[דף ב.] משנה בְּאֶחָד בַּאֲדָר מַשְׁמִעִין עַל הַשְּׁקָלִים וְעַל הַכִּלְאַיִם. וּבַחֲמִשָּׁה עָשָׂר בּוֹ קוֹרִין אֶת הַמְּגִלָּה בַּכְּרַכִּים [2a] Halakha 1 · MISHNA On the first of Adar the court proclaims concerning the collection of shekels, i.e., the yearly half-shekel contribution to the Temple treasury made by each adult male for the purpose of buying communal offerings. And they also proclaim with regard to the obligation to uproot forbidden mixtures of diverse kinds of food crops in gardens and fields. And on the fifteenth day of the month of Adar, the Scroll [Megilla] of Esther is read in the cities [kerakim] surrounded by walls from the time of Joshua.
וּמְתַקְּנִין אֶת הַדְּרָכִים וְאֶת הָרְחוֹבוֹת וְאֶת מִקְווֹת הַמַּיִם, וְעוֹשִׂין כָּל־צוֹרְכֵי הָרַבִּים וּמְצַייְּנִין עַל הַקְּבָרוֹת And they also repair the roads that were damaged in the winter, and the streets, and the cisterns. And at that time they perform all that is necessary for public welfare. And they also mark the Jewish gravesites anew, so that people would know their location and avoid ritual impurity, as the previous markers may have eroded during the rainy season.
וְיוֹצְאִין אַף עַל הַכִּלְאָיִם׃ And agents of the court also go out to inspect the fields for diverse kinds of food crops, to determine whether or not the farmers had in fact uprooted these seeds after the proclamation on the first of the month. If the agents of the court found that these diverse kinds had not been uprooted, they themselves would uproot them.
הלכה בְּאֶחָד בַּאֲדָר מַשְׁמִעִִין כול׳. וְלָמָּה בְאֶחָד בַּאֲדָר. כְּדֵי שֶׁיָּבִיאוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶת שִׁקְלֵיהֶן בְּעוֹנָתָן וְתִיתָּרֵם תְּרוּמַת הַלִּשְׁכָּה מִן הַחֲדָשָׁה בִזְמַנָּהּ בְּאֵחָד בְּנִיסָן. GEMARA: The mishna taught that the court would issue a proclamation concerning the new shekels on the first of Adar. The Gemara asks: And why specifically on the first of Adar? The Gemara answers: This was done in order that Jews would bring their shekels to the designated Temple chamber in the proper time, as the shekels had to be collected before the beginning of Nisan each year. And this would ensure that the collection of the Temple treasury chamber would be collected from the new shekels at its proper time, which is on the first of the month of Nisan, i.e., the beginning of the Temple year. After that date all communal offerings must be purchased from the new shekels.
וָמַר רִבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר רַב יִצְחָק. [תְּרוּמַת הַלִּשְׁכָּה] כַּתְּחִילָּתָהּ. [דִּ]כְתִב וַיְהִ֞י בַּחוֹדֶשׁ הָֽרִאשׁ֛וֹן בַּשָּׁנָ֥ה הַשֵּׁינִית בְּאֶחָ֣ד לַחוֹדֶשׁ הוּקַ֖ם הַמִּשְׁכָּֽן: וְתַנֵּי עֲלָהּ. בַּיּוֹם שֶׁהוּקַם הַמִּשְׁכָּן בּוֹ בַיּוֹם נִתְרְמָה הַתְּרוּמָה. And Rabbi Shmuel bar Rav Yitzḥak said: The collection of the Temple treasury chamber was performed each year on the same date as its first time, as it is written: “And it came to pass in the first month in the second year, on the first day of the month, that the Tabernacle was reared up” (Exodus 40:17). And a baraita was taught about this verse: On the day that the Tabernacle was erected, on that very day the funds were collected. The first of Nisan was thereafter permanently established as the date for the collection of the chamber.
רִבִּי טָבִי רִבִּי יֹאשַׁיָה בְשֵׁם כַּהֲנָא. נֶאֱמַר כָּאן חָדְשֵׁי וְנֶאֱמַר לְהַלָּן חָדְשֵׁי. מַה חָדְשֵׁי שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר לְהַלָּן אֵין מוֹנִין אֶלְּא מִנִּיסָן אַף חָדְשֵׁי שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר כָּאן אֵין מוֹנִין אֶלְּא מִנִּיסָן Rabbi Tavi said that Rabbi Yoshiya said in the name of Rabbi Kahana: It is stated here, with regard to the additional offerings of the New Moon: “This is the burnt-offering of every New Moon throughout the months of the year” (Numbers 28:14), and it is stated there, concerning the months of the year: “This month shall be to you the beginning of months; it shall be the first of the months of the year to you” (Exodus 12:2). Just as “the months of” stated there are counted only from Nisan, the first month of the year, so too, “the months of” that is stated here, with regard to the new shekels, are counted only from Nisan.
