משנה: הַמְכַנֵּס מָעוֹת וְאָמַר הֲרֵי אֵילּוּ לְשִׁקְלִי בֵּית שַׁמַּאי אוֹמְרִים מוֹתָרָן נְדָבָה. וּבֵית הִלֵּל אוֹמְרִים מוֹתָרָן חוּלִין. שֶׁאָבִיא מֵהֶן שִׁקְלִי שָׁוִין שֶׁמּוֹתָרָן חוּלִין. אֵילּוּ לְחַטָּאת שָׁוִין שֶׁהַמּוֹתָר נְדָבָה. שֶׁאָבִיא מֵהֶן חַטָּאתִי שָׁוִין שֶׁהַמּוֹתָר חוּלִין: אָמַר רִבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן מַה בֵּין שְׁקָלִים לְחַטָּאת. אֶלָּא שֶׁל שְׁקָלִים יֵשׁ לָהֶן קִיצְבָה וּלְחַטָּאת אֵין לָהּ קִצְבָה. רִבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר אַף לִשְׁקָלִים אֵין לָהֶן קִיצְבָה שֶׁכְּשֶׁעָלוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל מִן הַגּוֹלָה הָיוּ שׁוֹקְלִין דַּרְכּוֹנוֹת חָזְרוּ לִשְׁקוֹל סְלָעִים חָזְרוּ לִשְׁקוֹל טִבְעִים בִּקְּשׁוּ לִשְׁקוֹל דִּינָרִין. אָמַר רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אַף עַל פִּי כֵן יַד כּוּלָּם שָׁווָה. אֲבָל חַטָּאת זֶה מֵבִיא בְּסֶלַע וְזֶה מֵבִיא בִּשְׁתַּיִם וְזֶה מֵבִיא בְּשָׁלֹשׁ: MISHNAH: If somebody collects coins and says, “these are for my sheqel,” the House of Shammai say, the excess is gift42To be given into the gift account of the Temple treasury from which elevation offerings are bought to occupy the altar when otherwise it would be idle., but the House of Hillel say, the excess is profane43As explained in the Halakhah and Mishnah 4, a sheqel is a fixed sum and it is reasonable to assume that only the amount necessary was dedicated. The price of an animal for a sacrifice is variable; since the person is ready to spend the entire amount, the entire amount is dedicated.. “That I shall take from these for my sheqel,” they agree that the excess is profane. “These are for a purification offering,” they agree that the excess is gift, “that I shall take from these for a purification offering,” they agree that the excess is profane.
Rebbi Simeon said, what is the difference between sheqalim and a purification offering57As stated in Mishnah 3.? It is that sheqalim have a fixed value and a purification offering has no fixed value. Rebbi Jehudah said, sheqalim also have no fixed value. When Israel returned from the Babylonian exile they gave as Temple tax darics58A Persian gold coin., they continued to give sela`im59In old Babylonian sources the silā is the standard (Sumerian) unit of volume. In the Talmudim, it is the standard expression for the silver tetradrachma (approximately 14g), roughly corresponding to the old Phoenician sheqel. In the context here, a similar Persian coin must be intended. The vocalization סֶלַע is customary (from the Hebrew word “rock”); probably סִלַע historically would be more correct., they continued to give minted coins60In this context meaning the silver didrachma., they wanted to give denars61But this reduction was never accepted, see the Halakhah.. Rebbi Simeon said, anyhow everybody gave the same62While the value of the sheqel was not constant in time, at any given time everybody knew exactly what was required., but for a purification offering, one brings for a tetradrachma, another for two, and still another for three.
