משנה: מִי שֶׁהָפַךְ אֶת זֵיתָיו וְאֵירְעוֹ אֵבֶל אוֹ אוֹנֶס אוֹ שֶׁהִטְעוּהוּ טוֹעֵן קוֹרָה רִאשׁוֹנָה וּמַנִּיחָהּ לְאַחַר הַמּוֹעֵד דִּבְרֵי רִבִּי יְהוּדָה. רִבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹמֵר זוֹלֵף וְגוֹמֵר כְּדַרְכּוֹ׃ MISHNAH: If one turned his olives over1He started treating the olives in a vat before emptying them into the olive press in order to soften them to release their oil. There is a danger that the harvest will spoil if the pressing is delayed. and mourning or an emergency happened to him2By circumstances beyond his control he was prevented from pressing the olives before the start of the holiday., or he was mislead3He hired workers who did not show up., loads the crossbar a first time and leaves it until after the holiday4On the holiday he may load the olives into the press and apply the usual pressure by covering the olives with a plank which is held down by a crossbar. Then the extra virgin olive oil will flow out but nothing more. According to R. Jehudah (who usually presents the opinion of R. Eliezer) that is all he may do; he may have to lose the later pressings., the words of Rebbi Jehudah. Rebbi Yose says, he removes the fluid, and finishes as usual5If the delay was not the fault of the oil producer, he may press all the oil from the harvest, clean up, and plug the vessels in which the oil is stored..
הלכה: מִי שֶׁהָפַךְ אֶת זֵיתָיו כול׳. אֲנָן תַּנִּינָן. מִי שֶׁהָפַךְ אֶת זֵיתָיו. תַּנֵּי רִבִּי חִייָה. מִי שֶׁהָיוּ זֵיתָיו הֲפוּכִין וּשְׁנוּיִין. מַתְנִיתָן צְרִיכָה לְרִבִּי חִייָה וּדְרִבִּי חִייָה צְרִיכָה לְמַתְנִיתָן. HALAKHAH: “If one turned his olives over,” etc. We stated, “if one turned his olives over.” Rebbi Ḥiyya stated, he whose olives were turned over repeatedly6Under these circumstances also he notes the disagreement of RR. Jehudah and Yose.. Our Mishnah needs the statement of Rebbi Ḥiyya, and the statement of Rebbi Ḥiyya needs our Mishnah.
(כת"י אִילּוּ תַנִּינָן וְלָא תַנָּא רִבִּי חִייָה הֲוִיהָן אָֽמְרִין. לָא אֲמָרָן אֵלָּא מִי שְׁהָֽפְכָן וּשְׁנָייָן. אֲבָל אִם הָֽפְכָן פַּעַם אַחַת דִּבְרֵי הַכֹּל אָסוּר. הֲוֵיי צוֹרְכָה לְמַתְנִיתִֵיהּ דְּרִבִּי חִייָה. אוֹ אִילּוּ תַנָּא רִבִּי חִייָה וְלָא תַנִּינָן אֲנָן. הֲוִיהָן אָֽמְרִין. לָא אֲמָרָן אֵלָּא מִי שְׁהָֽפְכָן פַּעַם אַחַת. אֲבָל אִם הָֽפְכָן וּשְׁנָייָן דִּבְרֵי הַכֹּל מוּתָּר. הֲוֵי צוֹרְכָא לְמַתְנִיתָן וְצוֹרְכָא לְמַתְנִיתָא דְרִבִּי חִייָה.) [ד"ו אִילּוּ תַנִּינָן וְלָא תַנָּא רִבִּי חִייָה הֲוִיהָן אָֽמְרִין. לָא אֲמָרָן אֵלָּא מִי שְׁהָֽפְכָן פַּעַם אַחַת. אֲבָל אִם הָֽפְכָן וּשְׁנָייָן דִּבְרֵי הַכֹּל מוּתָּר. הֲוֵיי צוֹרְכָה לְמַתְנִיתִֵיהּ דְּרִבִּי חִייָה. אוֹ אִילּוּ תַנָּא רִבִּי חִייָה וְלָא תַנִּינָן אֲנָן. הֲוִיהָן אָֽמְרִין. לָא אֲמָרָן אֵלָּא מִי שְׁהָֽפְכָן וּשְׁנָייָן. אֲבָל אִם הָֽפְכָן פַּעַם אַחַת דִּבְרֵי הַכֹּל אָסוּר. הֲוֵי צוֹרְכָא לְמַתְנִיתָן וְצוֹרְכָא לְמַתְנִיתָא דְרִבִּי חִייָה.] Text of Scribe
7It is clear that this text reads our Mishnah as R. Hiyya’s and R. Hiyya’s text as that of the Mishnah. The Venice text is logically correct. If we had stated but Rebbi Hiyya had not stated, we would have said, we only said if he repeatedly had turned them over, but if he turned then over once everybody agrees that it is forbidden. Therefore our Mishnah needs the statement of Rebbi Hiyya. Or if Rebbi Hiyya had stated but not we, we would have said that we only said if he turned them over once. But if he repeatedly turned them over, everybody agrees that it is permitted. Therefore there is need for our Mishnah and need for the baraita of Rebbi Hiyya.