אָמַר רִבִּי יוֹנָה. שְׁבַק רִבִּי טָבִי רֹאשָׁהּ וְאָמַר סוֹפָא. דִּלֹ כֵן כַּהָדָא דְתַנֵּי. זֹ֣את עוֹלַת חוֹדֶשׁ בְּחָדְשׁ֔וֹ. יָכוֹל תְּהֵא תוֹרֵם בְּכָל־חוֹדֶשׁ וָחוֹדֶשׁ. תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר בְּחוֹדְשׁוֹ לְחָדְשֵׁי֭. בְּחוֹדֶשׁ אֶחָד הוּא תוֹרֵם לְכָל־חָדְשֵׁי הַשָּׁנָה. Rabbi Yona said: Rabbi Tavi left aside the first clause of this baraita, and read only its latter clause, in which it is stated that the months of the year are counted from Nisan. However, this does not prove that the first of Nisan is the date after which communal offerings must be purchased with the new shekels. This is not as it was taught, as this is the full text of the baraita: The verse states: “This is the burnt-offering of a new month on its month, throughout the months of the year” (Numbers 28:14). One might have thought that a person should contribute a half-shekel each and every month. Therefore the verse states: “of a new month on its month, throughout the months,” from which it is inferred: In one particular month a person contributes his half-shekel for all the months of the year.
יָכוֹל בְּאֵיזֶה חוֹדֶשׁ שֶׁיִּרְצֶה. נֶאֶמַר כָּאן חָדְשֵׁי וְנֶאֱמַר לְהַלָּן חָדְשֵׁי. מַה חָדְשֵׁי שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר לְהַלָּן אֵין מוֹנִין אֶלְּא מִנִּיסָן אַף מַה חָדְשֵׁי שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר כָּאן אֵין מוֹנִין אֶלֶּא מִנִּיסָן. The baraita continues: One might have thought that a person can contribute his half-shekel in any month he wants. Therefore, it is stated here, with regard to the additional offerings of the New Moon: “The months of” (Numbers 28:14), and it is stated there, with regard to the months of the year: “The months of” (Exodus 12:2). Just as the phrase “the months of,” which is stated there, is counted only from Nisan, the first month of the year, so too, the phrase “the months of,” which is stated here, with regard to the offerings, is counted only from Nisan.
מָהוּ מַשְׁמִעִין. רב הוּנָא אָמַר. מַכְרִיזִין. הֵיךְ מַה דְאַתְּ אָמַר. וַיִּתְּנוּ־ק֞וֹל בִּֽיהוּדָ֣ה וּבִירֽוּשָׁלַ֗ם. § The mishna taught that on the first of Adar the court would issue a proclamation concerning the new shekels. The Gemara asks: What does it mean that they proclaim? Rav Huna said: They announce publicly that everyone is obligated to donate the half-shekel. As you say in quoting the verse: “And they made a proclamation throughout Judea and Jerusalem, to bring in for the Lord the tax that Moses, the servant of God, laid upon Israel in the wilderness” (II Chronicles 24:9). The tax of Moses is the half-shekel that the Israelites were commanded to donate.
תַּמָּן תַּנִּינָן. אֵין בֵּין אֲדָר הָרִאשׁוֹן לַאֲדָר הַשֵּׁינִי אֶלָּא מִקְרָא מְגִלָּה וּמַתָּנוֹת לָאֶבְיוֹנִים: רִבִּי סִימוֹן בְּשֵׁם רִבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן לֵוִי. אַף שִׁימּוּעַ שְׁקָלִים וְכִלְאַיִם בֵּינֵיהֶן. רִבִּי חֶלְבּוֹ וְרַב חוּנָה רַב בְּשֵׁם רִבִּי חִייָה רַבָּה. הַכֹּל יוֹצְאֵין בְּאַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר שֶׁהוּא זְמַן קְרִייָתָהּ. We learned in a mishna there (Megilla 1:4): The only halakhic difference between First Adar and Second Adar is the recitation of the Megilla and the gifts to the poor, which are mitzvot of Purim, which is celebrated only in Second Adar. The Gemara comments: Rabbi Simon says in the name of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi: The proclamations about the new shekels and about diverse kinds are also between them, i.e., are performed in Second Adar and not First Adar. The Gemara comments further: Rabbi Ḥelbo and Rav Huna said that Rav said in the name of Rabbi Ḥiyya the Great as follows: All fulfill the obligation to read the Megilla on the fourteenth of Adar, which is the fixed time of its reading for most people, although there are other times in which particular groups can read the Megilla.
אָמַר רִבִּי יוֹסֵה. וְיֵאוּת. כְּלוּם אָֽמְרוּ מַשְׁמִעִין עַל הַשְּׁקָלִים לֹא כְּדֵי שֶׁיָּבִיאוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל שִׁקְלֵיהֶן בְּעוֹנָתָן. אְִם אוֹמֵר אַתְּ בַּאֲדָר הָרִאשׁוֹן. עַד כְדוֹן אִית בּשַּׁתָּא שִׁיתִין יוֹמִין. Rabbi Yosei said: And that is so; the proclamations about the shekels and about diverse kinds were certainly issued in Second Adar. Rabbi Yosei explains: Didn’t they say that the court would proclaim about the new shekels on the first of Adar in order that Jews would bring their shekels in the proper time, by the first of Nisan? And if you say that in a leap year the court issues this declaration in First Adar, until then there are still sixty days of the year before the first of Nisan. With so much time remaining, people might be lax and neglect to donate their half-shekels.
