabban Gamliel desired that their shekels be the ones collected from the chamber and used for the purchase of the communal offerings. Each of them would therefore come to the Temple specifically on the day of the ceremony of the collection of the chamber, enter the chamber with his shekel between his fingers, and toss it in front of the one collecting the money so that he would see it and place it in the basket containing the money to be taken out of the chamber. Understanding what was happening, the one collecting the money from the chamber would purposely push this shekel into the basket, so that it would later be used to buy communal offerings.
אֵין הַתּוֹרֵם תּוֹרֵם עַד שֶׁיֹּאמַר לָהֶן אֶתְרוֹם. וְהֵן אוֹמְרִים לוֹ תְּרֹוֹם, תְּרוֹם, תְּרוֹם, שָׁלֹֹֹש פְּעָמִים: The one collecting the funds from the chamber may not begin to collect the money until he asks the Temple treasurers three times: Shall I collect the funds, and they say to him: Collect them, collect them, collect them, three times.
תָּרַם אֶת הָרִאשׁוֹנָה וְחִיפָּה בִּקְטַבֳלִיּוֹת הַשְּׁנִייָה וְחִיפָּה בִּקְטַבֳלִיּוֹת. הַשְּׁלִישִׁית לֹא הָיָה מְחַפֶּה. The coins were stored in the Temple treasury in three large baskets, each measuring nine se’a. In the collection of the chamber ceremony, coins were removed from these baskets and placed in smaller baskets of three se’a each that were marked with letters (see the previous mishna on daf 8a). After he collected the funds from the first large basket and put them into one of the smaller baskets labeled with the letter alef, he immediately covered with a leather cover the large basket from which he had removed the money. After collecting funds from the second large basket, he covered it with a leather cover as well. But after collecting funds from the third large basket, he did not cover it.
וְלָמָּה הְיְה מְחַפֶּה שֶׁמָּא יִשְׁכַּח וְיִתְרוֹם מִן הַדָּבָר הַתָּרוּם. The mishna asks: Why did he cover the first two baskets? In order to mark them as already having had funds collected from them. In this way, there was no concern that perhaps he would forget and once again collect funds from a basket from which funds had already been collected.
תָּרַם אֶת הָרִאשׁוֹנָה לְשֵׁם אֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל הַשְּׁנִייָה לְשֵׁם כְּרַכִים הַמּוּקָּפִין לָהּ וְהַשְּׁלִישִׁית לְשֵׁם בָּבֶל וּלְשֵׁם מָדַי וּלְשֵׁם [דף ט:] מְדִינוֹת הָרְחוֹקוֹת: The mishna specifies the intent of the one collecting the funds from the baskets as he does so: He collected funds from the first basket on behalf of the people living in Eretz Yisrael; from the second basket on behalf of the people living in the cities near Eretz Yisrael; and from the third basket on behalf of the people living in Babylonia, and on behalf of the people living in Media, and on behalf of [9b] the people living in the distant countries.
הלכה שֶׁל בֵּית רַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל הָיָה כול׳. אִילּוּ שְׁנֵי כְרִיִים וְתָרַם מֵאֶחָד מֵהֶן עַל חֲבֵירוֹ שֶׁמָּא לֹא פָטַר חֲבֵירוֹ. GEMARA: It was taught in the mishna that the members of the house of Rabban Gamliel would arrange that their shekels be the ones collected from the chamber and used for the purchase of the communal offerings. The Gemara asks: If there were two piles of produce, and one separated teruma from one pile on behalf of the other, hasn’t he exempted with this teruma the other pile as well? When tithing produce, it is not necessary to separate teruma from each pile. It suffices to set aside an appropriate measure of teruma from one of them, and this counts as teruma for the other as well. Here too, the shekels are collected from the chamber not only on behalf of those who contributed those specific shekels, but even for those whose shekels were not collected. If so, why did the members of the house of Rabban Gamliel make such efforts to ensure that their shekels be the ones collected from the chamber?
