משנה: טוֹמְנִין בַּשְׁלָחִין וּמְטַלְטְלִין אוֹתָן בְּגִיזֵּי צֶמֶר וְאֵין מְטַלְטְלִין אוֹתָן. כֵּיצַד עוֹשֶׂה נוֹעֵר אֶת הַכִּסּוּי וְהֵן נוֹפְלוֹת. רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בֶּן עֲזַרְיָה אוֹמֵר קוּפָּה מַטָּהּ עַל צִידָּהּ וְנוֹטֵל שֶׁמָּא יִטּוֹל וְאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְהַחֲזִיר. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים נוֹטֵל וּמַחֲזִיר. MISHNAH: One may store away in raw hides5Untanned fresh hides which in general are not used nevertheless qualify as implements for the rules of the Sabbath., which one may move, and in wool flakes6Unprocessed wool freshly shorn. This is considered raw material, not textile, for the rules of the Sabbath., which one may not move. What does one do? He shakes the cover and they fall off. Rebbi Eleazar ben Azariah says, a box he tilts on its side and takes out, lest he take it out and be unable to return it7If in taking out the pot the hollow where it fitted in was filled by the insulating material, there is a rabbinic prohibition of re-excavating the hollow since it would look as if he started hiding the pot only on the Sabbath. The Sages do not dispute this argument; they hold that an experienced housewife will see to it that the pot may be returned if necessary.. But the Sages say, he takes and returns.
הלכה: טוֹמְנִין בַּשְׁלָחִין וּמְטַלְטְלִין אוֹתָן. רִבִּי יוּדָה בֶּן פָּזִי בְשֵׂם רִבִּי יוֹנָתָן. הָדָא דְתֵימַר בִּנְתוּנִין אֶצֶל בַּעַל הַבַּיִת. אֲבָל בִּנְתוּנִין בָּאַפּוֹתֵיקֵי לֹא בְדָא. בְּגִיזֵּי צֶמֶר וְאֵין מְטַלְטְלִין אוֹתָן. רִבִּי יוּדָה וְרִבִּי יוֹחָנָן. הָדָא דְתֵימַר בִּנְתוּנִין בָּאַפּוֹתֵיקֵי. אֲבָל בִּנְתוּנִין אֶצֶל בַּעַל הַבַּיִת לֹא בְדָא. HALAKHAH: “One may store away in raw hides5Untanned fresh hides which in general are not used nevertheless qualify as implements for the rules of the Sabbath., which one may move.” Rebbi Jehudah ben Pazi in the name of Rebbi Jonathan: This you are saying if they are kept in the household. But if they are kept in storage35Greek ἀποθήκη, ἡ. this does not apply. “And in wool flakes6Unprocessed wool freshly shorn. This is considered raw material, not textile, for the rules of the Sabbath., which one may not move.” Rebbi Judah and Rebbi Joḥanan36It seems that one should read: R. Jehudah ben Pazi in the name of R. Jonathan.: This you are saying if they are kept in storage. But if they are kept in the household this does not apply37In all cases raw materials used in the household may be moved and used on the Sabbath; those held in separate storage rooms are muqṣeh. Cf. Babli 49a, 50a..
רַב יִרְמְיָה בְשֵׁם רַב. פּוֹרְשִׂין מַחֲצֶלֶת עַל גַּבֵּי שַׁייָפוֹת שֶׁלְלְבֵינִים בַּשַּׁבָּת. 38The origin of these paragraphs is Halakhah Beṣah 5:1 (י). Not only is the subject of muqṣeh the main topic of this Tractate but also the somewhat difficult Aramaic of the last sentence is copied correctly in Beṣah but defectively here. The second paragraph also is copied later in Chapter 13 (13). Rav Jeremiah in the name of Rav: One spreads a mat over rows of bricks on the Sabbath39Even though the bricks are there as building materials one may turn them into seats if needed since they are not moved. In the Babli’s theory, muqṣeh items may not be moved, but they may be touched. It does not seem that this is the Yerushalmi’s attitude, as expressed by Rav in the question of the hunters. Nevertheless here the bricks are not touched; people sit on the mat. Babli 43a, Beṣah 36a. In the reading of the Babli this is a Tannaitic statement and the bricks are not there for a future building project but are leftovers from a finished one..