כְּלוּם אָֽמְרוּ יוֹצְאִין אַף עַל הַכִּלְאָיִם לֹא כְּדֵי שֶׁיְּהוּ הַצְּמָחִין נִיכָּרִין. אְִם אוֹמֵר אַתְּ בַּאֲדָר הָרִאשׁוֹן. עַד כְדוֹן אִינּוּן דַּקִּיקִין. Rabbi Yosei continues: Furthermore, didn’t they say that on the fifteenth of Adar the agents of the court would also go out to examine the fields for diverse kinds of food crops, to determine whether the farmers had in fact uprooted these plants, and to do so themselves if those farmers had neglected their duty. Was this not performed on this date in order that the plants would be perceptible at that time? The court agents must have gone out near springtime, as otherwise they would have been unable to detect the presence of diverse kinds. And if you say that this task is performed in First Adar, until then the new crops are too small to be seen. Consequently, they must have waited until Second Adar, when the crops were visible.
רִבִּי חִזְקִיָּה שָׁאַל. מֵעַתָּה בְּנֵי בָבֵל מַשְׁמִעִין עַל שִׁיקְלֵיהֶן מֵרֹאשׁוֹ שֶׁלְחוֹדֶשׁ. לֹא כְּדֵי שֶׁיָּבִיאוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל שִׁקְלֵיהֶן בְּעוֹנָתָן וְתִיתָּרֵם תְּרוּמַת הַלִּשְׁכָּה מִן הַחֲדָשָׁה בִזְמַנָּהּ בְּאֵחָד בְּנִיסָן. The Gemara comments: In light of the statement that the proclamation concerning the new shekels was to ensure that the coins would arrive in the Temple at the proper time, Rabbi Ḥizkiya asked the following rhetorical question: If that is so, then with regard to the residents of Babylonia, who live at a distance of several months’ travel from Jerusalem, the court should proclaim about the new shekels at the beginning of winter. Didn’t the court make the proclamation in order that the Jews would bring their shekels in the proper time, and thus the collection of the Temple treasury chamber will be collected from the new shekels at its appropriate time, on the first of Nisan? It therefore would be necessary to issue the proclamation earlier for distant locations.
הָתִיב רִבִּי עוּלָּא קוֹמֵי רִבִּי מָנָא. וְהָא תַנִּינָן. בִּשְׁלשָׁה פְּרָקִים בַּשָּׁנָה תּוֹרְמִין אֶת הַלִּשְׁכָּה בְּפַרְסְ הַפֶּסַח בְּפַרְסְ הָעֲצֶרֶת בְּפַרְסְ הַחַג. Rabbi Ulla raised a difficulty in the presence of Rabbi Mana: Rabbi Ḥizkiya’s statement indicates that in each place the proclamation should be issued in accordance with the time it takes for the shekels to reach Jerusalem from there. But we learned in a mishna (Shekalim 3:1): On three occasions in the year the shekels were collected from the chamber, for the purchase of offerings: Half a month before [biferos] the festival of Passover, half a month before the festival of Shavuot, and half a month before the festival of Sukkot.
אָמַר לֵיהּ. נֵימַר. אִילֵּין דִּקְרֵיבִין בִּפְרֹס הַפֶּסַח. אִילֵּין דִּרְחִיקִין בִּפְרֹס הָעֲצֶרֶת. וְאֵילִּין דִּרְחִיקִין מִינְּהוֹן בִּפְרֹס הַחַג. Rabbi Ulla continued and said to Rabbi Mana in explanation: In light of this mishna, shouldn’t we say that the proclamation for shekels was issued in all places on the same date, the first of Adar, whereas the ceremony of the collection of the Temple treasury chamber was performed at three different times, in accordance with the arrival of the shekels to the Temple from different locations: With regard to those who are near Jerusalem, whose shekels arrived before the first of Nisan, the collection ceremony for their coins is half a month before Passover, while the ceremony for those who are farther away is half a month before Shavuot; and the ceremony for those who are even farther away than they are is half a month before Sukkot.
[דף ב:] אָמַר לֵיהּ. כּוּלָּהּ כְּאַחַת הָיְתָה בָעָה. וְלָמָּה אָֽמְרוּ בִּשְׁלשָׁה פְּרָקִים. כְּדֵי לַעֲשׂוֹת פּוֹמְפֵּי לַדָּבָר. [2b] Rabbi Mana said to Rabbi Ulla: The different collections of the chamber do not reflect the different times of the shekels’ arrival, but rather the entire collection of shekels arrives at one time, by the first of Nisan, and in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Ḥizkiya. And why then did the Sages say that the money is collected from the chamber on three occasions in the year? In order to publicize [pumbei] the matter, that everyone is obligated to donate half-shekels for the purchase of communal offerings.