הלכה: הַמְכַנֵּס מָעוֹת כול׳. רִבִּי יוֹסֵה בְשֵׁם רִבִּי לָֽעְזָר. מַה פְליגִין. בִּמְכַנֵּס פְּרוֹטְרוֹט. אֲבָל בָּאוֹמֵר. אֵילּוּ [לְשִׁקְלִי]. כָּל־עַמָּא מוֹדֵיי שֶׁהַמּוֹתָר נְדָבָה. רִבִּי חִזְקִיָּה רִבִּי בֵּיבַי בְּשֵׁם רִבִּי לָֽעְזָר. מַה פְלִיגִין. בִּמְכַנֵּס פְּרוֹטְרוֹט. אֲבָל בָּאוֹמֵר. אֵילּוּ. כָּל־עַמָּא מוֹדֵיי שֶׁהַמּוֹתֶָר חוּלִין. אָמַר רִבִּי חִזְקִיָּה. מַתְנִיתָא מְסַייְעָא לְרִבִּי בֵּיבַי. [דִּתְנָן.] אָמַר רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן. מַה בֵּין שְׁקָלִים לְחַטָּאת. אֶלָּא שֶׁהַשְּׁקָלִים יֵשׁ לָהֶן קִצְבָה וּלְחַטָּאת אֵין לָהּ קִיצְבָה. מַה אֲנָן קַייָמִין. אִם בָּאוֹמֵר. שֶׁאָבִיא מֵהֶם שִׁקְלִי. כָּל־עַמָּא מוֹדֵיי שֶׁהַמּוֹתָר חוּלִין. אִם בָּאוֹמֵר. שֶׁאָבִיא מֵהֶן חַטָּאתִי כָּל־עַמָּא מוֹדֵיי שֶׁהַמּוֹתָר נְדָבָה. אֶלָּא כֵן אֲנָן קַייָמִין. בָּאוֹמֵר. אֵילּוּ שְׁקָלִים. עַל יְדֵי שֶׁקִצְווָתָן מִן הַתּוֹדָה. מוֹתָרָן חוּלִין. חַטָּאת עַל יְדֵי שֶׁאין קִצְבָתָהּ מִן הַתּוֹרָה. מוֹתָרָהּ נְדָבָה. מַה עֲבַד לָהּ רִבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֵּן לָקִישׁ. פָּתַר לָהּ בִּמְכַנֵּס פְּרוֹטְרוֹט כְּבֵית הִלֵּל. וְהָא תַנִּינָן. מוֹתַר שְׁקָלִים חוּלִּין. פָּתַר לָהּ בִּמְכַנֵּס פְּרוֹטְרוֹט וּכְבֵית הִלֵּל. וְהָא תַנִּינָן. עֲשִׂירִית הָאֵפָה [חוּלין]. עוֹד הוּא בִּמְכַנֵּס פְּרוֹטְרוֹט וּכְבֵית הִלֵּל. HALAKHAH: “If somebody collects coins,” etc. 43As explained in the Halakhah and Mishnah 4, a sheqel is a fixed sum and it is reasonable to assume that only the amount necessary was dedicated. The price of an animal for a sacrifice is variable; since the person is ready to spend the entire amount, the entire amount is dedicated. Rebbi Yose in the name of Rebbi Eleazar, where do they disagree? If he collects small change44One does not know what sum was accumulated without counting the copper coins. But since exactly 2 silver denars are needed, if silver coins are collected and the owner says, these are sheqalim, all of them are dedicated according to everybody.. But if he says, these [are for my sheqel ]45Corrector’s addition. The addition is unnecessary as shown by all parallel sources and the following statement of R. Ḥizqiah. It obscures the main point that the collector of the coins says “these”, not “from these”. In the latter case everybody agrees that the excess is profane; in the first case R. Yose holds that “these” dedicated all coins in the box whereas R. Bevai holds that, in case the amount needed is known beforehand, only the amount needed is dedicated., everybody agrees that the excess is gift. Rebbi Ḥizqiah, Rebbi Bevai in the name of Rebbi Eleazar, where do they disagree? If he collects small change. But if he says, these, everybody agrees that the excess is profane. Rebbi Ḥizqiah said, a Mishnah supports Rebbi Bevai, [as we have stated]: “Rebbi Simeon says, what is the difference between sheqalim and purification offerings? It is that sheqalim are a fixed sum but purification offerings have no fixed price46Mishnah 4..” Where do we hold? If about one who says, “that I shall bring my sheqel from these,” everybody agrees that the excess is profane. If about one who says, “that I shall bring my purification offering from these,” everybody agrees that the excess is gift47Including the House of Shammai.. But we must deal with the case of one who says “these sheqalim”, since from the Torah they are a fixed amount the excess is profane, “purification offerings”, since their value is not a fixed amount from the Torah the excess is gift. How does Rebbi Simeon ben Laqish48This name is impossible here; one has to read with the Babli sources “R. Simeon”, denying that the argument of R. Ḥizqiah is applicable to the reasoning of the House of Shammai. The reading of the text in Nazir, “R. Yose” also is possible; in that case he states that the argument of R. Simeon applies only if the stated intent is to collect monies for the Temple tax, not if the declaration is made on monies already available. In the latter case, R. Simeon may agree that the excess is earmarked for the Temple gift account. treat this? He explains it, if he collects small change following the House of Hillel. But did we not state49Mishnah 5., “the excess of sheqalim is profane”? He explains it, if he collects small change following the House of Hillel. But did we not state, “the excess of the tenth of an ephah” [is profane]50Addition of the corrector. Mishnah 5 clearly states that excess monies collected for a flour offering of a tenth of an ephah, probably not the daily offering of the rich High Priest (Lev. 6:12–16) but the purification offering of the very poor (Lev. 5:11–13), are dedicated for the gift account. The entire sentence is missing in B. In ג the reading is “the excess of a tenth of an ephah are sheqalim”. This is acceptable; the excess of coins collected for a sanctum may be used for another sacred purpose. While the sanctity of sheqalim is less than that of a flour offering, the switch will be permitted to the poor following the House of Hillel.? Still he explains it if he collects small change following the House of Hillel.