אָמַר רִבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֵּרִבִּי. אֲנִי לֹא שָׁמַעְתִּי מֵאַבָּא. אֲחוֹתִי אָֽמְרָה לִי מִשְּׁמוֹ. בֵּיצָה שֶׁנּוֹלְדָה בְיוֹם טוֹב סוֹמְכִין לָהּ כֶּלִי בִּשְׁבִיל שֶׁלֹּא תִּתְגַּלְגֵּל. אֲבָל אֵין כּוֹפִין עָלֶיהָ אֶת הַכֶּלִי. וּשְׁמוּאֵל אָמַר. כּוֹפִין עָלֶיהָ כֶלִי. אָמַר רִבִּי מָנָא. וּבִלְבַד שֶׁלֹּא יְהֵא הַכֶּלִי נוֹגֵעַ בְּגוּפָהּ שֶׁלְּבֵיצָה. Rebbi Simeon ben Rebbi [Yannai]40Added from the two parallel sources. said: I did not hear from my father; my sister told me in his name. For an egg which was laid on a holiday one props it up against a vessel so it should not roll off. But one does not cover it with a vessel41He holds that a vessel may be moved only for something that itself may be moved. Since the egg was not laid before the holiday it is not prepared and may not be moved.. But Samuel says, one may cover it with a vessel. Rebbi Mana said, only if the vessel not touch the body of the egg42Samuel holds that a vessel may be moved for any legitimate purpose. Babli 42b. R. Mana requires that the vessel be moved in a way which certainly avoids moving the egg..
תַּנֵּי רִבִּי הוֹשַׁעְיָה. נָחִיל שֶׁלִּדְבוֹרִין פּוֹרְסִין עָלֶיהָ סַדִּין בַּחַמָּה מִפְּנֵי הַחַמָּה וּבַגְּשָׁמִים מִפְּנֵי הַגְּשָׁמִים. מַה כְרָב. כִּשְׁמוּאֵל. כָּאן מִלְּמַטָּן כָּאן מִלְּמַעֲלָן. Rebbi Hoshaia stated: One may spread a sheet over a swarm of bees43The real reason naturally is to catch the bees when they are swarming on a Sabbath or holiday. If it can be done in a way which also protects the bees it may be done; Babli 43a. in the summer because of the sun, in the rainy season because of the rain. Is this following Rav? Following Samuel? Here on top, there below44Since Rav permits to cover the bricks he also will permit to cover the bees. But since Samuel prohibits touching the egg he might forbid here since the cloth necessarily will touch bees. Samuel also will agree here since the swarm is hanging on the branch of a tree, not lying on the ground and supported by it as in the case of the egg..
רִבִּי בִּיסְנָא בְשֵׁם רִבִּי יוֹסֵי בַּר חֲנִינָה. חֲפֵי לְסוֹטוֹת אָסוּר לְטַלְטְלָן. מְצַדְתְּא הֲוָא פְרִיסָן וְהָדֵין מִשְׁטָֽרְפָן גַּר שִׁמְשָׁא. אַתּוֹן וְשָׁאֲלוּ לְרַב. מָהוּ מְטַלְטְלָתְן. אֲמַר לוֹן. חַשְׁבוֹן עֲלֵיהֹן מִתְנִינָן תְּחוֹתֵי רֵשֵׁיכוֹן וְשָׁרִי לְכוֹן מְטַלְטָלְּתָן. Rebbi Bisna in the name of Rebbi Yose bar Ḥanina: It is forbidden to move the weaver’s beam weaving fine cloth45The translation is tentative. In Chapter 6 appears לסוטה as Aramaic translation of Hebrew רְדִיד, a fancy outer garment of women. The identification of פחי as “weaver’s beam” follows a suggestion of Kohut (Arukh completum s.v. 2 פחה), accepted by Liebermann, that this is Arabic حفّهَ.. The hunters were spreading [traps] and these were damaged by the sun. They came to ask Rav, may one move them?. He told them, [it is forbidden to touch them.]40Added from the two parallel sources. Intend to put them under your heads and it is permitted for you to move them46If the traps are actually used as a support for the head they may be moved even though at nightfall this intended use is only in the owner’s mind, answering a question remaining undecided in Chapter Three (Note 178 ff.)..