רִבִּי יְהוּדָה בַּר פָּזִי בְשֵׁם רִבִּי. הֵן נִקְרָא וְלֹא נִבְהַת. לְטוֹבָה כֹּ֚ל נְדִ֣יב לֵב. לְרָעָה וַיִּֽתְפָּֽרְקוּ֙ כָּל־הָעָ֔ם אֶת־נִזְמֵ֥י הַזָּהָב֭ אֲשֶׁ֣ר בְּאָזְנֵיהֶ֑ם. § Rabbi Yehuda bar Pazi said in the name of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi: Can we read the following verses and not be afraid? On the one hand, when the Jewish people were asked to donate for the good purpose of the construction of the Tabernacle, the verse states: “And they came, both men and women, as many as were willinghearted, and brought…an offering of gold to the Lord” (Exodus 35:22). This indicates that only the generous among the people brought donations. On the other hand, when the Jews were asked to donate for the evil purpose of the Golden Calf, it states that not only the willinghearted but: “And all the people broke off the golden rings which were in their ears, and brought them unto Aaron” (Exodus 32:3).
לטוֹבָה וַיּוֹצֵ֨א מֹשֶׁ֧ה אֶת־הָעָ֛ם. לְרָעָה וַתִּקְרְב֣וּן אֵלַי֮ כּוּלְּכֶם. A similar idea is found with regard to the people’s initiatives. When they initiated for good, at Sinai, it states: “And Moses brought forth the people out of the camp to meet God; and they stood at the nether part of the mount” (Exodus 19:17). This verse indicates that they did not venture forth on their own initiative, but only upon Moses’ instruction. In contrast, when it is for evil, the people took the initiative, as the verse states with regard to sending the spies: “And you came near to me every one of you, and said: Let us send men before us, that they may search the land for us, and bring us back word of the way by which we must go up, and the cities unto which we shall come” (Deuteronomy 1:22).
לְטוֹבָה אָ֣ז יָֽשִׁיר־מֹשֶׁה֩ וּבְנֵ֙י יִשְׂרָאֵ֜ל. לְרָעָה וַיִּשָּׂא כָּל־הָ֣עֵדָ֔ה וַֽיִּתְּנ֖וּ אֶת־קוֹלָם֑. Another example: For good, with regard to the song at the Red Sea after the Israelites were rescued from the Egyptians, it is stated: “Then sang Moses and the children of Israel this song unto the Lord, and spoke, saying: I will sing unto the Lord, for He is highly exalted; the horse and his rider He has thrown into the sea” (Exodus 15:1). They did not start singing of their own accord, but merely followed Moses’ lead. Yet for evil, after the spies delivered their report upon their return from Eretz Yisrael, the verse states: “And all the congregation lifted up their voice, and cried; and the people wept that night” (Numbers 14:1).
אָמַר רִבִּי חִייָא בַּר בָּא. אָכֵן֙ הִשְׁכִּ֣ימוּ הִשְׁחִ֔יתוּ. כָּל־הַשְׁחָתָה שֶׁהָיוּ עוֹשִׂין בְּהַשְׁכָּמָה הָיוּ עוֹשִׂין אוֹתָהּ. Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba said: When he reproves the Jews, the prophet also notes their greater willingness to perform evil than good: “I said: Surely you will fear Me, you will receive correction; so her dwelling shall not be cut off, despite all that I have visited upon her; but they rose early and corrupted all their doings” (Zephaniah 3:7), which indicates that every act of corruption that the Jews would perform, they would perform it early in the day. In contrast, only the vigilant arise early to fulfill mitzvot.
אָמַר רִבִּי בָּא בַּר אָחָא. אֵין אַתְּ יָכוֹל לַעֲמוֹד עַל אוֹפִי שֶׁלְּאוּמָּה הַזֹּאת. נִתְבָּעִין לָעֶגֶל וְנוֹתְנִין. In reference to the previous statement that the Jews donated to both the Tabernacle and the Golden Calf, Rabbi Abba bar Aḥa said: You cannot discern the true nature of this people, as donations are requested for the Golden Calf and they give; and later, donations are requested for the Tabernacle, and they also give.
נִתְבָּעִין לַמִּשְׁכָּן וְנוֹתְנִין. תַּנָּה רִבִּי יוֹסֵה בֶּן חֲנִינָה הָדָא מַתְנִיתָא. וְעָשִׂ֥יתָ כַפּוֹרֶת זָהָ֣ב טָה֑וֹר. יָבוֹא זָהָב שֶׁלְכַּפֹּרֶת וִיכַפֵּר עַל זְהָבוֹ שֶׁלְעֶגֶל. In this regard, Rabbi Yosei bar Ḥanina taught this baraita. The verse states: “And you shall make an Ark cover of pure gold” (Exodus 25:17). Let the gold of the Ark cover come and atone for the gold of the Calf.