הַנַַּחַת רוּחַ הִיא לָהֶם שֶׁלֹּא הָיָה קָרְבָּן מִתְקָרֵב אֶלָּא מִשֶּׁלָּהֶן תְּחִילָּה . The Gemara answers: Even so, they got satisfaction from the fact that the communal offering was necessarily brought from their shekels first. For this reason, they exerted themselves to ensure that their shekels were collected from the chamber.
תָּרַם אֶת הָרִאשׁוֹנָה כול׳. תַּנֵּי שָׁמַט הַקַּטָבֳלִיּוֹת נַעֲשׂוּ כוּלָּן שְׁיֵרִיים. The Gemara records several halakhot dealing with the collection of funds from the Temple treasury chamber. It was taught in a baraita: If the one collecting the funds from the chamber mistakenly removed the leather covers that he had placed on the large baskets, so that now he doesn’t know from which baskets shekels have already been collected and from which they have not yet been collected, all the shekels in the uncovered baskets take on the status of the remainder of the chamber.
תַּנֵּי. שְׁלִישִׁית הִיא הָֽיְתָה עֲשִׁירָה שֶׁבְּכוּלָּן. שֶׁהָיוּ בָהּ אִצְטְלֵי שֶׁלְזָהָב וְדַרְכוֹמוֹת שֶׁלְזָהָב . It was taught in another baraita: The third collection of funds from the Temple treasury chamber that took place half a month before Sukkot was the most abundant of all, as it contained both isteriot, small coins of gold, and darics, large coins of gold.
תַּנֵּי. תָּרַם אֶת הָרִאשׁוֹנָה לְשֵׁם אֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל וּלְשֵׁם כָּל־יִשְׂרָאֵל. שְׁנִייָה לְשֵׁם כַּרַכִין מַמּוּקָּפִין וּלְשֵׁם כָּל־יִשְׂרָאֵל. וְהַשְּׁלִישִׁית לְשֵׁם בָּבֶל וּלְשֵׁם מָדַי וּלְשֵׁם מְדִינוּת הָֽרְחוֹקוֹת וּלְשֵׁם כָּל־יִשְׂרָאֵל. It was taught in yet another baraita: He collected funds from the first basket on behalf of the people living in Eretz Yisrael and on behalf of all of Israel; from the second basket on behalf of the people living in the cities [kerakim] near Eretz Yisrael and on behalf of all of Israel; and from the third basket on behalf of the people living in Babylonia and Media, and on behalf of those who dwelled in the distant countries, and on behalf of all of Israel.
תַּנֵּי. נָטַל מִן הָרִאשׁוֹנָה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּרִאשׁוֹנָה נוֹטֵל מִן הַשְּׁנִייָה. נָטַל מִן הַשְּׁנִייָה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּשְּׁנִייָה נוֹטֵל מִן הַשְּׁלִישִׁית. The Gemara discusses the order in which the funds are taken from the baskets. It was taught in a baraita: After shekels were first taken from the first basket labeled with an alef, although shekels still remain in the first basket, shekels are taken from the second basket labeled with a beit. After shekels were taken from the second basket, although shekels still remain in the second basket, shekels are taken from the third basket labeled with a gimmel.
שָֽׁלְמָה שְׁלִישִׁת חוֹזֵר לַשְּׁנִייָה. שָֽׁלְמָה שְׁנִייָה חוֹזֵר לְרִאשׁוֹנָה. שָֽׁלְמוּ שְׁלָשְׁתָּן חוֹזֵר וְשׁוֹקֵל. If the third basket is completely emptied, he goes back to take from the second basket. If the second basket is completely emptied, he goes back to take from the first basket. If all three baskets are completely emptied, he goes back to the chamber and takes from the shekels that have arrived since the last time shekels were collected from the chamber. He does not take from the shekels that remained in the chamber at the previous ceremony of collection into the baskets, as those coins acquired at that point the status of leftover shekels, which do not have sanctity.