רִבִּי זְעִירָא בְשֵׁם רִבִּי יִרְמְיָה. רָאשֵׁי כְלוֹנְסִיּוֹת שֶׁחִישֵּׁב עֲלֵיהֶן מֵאֶיתְמֹל מוּתָּר לְטַלְטַלָן. רִבִּי יוֹנָה וְרִבִּי יוֹסֵי סָֽלְקוֹן לְסִדְרָא דְבַר עוּלָּא דַּהֲוָה רָֽבְעָה תַמָּן וַהֲוָה תַמָּן רָאשֵׁי כְלוֹנְסִיּוֹת. אַתּוּן וּשְׁאָלוּן לֵיהּ מָהוּ לְטַלְטַלָן. אֲמֻר לוֹן. אִם חָשַׁבְתֶּם עֲלֵיהֶן מֵאֶיתְמֹל מוּתָּר מוּתָּר לְטַלְטַלָן. וְאִם לָאו אֵין אַתֶּם מוּתָּרִים לְטַלְטַלָן. Rebbi Zeˋira in the name of Rebbi Jeremiah47This must be either R. Zeˋira in the name of Rav Jeremiah or Rebbi Jeremiah in the name of Rebbi Zeˋira.: log48Greek κᾶλον, τό, “wooden”. heads about which he had thought the day before may be moved. Rebbi Jonah and Rebbi Yose went up to the seder49The house of study. The only feasts held at such a place were religious celebrations. R. Jonah and R. Yose must still have been minor members of the rabbinate. (J. N. Epstein in Tarbiz 6, 1934, p. 236). of Bar Ulla. There was a festive meal there and there were heads of logs there. They came and asked him, may one move them? He told them, if you had intention about them from yesterday it is permitted to move them50If the logs obstructed the enlargement of the area reserved for the attendees at the conference, they could be removed on the Sabbath, when there were many more listeners, if this was the intention from Friday., otherwise you are not permitted to move them.
תַּנֵּי רִבִּי חֲלַפְתָּא בַּר שָׁאוּל. מוּכִּין שֶׁחָשַׁב עֲלֵיהֶן מֵאֶתְמוֹל מוּתָּר לְטַלְטַלָן. תַּנֵּי רִבִּי יוֹסֵי בֶּן שָׁאוּל. צֶבֶר שֶׁל קוֹרוֹת שֶׁחִישֵּׁב עֲלֵיהֶן מֵאֶתְמוֹל מוּתָּר לְטַלְטַלָן. רִבִּי יוֹסֵי רִבִּי חֲנִינָה בְשֵׁם רִבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל בֵּירִבִּי יוֹסֵי. רִבִּי יַעֲקֹב בַּר אָחָא רִבִּי יַעֲקֹב בַּר אִידִי רִבִּי חֲנִינָה בְשֵׁם רִבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל בֵּירִבִּי יוֹסֵי. אַבָּא שַׁלְחָא הֲוָה וַהֲוָה אָמַר לָנוּ קָֽשְׁרוּ לָכֶם רָאשֵׁי גִיזִּיּוֹת וְאַתְּם מוּתָּרִין לְטַלְטְלָן לְמָחָר. חִזְקִיָּה אָמַר. אֲפִילוּ מַלַּן. רַב אָמַר. חֳרִיּוּת שֶׁגִּידְעָן לִשְׁכִיבָה אֵינָן צְרִיכוֹת קִישּׁוּר. לָאֹהָלִין צְרִיכוֹת קִישּׁוּר. רַב אַבָּא בַּר חָנָה אָמַר. בֵּין לִשְׁכִיבָה בֵּין לָאוֹהָלִין צְרִיכוֹת קִישּׁוּר. אָמַר רִבִּי חִזְקִיָּה. וְלָא דָמִי קִישּׁוּרֵיהּ דְּרַב בָּאוֹהָלִין לְקִישּׁוּרֵיהּ דְּרַב אַבָּא בַּר חָנָה בַכֵּלִים. קִישּׁוּרֵיהּ דְּרַב בָּאוֹהָלִין. עַד שֶׁיִּקְשׁוּר אֶת כָּל־הַקּוֹצִין. קִישּׁוּרֵיהּ דְּרַב אַבָּא בַּר חָנָה בַכֵּלִים. עַד שֶׁיִּהְיֶה עֲלֵיהֶן תּוּאָר כֶּלִי. אִם אוֹמֵר אָתְּ. עַד שֶׁיִּקְשׁוּר אֶת הַקּוֹצִין. אֵין מַעֲשֶׂה גָּדוֹל מִזֶּה. Rebbi Ḥalaphta ben Shaul stated: Fibers51These are raw materials for manufacturing (even if they are used only to fill pillows). To permit moving them on the Sabbath one has to have the intention to use them for a purpose other than manufacturing. about which he thought the day before he is permitted to move. Rebbi Yose ben Shaul stated: A group of beams about which he thought the day before he is permitted to move. Rebbi Yose, Rebbi Ḥanina in the name of Rebbi Ismael ben Rebbi Yose. Rebbi Jacob