רִבִּי חַגַּי בְשֵׁם רִבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר נַחְמָן. שָׁלֹשׁ תְּרוּמת נֶאֶמְרוּ בַפָּרָשָׁה הַזֹּאת. תְּרוּמַת אֲדָנִים וּתְרוּמַת שְׁקָלִים וּתְרוּמַת הַמִּשְׁכָּן. דַּבֵּר֙ אֶל־בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל וְיִקְחוּ־לִי֭ תְּרוּמָ֑ה זוֹ תְרוּמַת אֲדָנִים. מֵאֵ֤ת כָּל־אִישׁ֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר יִדְּבֶ֣נּוּ לִבּ֔וֹ תִּקְח֖וּ אֶת־תְּרֽוּמָתִֽי׃ זוֹ תְרוּמַת שְׁקָלִים. וְזֹאת֙ הַתְּרוּמָ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֥ר תִּקְח֖וּ מֵֽאִתָּ֑ם זוֹ תְרוּמַת הַמִּשְׁכָּן. The Gemara returns to the issue of the collection of the shekels. Rabbi Ḥaggai said in the name of Rabban Shimon bar Naḥman: Three collections are stated in this passage (Exodus 25:1–3): The collection for the sockets, in which the beams of the Tabernacle building were placed; the collection of shekels for communal offerings; and the collection for the building of the Tabernacle. When the verse states: “Speak to the children of Israel, that they take for Me an offering” (Exodus 25:2), this is the collection of sockets. “Of every man whose heart makes him willing, you shall take My offering” (Exodus 25:2); this is the collection of shekels. “And this is the offering which you shall take from them” (Exodus 25:3); this is the collection of the Tabernacle.
תְּרוּמַת הַמִּשְׁכָּן לַמִּשְׁכָּן. מַה שֶׁיִּרְצוּ יַעֲשׂוּ. תְּרוּמַת שְׁקָלִים לְקָרְבָּן. מַה שֶׁיִּרְצוּ יַעֲשׂוּ. כְּדֵי שֶׁתְּהֵא יַד כּוּלָּן שָׁווָה. The Gemara elaborates: The collection of the Tabernacle goes to the Tabernacle, and whatever the authorities want to do with this money for the purpose of the Tabernacle they may do. The collection of shekels is for the communal offering; whatever they want to do with this money for the acquisition of the various communal offerings, they may do. Every Jewish male participates in this collection, in order that they all have an equal share in the communal offerings.
תְּרוּמַת אֲדָנִים [לָאֲדָנִים]. הֶֽעָשִׁ֣יר לֹֽא־יַרְבֶּ֗ה וְהַדַּל֙ לֹ֣א יַמְעִ֔יט. As for the collection of the sockets, it is brought for the making of sockets. In this case the verse states: “The rich shall not give more, and the poor shall not give less” (Exodus 30:15). Every male from age twenty upward donated the fixed sum of a half-shekel, which was used for the making of the sockets.
אָמַר רִבִּי אָבוּן. אַף בַּפָּרָשָׁה הַזֹּאת נֶאֶמְרוּ בָהּ שָׁלֹשׁ תְּרוּמת. Rabbi Avun said: In this passage as well, three collections are stated: “Half a shekel for an offering to the Lord” (Exodus 30:13); “Shall give the offering of the Lord” (Exodus 30:14); “They give the offering of the Lord” (Exodus 30:15).
בַּחֲמִשָּׁה עָשָׂר בּוֹ קוֹרִין אֶת הַמְּגִלָּה בַּכְּרַכִּים. לֹא כֵן אָמַר רִבִּי חֶלְבּוֹ וְרַב חוּנָה רַב בְּשֵׁם רִבִּי חִייָה רַבָּה. הַכֹּל יוֹצְאֵין בְּאַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר שֶׁהוּא זְמַן קְרִיאָתָהּ. § The mishna taught that on the fifteenth day of the month of Adar the Scroll of Esther is read in cities. The Gemara asks: But how can this be so? Didn’t Rabbi Ḥelbo say citing Rav Huna citing Rav, in the name of Rabbi Ḥiyya the Great: All fulfill the obligation to read the Megilla on the fourteenth of Adar, which is the fixed time of its recitation. This ruling apparently includes even the inhabitants of walled cities.
לֹא בָא אֶלָּא לְלַמְּדָךְ [שֶׁכָל־] (שֶׁ)הַמִּצוֹת נוֹהֲגוֹת בַּאֲדָר הַשֵּׁינִי [נוֹהֲגוֹת בַּאֲדָר הָרִאשׁוֹן]. The Gemara answers: This statement does not come to establish the correct date for reciting the Megilla, but to teach you that all the other mitzvot that are practiced in a leap year in Second Adar are not practiced in First Adar.
רִבִּי יוֹסֵה וְרִבִּי אָחָא הֲווֹן יְתִיבִין. אָמַר רִבִּי יוֹסֵה לְרִבִּי אָחָא. לֹא מִסְתַּבְּרָא לַשֶּׁעָבַר אֶלָּא לָבֹא. The Gemara relates: Rabbi Yosei and Rabbi Aḥa were sitting together. Rabbi Yosei said to Rabbi Aḥa: The statement that all fulfill their obligation on the fourteenth indeed means that all may read the Megilla on the fourteenth. Yet it is reasonable to say so only after the fact, i.e., if they neglected to do so on the fifteenth, the inhabitants of a walled city have fulfilled their obligation by reading on the fourteenth. However, the residents of walled cities may not read the Megilla on the fourteenth ab initio.