רִבִּי מֵאִיר אוֹמֵר. חוֹזֵר לִשְׁיֵרִיים. שֶׁהָיָה רִבִּי מֵאִיר אוֹמֵר. מוֹעֲלִין בִּשְׁיֵרִיִים שֶׁמָּא יִצְרְכוּ לָהֶן בַּסּוֹף. Rabbi Meir says: He goes back to take from the leftover shekels. Because Rabbi Meir said: The halakhot of misusing consecrated property apply even to the leftover shekels, as they remain in their sanctified state. Why so? Perhaps they will be needed in the end, since if the shekels collected from the chamber are depleted, the leftover can be used for the purchase of communal offerings.
[וְכֵן הָיָה רִבִּי פִינְחָס בֶּן יָאִיר אוֹמֵר. זְרִיזוּת מְבִיאָה לִידֵי נְקִיּוּת. נְקִיּוּת מְבִיאָה לִידֵי טַהֳרָה. טַהֳרָה מְבִיאָה לִידֵי קְדוּשָּׁה. קְדוּשָּׁה מְבִיאָה לִידֵי עֲנָוָה. § Since the previous mishna deals with the obligation to be guiltless even in the eyes of men and this mishna speaks of the alacrity displayed by the members of the house of Rabban Gamliel when they gave their shekels, the Gemara brings a baraita dealing with worthy traits, including the trait of alacrity: And so Rabbi Pineḥas ben Yair would say: Alacrity in the proper performance of the mitzvot leads to cleanliness of the soul, so that one will not sin. Cleanliness of the soul and refraining from all sin leads to purity, so that one purifies his soul from his previous sins. Purity leads to holiness. Holiness leads to humility, as one recognizes his lowliness.
עֲנָוָה מְבִיאָה לִידֵי יִרְאַת חֵטְא. יִרְאַת חֵטְא מְבִיאָה לִידֵי חֲסִידוּת. חֲסִידוּת מְבִיאָה לִידֵי רוּחַ הַקֹּדֶשׁ. רוּחַ הַקֹּדֶשׁ מֵבִיא לִידֵי תְחִײַת הַמֵּתִים. תְּחִײַת הַמֵּתִים מְבִיאָה לִידֵי אֵלִיָּהוּ זָכוּר לַטּוֹב. Humility leads to fear of sin, because when one recognizes his inferiority, he becomes more fearful of sin and is careful to avoid temptation. Fear of sin leads to piety, as one begins to impose upon himself stringencies beyond the letter of the law. Piety leads to the holy spirit, because when one acts in a manner that goes beyond the letter of the law, Heaven acts with him in a way that is not natural to man, and informs him of the secrets of the Torah through divine inspiration. The holy spirit leads to the resurrection of the dead, because the spirit of holiness and purity that descend upon him enter the bones of the deceased and resurrect them. The resurrection of the dead that will precede the arrival of the Messiah leads to the coming of the Prophet Elijah, of blessed memory, who will herald the upcoming redemption.
זְרִיזוּת מְבִיאָה לִידֵי נְקִיּוּת. דִּכְתִיב וְכִלָּה מִכַּפֵּר. נְקִיּוּת מְבִיאָה לִידֵי טַהֳרָה. דִּכְתִיב וְכִפֶּ֥ר עָלֶי֛הָ הַכֹּהֵן֭ וְטָהֵֽרָה. The Gemara adduces proof texts for each of the previous statements: Alacrity leads to cleanliness of the soul, as it is written: “And when he has made an end of atoning” (Leviticus 16:20). “He has made an end” denotes alacrity; since one hastens to bring the process to conclusion, he achieves atonement, which cleanses the souls of sinners of their iniquities. Cleanliness leads to purity, as it is written with regard to the offering that a woman brings after her days of impurity and purity that follow childbirth (Leviticus 12): “And the priest shall make atonement for her, and she shall be pure” (Leviticus 12:8). Once she finishes the process of her atonement, that is to say, once she cleanses herself of sin, she reaches purity.