הַמַּפְרִישׁ שִׁקְלוֹ וְסָבוּר שֶׁהוּא חַייָב וְנִמְצָא שֶׁאֵינוֹ חַייָב. לֹא קָדַשׁ. הַמַּפְרִישׁ שְׁנַיִם וְסָבוּר שֶׁהוּא חַייָב שְׁנַיִם וְנִמְצָא שֶׁאֵינוֹ חַייָב אֶלָּא אֶחָד. אוֹתוֹ הַשֵּׁינִי מָה אַתְּ עֲבַד לֵיהּ. [נִשְׁמְעִינָהּ מִן הָדָא. הִפְרִישׁ חַטָּאתוֹ] סָבוּר שֶׁהוּא חַייָב וְנִמְצָא שֶׁאֵינוֹ חַייָב. לֹא קָֽדְשָׁה. הַמַּפְרִישׁ שְׁתַּיִם וְסָבוּר שֶׁהוּא חַייָב שְׁתַּיִם וְנִמְצָא שֶׁאֵינוֹ חַייָב אֶלָּא אַחַת. אוֹתָהּ הַשְּׁנִייָה מָה אַתְּ עֲבַד לָהּ. (בָּאוֹמֵר) [אֶלָּא רוֹעָה. הָכָא נַמֵּי אֵלּוּ לִנְדָבָה. הֵיאַךְ אַתָּה אוֹמֵר] אֵילּוּ. If somebody put aside his sheqel in the belief that he owed it and it turned out that he did not owe, it was not dedicated51The entire argument follows the House of Hillel who in Mishnah Nazir5:1 stated that dedication in error is void, against the opinion of the House of Shammai.. If he put aside two in the belief that he owed twice and it turned out that he owed only once, how do you treat the second? As one who believed that he owed it and it turned out that he did not owe, or as one who said “these”52Following those who hold that dedicating “these coins” is a full dedication even if the value exceeds that of a sheqel.?
שֶׁכְּשֶׁעָלוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל מִן הַגּוֹלָה הָיוּ שׁוֹקְלִין דַּרְכּוֹנוֹת. דֵּינָרִין. חָזְרוּ לְשְׁקוֹל סְלָעִים. כִּשׁמוּעָן. חָזְרוּ לִשְׁקוֹל טִיבְעִין. פַּלְגֵי סִלְעִין. בִּיקְּשׁוּ לִשְׁקוֹל דִּינָרִין. קָרָטִין. וְלֹא קִיבְּלוּ עֲלֵיהֶן. מִן הָדָא. וְהֶֽעֱמַ֤דְנוּ עָלֵ֨ינוּ֙ מִצְוֹ֬ת לָתֵ֥ת שְׁלִשִׁ֥ית הַשֶּׁ֖קֶל בַּשָּׁנָה֑ לַעֲבוֹדַת בֵּ֥ית אֱלֹהֵֽינוּ׃ רִבִּי חִלְקִיָּה בְשֵׁם רִבִּי אָחָא. מִיכָּן שֶׁאָדָם צָרִיךְ לְשַׁלֵּשׁ שִׁקְלוֹ שְׁלֹשָׁה פְעָמִים בַַּשָּׁנָה. מִיכָּן שֶׁאֵין מַטְרִיחִין עַל הַצִּיבּוּר יוֹתֵר מִשְּׁלֹשָׁה פְעָמִים בַּשָּׁנָה. אָמַר רִבִּי אַבִּין. מִיכָּן לְשָׁלֹשׁ סְאִין. מִיכָּן לְשָׁלֹשׁ קוּפּוֹת. מִיכָּן לְשָׁלֹשׁ אַפְרָשׁוֹת. “When Israel returned from the Babylonian exile they gave as Temple tax darics,” denars63Aurei, Roman gold denarii. The numismatic evidence shows that the Dareikos was worth about twice the aureus., “they continued to give sela`im,” as their meaning64The Accadic sila used in both Talmudim to designate the Roman tetradrachma., “they continued to give minted coins,” half tetradrachmas, they wanted to give denars,” quarters65With J. Levy reading as Latin quarta., but these were not accepted by the following: and we accepted for us as commandment to give a sheqel three times66Neh. 10:33, following the changed wording in B which is understood also in S. The usual translation is “a third of a sheqel.” The verse declares the collection of sheqalim a post-exilic institution. Babli Bava batra9a. in the year for the service in our God’s House. Rebbi Ḥilkiah in the name of Rebbi Aḥa: From here that a person has to give his sheqel three times a year; <from here that a person is responsible for the alienation of his sheqel three times a year;>67Added from the other two sources. The omission in the text probably is a scribal error. from here that one does not importune people more than three times a year. Rebbi Abbin said, from here the three se`ah, from here the three boxes, from here the three collection times68Mishnah 3:1–2: Money was disbursed from the sheqalim3 times a year; each disbursement yielded three boxes of sheqalim, three se`ah each..
