משנה: הַכֹּל כְּשֵׁרִין לִקְרוֹת אֶת הַמְּגִילָּה חוּץ מֵחֵרֵשׁ שׁוֹטֶה וְקָטָן. רִבִּי יְהוּדָה מַכְשִׁיר בְּקָטָן. אֵין קוֹרִין אֶת הַמְּגִילָּה וְלֹא מוֹלִין וְלֹא טוֹבְלִין וְלֹא מַזִּין. וְכֵן שׁוֹמֶרֶת יוֹם כְּנֶגֶד יוֹם לֹא תִטְבּוֹל עַד שֶׁתָּנֵץ הַחַמָּה. וְכוּלָּן שֶׁעָשׂוּ מִשֶּׁעָלָה עַמּוּד הַשַּׁחַר כָּשֵׁר׃ MISHNAH: Everybody is qualified to read the Scroll77In order to absolve others of their obligation. except the deaf-and-dumb78He would have to use sign language. But the deaf-and-dumb is not obligated for any religious observance . He does not have to read and therefore cannot do it for others (Note 20)., the insane, and the underage. Rebbi Jehudah qualifies the underage79The other Sages hold that the parent of a minor has the obligation to teach his son to read the scroll and to make him read it. This is not a personal obligation of the minor and therefore he is unable to absolve the public of their obligation.. One does nor read the scroll, nor circumcises, nor immerses80In a miqweh., nor sprinkles81With ashes of the Red Cow., nor may the woman observing a day for a day immerse herself82A woman has a discharge during the 11 days following the week of her menstruation. The discharge cannot be menstrual; therefore she has to observe one day without discharge, immerse herself in a miqweh in order to be pure at sundown., before sunrise. But all who did it after dawn are qualified.
הלכה: הַכֹּל כְּשֵׁרִין לִקְרוֹת אֶת הַמְּגִילָּה חוּץ מֵחֵרֵשׁ שׁוֹטֶה וְקָטָן. אָמַר רַב מַתָּנָה. דְּרִבִּי יוֹסֵי הִיא. אָמַר רִבִּי יוֹסֵה. הֲוִינָן סָֽבִרִין מֵימַר. מַה פְלִיגִין רִבִּי יוֹסֵה וְרַבָּנִן. בִּשְׁמַע. דִּכְתִיב בָּהּ שְׁמַע. הָא שְׁאָר כָּל־הַמִּצְוֹת לֹא. מִן מַה דְרַב מַתָּנָה אָמַר. דְּרִבִּי יוֹסֵי הִיא. הָדָא אָֽמְרָה. הִיא שְׁמַע הִיא שְׁאָר כָּל־הַמִּצְוֹת. וּמַה טַעֲמָא דְרִבִּי יוֹסֵה. וְהַֽאֲזַנְתָּ֙ לְמִצְוֹתָ֔יו. שְׁמַע אָזְנֶיךָ מַה שֶׁפִּיךָ מְדַבֵּר. רַב חִסְדָּא אָמַר. לֵית כָּאן חֵרֵשׁ. בְּאַשְׁגָּרַת לָשׁוֹן הִיא מַתְנִיתָא. אָמַר רִבִּי יוֹסֵה. מִסְתַּבְּרָא יוֹדֶה רַב חִסְדָּא בִתְרוּמוֹת דְּהִיא דְרִבִּי יוֹסֵי. אֲתַא רִבִּי חֲנַנְיָה בְשֵׁם רַב חִסְדָּא. דְּרִבִּי יוֹסֵה הִיא. אָמַר רִבִּי יוֹסֵה בֵּירִבִּי בּוּן. עַל כּוֹרְחָךְ אַתְּ אָמַר דְּהִיא דְרִבִּי יוֹסֵה. דְּתַנִּינָן חֲמִשְׁתֵּי קַדְמִייָתָא וְלָא תַנֵּיִנָתָהּ עִמָּהוֹן. אִם מִשֵּׁם שֶׁאֵין תְּרוּמָתוֹ תְרוּמָה. דְּתַנִּינָן חֲמִשְׁתֵּי אַחַרִייָתָא וְלָא תַנֵּיִנָתָהּ עִמָּהוֹן. הֲוֵי סוֹפָךְ מֵימַר. דְּרִבִּי יוֹסֵה הִיא. HALAKHAH: “Everybody is qualified to read the Scroll except the deaf-and-dumb, the insane, and the underage.” 83This paragraph appears also in Berakhot 2:4 (Notes 160–166,ב) and Terumot 1:2 (Notes 90–93,ת). The Mishnah in Berakhot states that in reading the Shema` one must hear what one says. The majority holds that this is a desideratum but not an absolute necessity. R. Yose the Tanna disagrees and therefore a person who is deaf but able to speak still cannot read the Shema`. Heave is the part of the harvest which is given to the Cohen as sanctum to be eaten in purity. The dedication must be a conscious act; therefore in Mishnah Terumot 1:1 the deaf-and-dumb person is excluded from those who may dedicate heave. Rav Mattanah said: That formulation is Rebbi Yose’s. Rebbi Yose said: We could be of the opinion that the rabbis and Rebbi Yose disagree only about Shema` since there it is written: hear!, but not about any other obligations. Since Rav Mattanah said “that formulation is Rebbi Yose’s”, it is the same for all obligations. What is the reason of Rebbi Yose? Bend your ear to His commandments84Ex. 15:26., your ears should hear what your mouth says. Rav Ḥisda said: The deaf and dumb person is not