טְהֳרָה מְבִיאָה לִידֵי קְדוּשָּׁה. דִּכְתִיב וְטִיהֲרוֹ וְקִידְּשׁוֹ. קְדוּשָּׁה מְבִיאָה לִידֵי עֲנָוָה. דִּכְתִיב כִּי֩ כֹ֨ה אמַ֜ר רָ֣ם וְנִישָּׂא שֹׁכֵ֥ן עַד֙ וְקָד֣וֹשׁ שְׁמ֔וֹ מָר֥וֹם … וְאֶת־דַּכָּא֙ וּשְׁפַל־ר֔וּחַ. Purity leads to holiness, as it is written with regard to the High Priest’s sprinkling of the blood of his bull and goat offerings on the golden altar on Yom Kippur: “And he shall purify it, and hallow it” (Leviticus 16:19), teaching that purity is followed by holiness. Holiness leads to humility, as it is written: “For thus says the High and Lofty One that inhabits eternity, Whose name is Holy: I dwell on high and in a holy place, yet with him also that is of a contrite and humble spirit” (Isaiah 57:15). God’s holiness is drawn to a contrite and humble spirit.
עֲנָוָה מְבִיאָה לִידֵי יִרְאַת חֵטְא. דִּכְתִיב עֲ֭נָוָה יִרְאַ֣ת ה׳. יִרְאַת חֵטְא מְבִיאָה לִידֵי חֲסִידוּת. דִּכְתִיב וְחֶ֤סֶד ה׳ מֵעוֹלָ֣ם וְעַד־ע֭וֹלָם עַל־יְרֵאָ֑יו. Humility leads to fear of sin, as it is written: “The reward of humility is the fear of the Lord” (Proverbs 22:4). Fear of sin leads to piety, as it is written: “But the loving-kindness [ḥesed] of the Lord is from everlasting to everlasting upon those who fear Him” (Psalms 103:17). The recognition of God’s loving-kindness indicates piety [ḥasidut], which results from fear of God.
חֲסִידוּת מְבִיאָה לִידֵי רוּחַ הַקֹּדֶשׁ. דִּכְתִיב אָ֤ז דִּבַּ֪רְתָּֽ־בְחָ֡זוֹן לַֽחֲסִידֶ֗יךָ. רוּחַ הַקּוֹדֶשׁ מֵבִיא לִידֵי תְחִײַת הַמֵּתִים. דִּכְתִיב וְנָֽתַתִּ֨י רוּחִ֤י בָכֶם֙ וִֽחְיִיתֶ֔ם. תְּחִײַת הַמֵּתִים מְבִיאָה לִידֵי אֵלִיָּהוּ זָכוּר לַטּוֹב. דִּכְתֵיב אָ֗ז תָּ֭בִין יִרְאַ֣ת ה׳ וְדַעַ֭ת עֶלְיוֹן תִּמְצָֽא׃ Piety leads to the holy spirit, as it is written: “Then You spoke in vision to Your pious ones” (Psalms 89:20). The holy spirit leads to the resurrection of the dead, as it is written: “And I shall put My spirit in you, and you shall live” (Ezekiel 37:14). The resurrection of the dead leads to the coming of the Prophet Elijah, of blessed memory, as it is written: “Behold, I will send you Elijah the Prophet before the coming of the great and terrible day of the Lord” (Malachi 3:23). The day referred to here is the day of the resurrection of the dead.
תַּאנָא בְשֵׁם רִבִּי מֵאִיר. כָּל־מִי שֶׁקָּבוּעַ בְּאֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל וּמְדַבֵּר לְשׁוֹן הַקֹּדֶשׁ וְאוֹכֵל פֵּירוֹתָיו בּטָהָרָה וְקוֹרֵא קִרְיַת שְׁמַע בַּבֹּקֶר וּבָעֶרֶב יְהֵא מְבוּשָּׂר שֶׁבֶּן הָעוֹלָם הַבָּא הוּא] The Gemara concludes the chapter with a different discussion of virtues: It was taught in a baraita in the name of Rabbi Meir: Anyone who lives permanently in Eretz Yisrael, and speaks the holy tongue, and eats the fruits of Eretz Yisrael in purity, and recites Shema in the morning and in the evening, will receive the tidings and assurances that he is one who has merited of the World-to-Come.
הדרן עלך פרק בשלשה פרקים