Text of Venice editor
If we had stated but Rebbi Hiyya had not stated, we would have said, we only said if he had turned them over only once, but if he turned then over repeatedly everybody8R. Jehudah in that case could have been presumed to agree with R. Yose. R. Hiyya states that he did not. agrees that it is permitted. Therefore our Mishnah needs the statement of Rebbi Hiyya. Or if Rebbi Hiyya had stated but not we, we would have said that we only said if he turned them over repeatedly. But if he turned them over only once, everybody agrees that it is forbidden. Therefore there is need for our Mishnah and need for the baraita of Rebbi Hiyya.
אָמַר רִבִּי פִינְחָס בֵּירִבִּי זַכַּיי. מַתְנִיתָן בָּעֲטִינִים. מַה דְתַנֵּי רִבִּי חִייָה בְּגַרְגִּרִים. רַבָּנִן דְּקַיְסָרִין אָֽמְרִין. מַתְנִיתָן כְּרִבִּי יוּדָה. וּמַה דְתַנֵּי רִבִּי חִייָה כְרִבִּי יוֹסֵה. רִבִּי יוּדָה אוֹמֵר. יְאַבֵּד דָּבָר מְמוּעָט וְאַל יְאַבֵּד דָּבָר מְרובֶּה. רִבִּי יוֹסֵה אוֹמֵר. אַל יְאַבֵּד דָּבָר כָּל־עִיקָּר. Rebbi Phineas ben Rebbi Zakkai said, our Mishnah is about macerated ones, what Rebbi Ḥiyya stated is about berries9He holds that R. Jehudah permits to load the olives into the press only if the oil started to flow out. Therefore if the olives are already in a state where oil is flowing he agrees that they belong into the press but not if their skins are intact. When the berries have been turned over several times they are macerated.. The rabbis of Caesarea are saying, the Mishnah follows Rebbi Jehudah, what Rebbi Ḥiyya stated follows Rebbi Yose10One cannot say that either of the texts follows one rabbi since both mention both authorities. But the Mishnah emphasizes the position of Rebbi Jehudah who permits only marginal activities to avoid large losses and the baraita emphasizes the point of view of R. Yose that every loss of edibles has to be prevented.. Rebbi Jehudah said, small amounts may be lost so large amounts would not be lost; Rebbi Yose says, nothing at all shall be lost.
