משנה: הַמַּפְטִיר בַּנָּבִיא הוּא פּוֹרֵס אֶת שְׁמַע וְהוּא עוֹבֵר לִפְנֵי הַתֵּבָה וְהוּא נוֹשֵׂא אֶת כַּפָּיו. וְאִם הָיָה קָטָן אָבִיו אוֹ רַבּוֹ עוֹבְרִין עַל יָדוֹ׃ MISHNAH: He who closes with Prophets spreads out the Shema`90פּוֹרֵס “to split” is Rashi’s reading in the Babli, which he explains that if a group of at least ten adult males come late to the synagogue, they can have their own reader who leads them in an abbreviated service. The text of Maimonides is פּוֹרֵשׂ “to spread out”; he interprets “spreading out the Shema`” as the regular synagogue service leading to the public recitation of the Shema` and the following Amidah. The Yerushalmi Halakhah clearly supports Maimonides., or stands before the Ark91As a reader for the Amidah. or lifts his hands92,The priestly blessing as part of the Amidah.136Since reading from Prophets is less prestigious than reading from the Torah, the person who agrees to study Prophets to be able to read in public is induced to accept by being offered the honor to lead the congregation in reciting the Shema` and its attendant benedictions, or the Amidah, or if he be a Cohen to pronounce the priestly blessings.. If he was under age, his father or teacher stand in his stead.
הלכה: לָא צוֹרְכָה דִילָא הַפּוֹרֵשׂ אֶת שְׁמַע הוּא עוֹבֵר לִפְנֵי הַתֵּבָה וְהוּא נוֹשֵׂא אֶת כַּפָּיו. רִבִּי יוֹסֵי בֶּן חֲנִינָה אָמַר. כְּדֵי לְזַרְזוֹ. HALAKHAH: Is not necessarily the one who spreads out the Shema` the one who stands before the Ark and who lifts his hands137Since at least in Amoraic times the Amidah immediately follows the recitation of the benediction concluding the Shema`, by necessity the one who spreads out the Shema` continues as the one who stands before the Ark, and if he is a Cohen is obligated to bless the congregation in his repetition of the Amidah.? Rebbi Yose ben Ḥanina said, in order to hasten him138While it is true that once he is chosen to spread out the Shema` the other offices follow automatically, to increase the attraction of the job one gives it three titles..
וְאִם הָיָה קָטָן אָבִיו אוֹ רַבּוֹ עוֹבְרִין עַל יָדוֹ׃ וְהָא תַנִּינָן. קָטָן לֹא יִפְרוֹשׂ אֶת שְׁמַע. אָמַר רִבִּי יוּדָן. כָּאן בְּשֶׁהֵבִיא שְׁתֵּי שְׂעָרוֹת וְכָאן בְּשֶׁלֹּא הֵבִיא שְׁתֵּי שְׂעָרוֹת. “If he was under age, his father or teacher do it in his stead.” But was it not stated, a minor may not spread out the Shema`? Rebbi Judan said, here if he grew two pubic hairs, there if he did not grow two pubic hairs139Since a person may not absolve the public from its duty unless he himself is equally obligated and a minor cannot be obligated, the minor cannot do any of the three jobs with which he should be honored. Then why does the Mishnah formulate the replacement in terms of “standing”, which only refers to the Amidah? The answer is that for purely religious obligation a person is an adult as soon as he grows two pubic hairs, but for public standing it also is required that he be 13 years and one day. If he grows 2 pubic hairs while only 12 years old, he might be able to spread out the Shema` but he cannot stand before the Ark..