bar Aḥa, Rebbi Jacob bar Idi, Rebbi Ḥanina in the name of Rebbi Ismael ben Rebbi Yose. My father was a worker in raw hides. He told us, make a knot of the heads of shearings52Even though these will be removed in the tanning process which will turn the hides into leather; if some activity was undertaken to indicate that in the meantime the hides will be used to sit on they may be moved on the Sabbath. and you will be permitted to move them tomorrow. Ḥizqiah said, even if one made a tie53It does not have to be a real knot, difficult to open; it may be a loose tie.. Rav said, palm branches which one cut to lie on them do not need to be tied, for tents they have to be tied54Obviously one cannot make a tent from palm branches on the Sabbath. If one cut down the branches for some use in building, e. g., to patch a roof, they become an implement which may be moved on the Sabbath only if they actually are turned into something on which one can sit without hurting oneself. In the Babli, 125b, the text is tannaitic and the question is about palm branches which were cut as fire wood and now one wants to use them as mats whether they need to be tied or not.. Rav Abba bar Ḥana said, both for lying down and for tents it needs tying. Rebbi Ḥizqiah said, the tying of Rav for tents is not the same as the tying of Rav Abba bar Ḥana for vessels. The tying of Rav for tents, only if he ties down all thorns. The tying of Rav Abba bar Ḥana for vessels, if only the appellation of “vessel” applies. If you would say, only if he ties down all thorns, there would be no greater production than this55Since this is a complete implement, there is no special leniency in permitting it to be moved. Since the rules of muqṣeh are rabbinical, one does not expect to have to follow very strict standards..
רִבִּי יַעֲקֹב בַּר אִידֵי בְשֵׁם רִבִּי יוֹחָנָן. לְעוֹלַם אַל יִמְנַע אָדָם עַצְמוֹ מִלֵּילֵךְ לְבֵית הַמִּדְרַשׁ. שֶׁהֲרֵי כַמָּה פְעָמִים נִשְׁאֲלָה הֲלָכָה זוֹ בְיַבְנֶה. עֲרֵיבַת הַיַּרְדֵּן לָמָּה הִיא טְמֵאָה. וְלֹא אָמַר אָדָם דָּבָר. עַד שֶׁבָּא רִבִּי חֲנִינָה בֶּן אַנְטִיגֳנָס וּדְרָשָׁהּ בְּעִירוֹ. עֲרֵיבַת הַיַּרְדֵּן לָמָּה הִיא טְמֵיאָה. מִפְּנֵי שֶׁמְמַלִּין אוֹתָהּ פֵּירוֹת וֹמוֹלִיכִין אוֹתָהּ מִן הַיָּם לַיַּבָּשָׁה וּמִן הַיַּבָּשָׁה לַיָּם. וְעוֹד דָּבָר אַחֵר דָּרַשׁ. חֳרִיּוּת שֶׁגִּדְעָן בֵּין לִשְׁכִיבָה בֵּין לָאוֹהָלִין צְרִיכוֹת קִישּׁוּר. הָתִיבוּן. הֲרֵי נָדִירַייָא דְּאַשְׁקְלוֹן. אָמַר רִבִּי יִצְחָק בַּר לָֽעְזָר. שַׁנְייָא הִיא. שְׁמִּקְצָתָן בַּיָּם וּמִקְצָתָן בַּיַּבָּשָׁה. 56A parallel is in Eccl. rabba ad 1:15, with a different name tradition: R. Jacob bar Aḥa in the name of R. Joḥanan, R. Ḥanina bar Aqabia, R. Eleazar ben Yose. Still other names are given in the Babli, 83b. Rebbi Jacob bar Idi in the name of Rebbi Joḥanan: A man never should refrain from going to the House of Study; since in Jabneh this question was asked many times, why is a Jordan skiff impure57A small boat made of clay. A clay container holding less than 40 seah may become impure, but a ship of any kind is impervious to impurity (Mishnah 9:2). Why