רִבִּי יוּדָה בַּר פָּזִי בְשֵׁם רִבִּי יוֹחָנָן. כְּשֵׁם שֶׁהֵן חֲלוּקִין כָּאן כָּךְ הֵן חֲלוּקִין בְּהִילְכוֹת אֶבֶל. דְּתַנֵּי. אֵילּוּ דְבָרִים שֶׁעוֹשִׂין לָאָבֵל בִּימֵי אֶבְלוֹ. דּוֹרְכִין אֶת עֲבִטוֹ. וְזוֹלְפִין אֵת יֵינוֹ. וְגָפִין אֵת חָבִיוֹתָיו. וְזֵיתָיו הֲפוּכִין וּשְׁנוּיִין טוֹחְנָן כְּדַרְכָּן. וּמַשְׁקִין בֵּית הַשְּׁלָחִין שֶׁלּוֹ בְּשֶׁהִגִּיעַ זְמַנּוֹ לִשְׁתּוֹת. וְזוֹרְעִין אֶת נִירוֹ פִּשְׁתָּן בִּרְבִיעָה. דִּבְרֵי רִבִּי יוּדָה. אָֽמְרוּ לוֹ. אִם אֵינָהּ נִזְרַעַת פִּשְׁתָּן תִּזָּרַע מִין אַחֵר. אִם אֵינָהּ נִזְרַעַת בְּשַׁבָּת זוֹ תִּזָּרַע בְּשַׁבָּת אֲחֶרֶת. מָנוּ אָֽמְרוּ לוֹ. רִבִּי יוֹסֵה. מִחְלְפָה שִׁיטָּתִיהּ דְּרִבִּי יוּדָה. תַּמָּן הוּא אָמַר. יְאַבֵּד דָּבָר מְמוּעָט וְאַל יְאַבֵּד דָּבָר מְרובֶּה. וָכָא אָמַר הָכֵין. שַׁנְייָא הִיא. תַּמָּן שֶׁדַּרְכּוֹ לְהַעֲרִים. וְכָל־שֶׁכֵּן מִחְלְפָה שִׁיטָּתִיהּ דְּרִבִּי יוּדָה. מָה אִית תַּמָּן שֶׁדַּרְכּוֹ לְהַעֲרִים אַתְּ אָמַר מוּתָּר. כָּאן שֶׁאֵין דַּרְכּוֹ לְהַעֲרִים לֹא כָל־שֶׁכֵּן. אָמַר רִבִּי חִינְנָא. מָנוּ אָֽמְרוּ לוֹ. חֲכָמִים. שֶׁהֵן בְּשִׁיטַּת רִבִּי יוּדָה בַּמּוֹעֵד. Rebbi Jehudah bar Pazi in the name of Rebbi Joḥanan: Just as they11R. Jehudah and R. Yose, referring to the week following the burial when the mourner is prohibited gainful work. differ here they differ in the rules of mourning. As it was stated12Babli 11b.: The following things one does for the mourner in his mourning period. One presses his vat, and stirs his wine, and plugs his amphoras, and his repeatedly turned olives one grinds as usual13After they have been pressed, to recoup the remaining oil (of lesser quality.), and one waters his irrigated fields if it is time for them to be irrigated14If his fields are allotted a certain time spot in the public water system, not using the water would cause major loss. While on the holiday he irrigates himself, in his week of mourning this has to be done by third parties., and one sows his field flax at the start of the rainy season15Since if not seeded at that time the flax harvest would be lost., the words of Rebbi Jehudah. They told him, if it is not sown with flax it can be sown with another kind; if it was not sown in this week it can be sown in another week16Even though the other crop may be of lesser value. In the corresponding case for the holidays, this seems to correspond more to R. Jehudah’s position than to R. Yose’s.. Who is “they told him”? Rebbi Yose17Since he is the only known dissenter from R. Jehudah’s opinion.. The argument of Rebbi Jehudah seems inverted. There he said, small amounts may be lost so large amounts not be lost, and here he says so? There is a difference since there he is wont to be tricky18Nobody plans to do work during the mourning week whereas the Mishnah is full of warnings not to plan work for the holiday week.. So much more the argument of Rebbi Jehudah seems inverted, since there where he is wont to be tricky he says it is permitted, here where he is not wont to be tricky, not so much more? Rebbi Ḥinnena said, who is “they told him”? The Sages following Rebbi Jehudah’s argument for the holiday19The statement of R. Joḥanan is disproved and R. Jehudah’s statement for holiday and mourning week are not identical..