כְּתִיב זֶ֣ה ׀ יִתְּנ֗וּ כָּל־הָֽעוֹבֵר עַל־הַפְּקוּדִים וגו׳. רִבִּי יודָה וְרִבִּי נְחֶמְיָה. חַד אָמַר. מִפְּנֵי שֶׁחָֽטְאוּ בְמַחֲצִית הַיּוֹם יִתְנוּ מַחֲצִית הַשֶּׁקֶל. וְחָרָנָה אָמַר. לְפִי שֶׁחָטְאוּ בְשֵׁשׁ שָׁעוֹת יִתְנוּ מַחֲצִית הַשֶּׁקֶל דַּעֲבַד שִׁיתָּא גְרַמָּסִין. רִבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֵּירִבִּי נְחֶמְיָה בְשֵׁם רַבָּן יוֹחָנָן בֶּן זַכַּיי. לְפִי שֶׁעִיבְּרוּ עַל עֲשֶׂרֶת הַדִּיבְּרוֹת יְהֵא נוֹתֵן כָּל־אֶחָד וְאֶחָד עֲשָׂרָה גֵּרָה. רִבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה רִבִּי לֵוִי בְשֵׁם רִבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן לָקִישׁ. לְפִי שֶׁמָּֽכְרוּ בְכוֹרָהּ שֶׁל רָחֵל בְּעֶשְׂרִים כֶּסֶף יְהֵא כָל־אֶחָד וְאֶחָד [פוֹדֶה אֶת] בְּנוֹ בְכוֹרוֹ בּעֶשְׂרִים כֶּסֶף. רִבִּי פִּינְחָס בְּשֵׁם רִבִּי לֵוִי. לְפִי שֶׁמָּֽכְרוּ בְכוֹרָהּ שֶׁל רָחֵל בְּעֶשְׂרִים כֶּסֶף וְנָפַל לְכָל־אֶחָד וְאֶחָד מֵהֶן טִבַּע לְפִיכַךְ יְהֵא כָל־אֶחָד וְאֶחָד מֵהֶן נוֹתֵן שִׁקְלוֹ טִבַּע. It is written69Ex. 30:13, reading הַפְּקוּדִים “the census” as Mishnaic Hebrew הַפִּקּוּדִים “the Commandments”.: This they shall give, everybody who violated the Commandments. Rebbi Jehudah and Rebbi Neḥemiah. One said, because they sinned70Making the Golden Calf after 12 noon, Babli Šabbat89a, summarized by Rashi, Ex. 32:1. in the middle of the day they shall give half a sheqel; but the other said, because they sinned in the sixth hour they shall give half a sheqel; which is worth six grams71An Aramaic plural of Greek γράμμα, τό, “gram, scruple (as weight)”. One scruple is two oboloi, a third of a denar, approximately 1.2 metric grams, used here as name of a silver coin.. Rebbi Joshua the son of Rebbi Neḥemiah in the name of Rebbi Joḥanan ben Zakkai: Because they transgressed the Ten Commandments, each of them shall give ten gerah69Ex. 30:13, reading הַפְּקוּדִים “the census” as Mishnaic Hebrew הַפִּקּוּדִים “the Commandments”.. Rebbi Berekhiah, Rebbi Levi in the name of Rebbi Simeon ben Laqish: Because they sold Rachel’s firstborn for twenty pieces of silver; each of them shall redeem his firstborn with twenty pieces of silver72Num. 3:47. The firstborn is redeemed by 5 sheqalim. Since it is held that the sheqel in the Torah is equal to a Roman tetradrachma, Qiddušin1:3 Note 339, 5 sheqalim are 20 denarii. The generic expression “pieces of silver” is taken to mean the most common silver coin, the denar.
The homily is mentioned as introduction to the following one.. Rebbi Phineas in the name of Rebbi Levi: Because they sold Rachel’s firstborn for twenty pieces of silver and each of them received a minted coin60,In this context meaning the silver didrachma.73Since Joseph was sold by 10 of his brothers. The formulation of the homily shows that in later Amoraic times the word sheqel had lost its meaning denoting either a standard weight or a standard coin but became the label of a religious obligation., each of them shall give a minted coin as his sheqel.