וְהָא תַנֵּי. מְקוֹם שֶׁנָּהֲגוּ לִקְרוֹתָהּ שְׁנֵי יָמִים קוֹרִין אוֹתָהּ שְׁנֵי יָמִים. אָמַר לֵיהּ. אוֹף אֲנָא סְבַר כֵּן. Rabbi Aḥa raised an objection to Rabbi Yosei. But wasn’t it taught in a baraita: In a place where they were accustomed to read the Megilla on two days, due to doubt over whether or not that city was surrounded by a wall in the days of Joshua (e.g., Tiberias; see Megilla 5b), they read it on two days? Yet you claim that even in a place where the Megilla must definitely be read on the fifteenth, if it was read on the fourteenth the residents are not obligated to read it again. Rabbi Yosei said to him: I too hold like that, i.e., that residents of a walled city should read the Megilla on the fifteenth, even when they had already read it on the fourteenth.
אָמַר רִבִּי מָנָא. וְיֵאוּת. אִילּוּ מִשֶּׁקְּרָייָהּ בָּאַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר חוֹזֵר וּקְרָייָא בַּחֲמִשָּׁה עָשָׂר שֶׁמָּא אֵין שׁוֹמְעִין לוֹ. אִם אוֹמֵר אַתְּ כֵּן נִמְצֶאתָ עוֹקֵר זְמַן כַּרַכִין בְּיָדֶיךָ. Rabbi Yosei did not explain how Rabbi Ḥelbo’s statement that all fulfill their obligation on the fourteenth fits with the baraita. Rabbi Mana said: And this is so; there is no contradiction from the baraita. If, after reciting the Megilla on the fourteenth of Adar, one wants to read it again on the fifteenth, perhaps we do not listen to him, i.e., allow him? If you say so, you have turned out to have directly uprooted the proper time for the recitation of the Megilla in walled cities, which is the fifteenth of Adar. Therefore, it is appropriate for one who has already read on the fourteenth to read again on the fifteenth.
תַּנֵּי. רַבָּן שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל אוֹמֵר. מִצוֹת נוֹהֲגוֹת בָּאֲדַר שֵׁינִי אֵינָן נוֹהֲגוֹת בָּאֲדַר הָרִאשׁוֹן חוּץ מִן הֶסְפֵּד וּמִן הַתַּעֲנִית שֶׁהֵן שָׁוִין בָזֶה וּבָזֶה. It was taught in a baraita that Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: All the mitzvot that are practiced in Second Adar are not practiced in the First Adar, apart from the prohibitions against eulogy and fasting on Purim, which apply equally in both this month and that one. It is prohibited to give a eulogy or to fast on the fourteenth and fifteenth of First Adar.
רִבִּי בָּא רִבִּי יִרְמְיָה בְשֵׁם רַב רִבִּי סִימוֹן בְּשֵׁם רִבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן לֵוִי. הֲלָכָה כְרַבָּן שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל. Rabbi Ba said, citing Rabbi Yirmeya in the name of Rav, and similarly, Rabbi Simon said in the name of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel.
רִבִּי חוּנָה רַבָּהּ דְּצִיפּרִין אָמַר. הִנְהִיג רִבִּי חֲנִינָה בְצִיפּוֹרִין כְּהָדָא דְרַבָּן שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל. לֹא אָמַר אֶלָּא הִנְהִיג. הָא לַהֲלָכָה לֹא. Rav Huna the Great from Tzippori said: Rabbi Ḥanina instituted the custom in Tzippori in accordance with this opinion of Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel. The Gemara infers: Rav Huna did not say that according to Rabbi Ḥanina the halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel, i.e., as a definitive ruling; rather, he meant that Rabbi Ḥanina merely instituted the custom in practice, even though it is not the definitive halakha.
אֲבָל לְעִנְייָן שְׁטָרוֹת כּוֹתְבִין אֲדָר הָרִאשׁוֹן וַאֲדָר הַשֵּׁינִי. אֶלָּא שֶׁכּוֹתְבִין אֲדָר הַשֵּׁינִי תִינְייָן. רִבִּי יוּדָה אוֹמֵר. אֲדָר הַשֵּׁינִי [דף ג.] כוֹתֵב וְדַיּוֹ. However, with regard to the issue of dating legal documents, the following practice is followed. One writes First Adar, and in Second Adar, simply Adar. Rabbi Yosei says: In First Adar [3a] one writes simply: Adar, whereas in Second Adar one writes: Second Adar.