should this particular kind of boat be subject to impurity?? Nobody answered anything until Rebbi Ḥanina ben Antigonos came and explained it in his city: Why is a Jordan skiff impure? Because one fills it with produce and transports it from dry land to the sea and from the sea to dry land58Since the skiff is so small that it can be put on a carriage and transported on land without being unloaded it follows the rules of land-based vessels.. In addition he explained that palm branches which one cut both for lying down and for tents need tying59This is tannaitic support for Rav Abba bar Ḥana.. They objected, are there not the infrequent ones60In Eccl. r., יורדי אשקלון “those who go down to Askalon.” The translation takes נָדִיר in the usual sense, “infrequent, rare event”. The meaning seems to be that this kind of skiff is not appropriate for the ocean and is only rarely seen at Askalon. of Askalon? Rebbi Isaac ben Eleazar said, there is a difference since part of them are in the sea and part of them on dry land61While vessels of this kind may be used either as containers on land or small boats on water, at Askalon they are either one or the other. Since there the clay boats are never used as containers on land, they are impervious to impurity..
אַתְייָא דְרִבִּי בָּא בַּר חָנָא כְּרִבִּי חֲנִינָא. דָּמַר רִבִּי חֲנִינָא. עוֹלִין הָיִינוּ עִם רִבִּי לְחַמַּת גָּדֵר וְהָיָה אוֹמֵר לָנוּ. בָּחֲרוּ לָכֶם חֲלָקֵי אֲבָנִים וְאַתֶּם מוּתָּרִין לְטַלְטְלָן לְמָחָר. רִבִּי זְעִירָא אָמַר. עַד שֶׁיְּקַרְדֵּם. חֲבֵרַייָא אָֽמְרֵי. עַד שֶׁיְּשַׁפְשֵׁף. צִיפּוֹרָאֵי אָֽמְרִין. עַד שֶׁיַּחְשׁוֹב. רִבִּי יוֹחָנָן אָמַר. עַד שֶׁיְּהֵא עֲלֵיהֶן תּוֹאַר כֶּלִי. אַשְׁכָּחַת אֲמַר רַב חָנָה בַּר אַבָּא וְרִבִּי יוֹחָנָן וְרִבִּי יוֹנָתָן חָדָא. רַב וְרִבִּי זְעִירָא וְרִבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל בֵּירִבִּי יוֹסֵי חָדָא. צִיפּוֹרָאֵי וְרִבִּי יוֹסֵי בֶּן שָׁאוּל וְרִבִּי חֲלַפְתָּא בֶּן שָׁאוּל חָדָא. חֲבֵרַייָא לֵית לְהוֹן זוּג. The statement of Rebbi Abba bar Ḥana follows Rebbi Ḥanina, as Rebbi Ḥanina said62Babli 125b., we were ascending with Rebbi to the Hot Springs of Gadara when he said to us, choose yourselves smooth stones; then you are permitted to move them tomorrow. Rebbi Zeˋira said, only if he chiseled. The colleagues say, only if he polished. The Sepphoreans say, only if he intends. Rebbi Joḥanan said, only if it falls under the designation of implement. You might say that Rav Ḥana bar Abba63Read: Rav Abba bar Ḥana., and Rebbi Joḥanan, and Rebbi Jonathan64R. Jonathan is not mentioned in the preceding discussion but in the Babli, 83b, he is quoted in the place of R. Jacob bar Idi here. Therefore the opinion of R. Jonathan is the one attributed in the preceding paragraph to R. Ḥanina ben Antigonos. The other references are to the paragraph before the last. are one [opinion]. Rav, and Rebbi Zeˋira, and Rebbi Ismael ben Rebbi Yose are one [opinion]. The Sepphoreans, and Rebbi Yose ben Shaul, and Rebbi Ḥalaphta ben Shaul are one [opinion]. The collegues have no pairing65Greek ζυγόν, τό, also ζεῦγος, -εος, τό..