מְתַקְּנִין אֶת הַדְּרָכִים וְאֶת הָרְחוֹבוֹת וְאֶת מִקְווֹת הַמַּיִם וְעוֹשִׂין כָּל־צוֹרְכֵי הָרַבִּים. אֵילּוּ הֵן צוֹרְכֵי הָרַבִּים. דָּנִין דִּינֵי מָמוֹנוֹת וְדִינֵי נְפָשׁוֹת דִּינֵי מַכּוֹת וּפוֹדִין עֲרָכִין וַתֲרָמִין וְהֶקְדֵּישׁוֹת § The mishna taught that on the fifteenth of Adar they repaired the roads that were damaged in the winter, and the streets, and the cisterns. And they did all that was necessary for public welfare. The Gemara explains: These are the matters necessary for public welfare: They judge monetary cases, capital cases, and cases that involve the punishment of lashes. And the court also redeems valuations, consecrations of articles for Temple or priestly use, and consecrations for Temple maintenance or as offerings.
וּמַשְׁקִין אֵת הַסּוֹטָה וְשׂוֹרְפִין אֶת הַפָּרָה וְעוֹרְפִין עֶגְלָה עֲרוּפָה וְרוֹצְעִין עֶבֶד עִבְרִי וּמְטָהֲרִין אֵת הַמְּצוֹרָע וּמְפָֽרְקִין אֶת הַמִּנְעָל מֵעַל גַּבֵּי הָאֵימוּם וְאֵין מַחֲזִירִין אוֹתוֹ. And they give the sota to drink, and they burn the red heifer, to use its ashes for the ritual purification of those rendered impure by contact with the dead, and they break the neck of the heifer whose neck is broken, and they pierce the ear of a Hebrew slave, and they render the leper ritually pure. And they remove the locks that were placed over the water cisterns during the winter, as this water was for public use in the summer, and they do not replace them until the winter.
וּמְצַייְּנִין עַל הַקְּבָרוֹת. וְלֹא כְבָר צִייְנוּ מֵאֲדָר. תִּפְתָּר שֶׁיָּרַד שֶׁטֶף שֶׁלְגְּשָׁמִים וּשְׁטָפוֹ. We learned in a baraita there that although it is prohibited to perform unnecessary work on the intermediate days of a Festival, during these days one may water an irrigated field, and one may mark the graves by painting lime on them. The Gemara asks: But didn’t the court already mark the graves in Adar, as stated in the mishna here? Why was it necessary to mark them again during the Festival? The Gemara answers: It can be explained as referring to a situation where a downpour rained down after the graves were initially marked in Adar, and washed away the previous markings.
וְיוֹצְאִין אַף עַל הַכִּלְאָיִם: לֹא כְבָר יָֽצְאוּ מֵאֲדָר. תִּפְתָּר שֶׁהָֽיְתָה הַשָּׁנָה אֲפֵילָה וְאֵין הַצְּמָחִין נִיכָּרִין. The mishna further taught that on the fifteenth of Adar, agents of the court would also go out to inspect the fields for diverse kinds of food crops. The Gemara asks: But didn’t they already go out in the beginning of Adar to examine the fields for diverse kinds, as the mishna previously stated? The Gemara answers: It can be explained that the year was late [afila], i.e., the crops had not yet sprouted by the beginning of Adar, and the plants are not perceptible until later.
מְנַיִין לְצִיּוּן. רִבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה רִבִּי יַעֲקֹב בַּר בַּת יַעֲקֹב בְשֵׁם רִבִּי חוּנְייָא דִבְרַת חַווְרָן רִבִּי יוֹסֵה אָֽמְרֵי לָהּ רִבִּי יָעֲקֹב בַּר אָחָא בְשֵׁם רִבִּי חוּנְייָא דִבְרַת חַווְרָן רִבִּי חִזְקִיָּה רִבִּי עוּזִּיאֵל בְּרֵיהּ דְּרִבִּי חוּנְייָה דִבְרַת חַווְרָן בְּשֵׁם רִבִּי חוּנְייָא דִבְרַת חַווְרָן. טָמֵא טָמֵא֭ יִקְרָֽא. § The Gemara asks: From where is the obligation of marking graves derived? Rabbi Berekhya said in the name of Rabbi Ya’akov bar bat Ya’akov in the name of Rabbi Ḥunya of Berat Ḥavrin, Rabbi Yosei said it was Rabbi Ya’akov bar Aḥa, in the name of Rabbi Ḥunya of Berat Ḥavrin, while Rabbi Ḥizkiya and Rabbi Uziel, son of Rabbi Ḥunya of Berat Ḥavrin, said it in the name of Rabbi Ḥunya of Berat Ḥavrin. These Sages said that the proof is from a verse: “And the leper in whom the plague is, his clothes shall be rent, and the hair of his head shall go loose, and he shall cover his upper lip, and shall cry: Unclean, unclean” (Leviticus 13:45).
כְּדֵי שֶׁתְּהֵא הַטּוּמְאָה קוֹרְאָה לָךְ בְּפִיהָ וְאוֹמֶרֶת לָךְ. פְּרוֹשׁ. The Gemara explains: This teaches that one must take measures in order that the ritually impure object, in this case the leper, calls to you verbally, as it were, and tells you: Separate yourself from it. Just as the leper warns everyone that he is ritually impure, one must likewise mark graves to warn passersby of their impure status.
רִבִּי אִילָא בְשֵׁם רִבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר נַחְמָן. וְעָֽבְר֤וּ הָעוֹבְרִים בָּאָ֔רֶץ וְרָאָה֙ עֶ֣צֶם אָדָ֔ם וּבָנָ֥ה אֶצְל֖וֹ צִיּ֑וּן. Rabbi Ila in the name of Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥman cited a different verse in this regard: “And when they that pass through shall pass through the land, and anyone sees a man’s bone, then shall he set up a sign by it, till the buriers have buried it in the valley of Hamon-gog” (Ezekiel 39:15). This verse explicitly states that there is a need to mark graves.
מִיכָן שֶׁמְצַייְנִין עַל הָעֲצָמוֹת. אָדָ֔ם. מִיכָן שֶׁמְצַייְנִין עַל הַשִּׁזְרָה וְעַל הַגּולְגּוֹלֶת. The Gemara adds that further halakhot can be derived from this verse. “Bone”: from here it is derived that one marks bones. “A man”: From here it is derived that one marks a spine and skull that were found.
וּבָנָ֥ה. מִיכָן שֶׁמְצַייְנִין עַל גַּבֵּי אֶבֶן קְבוּעָה. אִם אוֹמֵר אַתְּ עַל גַּבֵּי אֶבֶן תְּלוּשָׁה. אַף הִיא הוֹלֶכֶת וּמְטַמֵּא בְמָקוֹם אַחֵר. “Then shall he set up”: From here it is derived that one marks the sign of ritual impurity on a fixed stone, for if you say that one may mark on a detached stone, that very stone is likely to move from that spot, and it will incorrectly mark another place as ritually impure. It is therefore necessary to use a stone that will not be moved.
אֶצְל֖וֹ. בִּמְקוֹם טַהֲרָה. צִיּ֑וּן. מִיכָן לְצִיּוּן. The verse further states: “By it”: This is referring to a place of ritual purity. In other words, the marking should not be placed on the spot of ritual impurity itself, but in a nearby, ritually pure location. “A sign”: From here we learn of the obligation to mark.
וּמָצָא אֶבֶן אַחַת מְצוייֶנֶת. אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין מְקַייְמִין כֵּן הַמַּאֲהִיל עָלֶיהָ טָמֵא. אֲנִי אוֹמֵר. מֵת מְצוּייָן הָיָה נָתוּן תַּחְתֶּיהָ. It was further taught with regard to the same issue: And if one found one marked stone, even though one should not establish it in this manner, i.e., one should not mark a place of ritual impurity with a single stone ab initio, but with two stones in order to delineate the extent of the impurity, nevertheless, one who covers it, i.e., places some part of his body in the space above it, is rendered ritually impure. In such a case I say, i.e., one ought to assume: There was a dead body marked here, and it was located underneath this stone.
הָיוּ שְׁתַיִם. הַמַּאֲהִיל עָלֶיהֶן טהוֹר וּבֵינֵיהֶן טָמֵא. However, if there were two marked stones, the one who covers them with part of his body remains ritually pure, as the source of impurity is typically located between, not underneath, the two markers. And consequently, if he covered the space between the stones, he is ritually impure.
אִם הָיָה חוֹרֶשׁ בֵּיְנְתַּייִם הֲרֵי הֵן כִּיחִידִיּוֹת. בֵּינֵיהֶן טָהוֹר וּסְבִיבוֹתֵיהֶן טָמֵא And if there were plow marks between these two stones, they are considered like isolated stones with regard to this halakha. Therefore, if he covered the area between the stones with part of his body he is ritually pure, and if he covered the space surrounding the area where they are set he is impure, as it can be assumed there was a source of impurity under each stone.
תַּנֵּי אֵין מְצַייְנִין עַל הַבָּשָׂר שֶׁמָּא נִתְאַכֵּל הַבָּשָׂר. It was taught in a different baraita that one does not mark on the location of the flesh of a corpse without any bones. Why not? Perhaps the flesh has decomposed, leaving less than the minimum size that confers ritual impurity by covering, which is an olive-bulk. If the mark is left there, the spot will permanently be treated as ritually impure.
רִבִּי יוּסְטָא בַּר שׁוּנֵם בְּעָא קוֹמֵי רִבִּי מָנָא. וְלֹא נִמְצָא מְטַמֵּא טַהֲרוֹת לְמַפְרֵעַ. אָמַר לֵיהּ. מוטָּב שֶׁיִּתְקַלְקְלוּ בוֹ לְשָׁעָה וְאַל יִתְקַלְקְלוּ בוֹ לְעוֹלָם. Rabbi Yusta bar Shunem wondered in the presence of Rabbi Mana: And doesn’t he thereby render pure items ritually impure retroactively? If the flesh is not marked at all, pure items might pass over the spot before the flesh has decayed, rendering them ritually impure. He said to him: It is preferable that people are harmed by it temporarily, while the flesh is still there, and are not harmed by it permanently, by wrongly thinking that their pure foods contracted ritual impurity from this source.