mentioned, it is a formula85In all legal matters depending on a conscious act, “insane, deaf-and-dumb, and underage” are excluded. The formula should have been modified here but, since the Mishnah was transmitted orally and could not be written down, was not modified, to ease memorization.. Rebbi Yose said: It is reasonable to think that Rav Ḥisda concedes that the statement from Terumot is from Rebbi Yose. Rabbi Ḥanania came in the name of Rav Ḥisda, this one is by Rebbi Yose. Rebbi Yose bar Rebbi Abun said: It must be said that that one is Rebbi Yose’s since we have stated the first five cases86Mishnah Terumot 1:1: Five categories of people cannot consecrate heave and if they did it anyhow, their actions are null and void: the deaf-and-dumb, the insane, minors, one who is not the owner, and a non-Jew.” The sixth Mishnah then reads: Five categories of people should not consecrate heave (since a priori it requires the recitation of a benediction) but if they did it anyhow their actions are valid: the speechless, the drunk, the naked, the blind, those impure by emission of semen.” In between it is explained that חֵרֵשׁ means a deaf-and-dumb person who is not legally capable of acting but that the deaf who can talk belongs to the same category as the second group of five. and did not include it, because their heave is no heave. Then we have stated the five later ones and did not include it. So in the end you must say, that one is by Rebbi Yose87Therefore, Mishnah Terumot 1:2, explaining that the deaf person who is able to speak can give heave, has to be formulated separately and could not be included in Terumot 1:6 since the first and sixths Mishnayot are Rebbi Yose’s who will object to the inclusion of the deaf person in the second group but not to that of the speechless..
רִבִּי יְהוּדָה מַכְשִׁיר בְּקָטָן. אָמַר רִבִּי יְהוּדָה. קָטָן הָיִיתִי וּקְרִיתִיהָ לִפְנֵי רִבִּי טַרְפוֹן בְּלוֹד. אָֽמְרוּ לוֹ. קָטָן הָיִיתָ וְאֵין עֵידוּת לְקָטָן. אָמַר רִבִּי. מַעֲשֶׂה שֶׁקְרִיתִיהָ לִפְנֵי רִבִּי יוּדָה בִאוּשָׁה. אָֽמְרוּ לוֹ. אֵין זוּ רְאַייָה. הוּא שֶׁהוּא מַתִּיר. מִיכָּן וָהֵילַךְ נָהֲגוּ הָרַבִּים לִקְרוֹתָהּ בְּבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת. בַּר קַפָּרָא אָמַר. צָרִיךְ לִקְרוֹתָהּ לִפְנֵי נָשִׁים וְלִפְנֵי קְטַנִּים שֶׁאַף אוֹתָם הָיוּ (בַמִּסְפֵּק) [בַּסָּפֵק]. רִבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן לֵוִי עֲבַד כֵּן. מְכַנֵּשׁ בָּנוֹי וּבְנֵי בֵייתֵיהּ וְקָרִי לָהּ קוֹמֵיהוֹן. “Rebbi Jehudah qualifies the underage.” “Rebbi Jehudah said, I was a minor and read it in front of Rebbi Tarphon at Lydda. They said to him, you were a minor and there is no testimony from minors. Rebbi said, it happened and I read it in the presence of Rebbi Jehudah at Usha. They said to him, that is no proof since he is the one who permits it.” From then on the public used to read it in the synagogue88If one reads הָרַבִּים then it means that one chooses to make a synagogal act out of reading the Esther scroll (replacing the earlier private ceremonies), since then the Scroll would be read by the communal חָזָן who certainly is an adult. But if one reads הַרֻבִּים then the translation is “from then on the youths would read it in the synagogue”, permitting minors to read in public, Tosephta 2:8.. Bar Qappara said, one has to read it in front of women and children because they also were in the doubt89The doubt whether they all would be killed. The corrector replaced the Yerushalmi word, which he did not understand, by the equivalent Babli word.. Rebbi Joshua ben Levi acted thus; he assembled his sons and the people of his house90The women of his household. Babli 4a. and read it in front of them.
אֵין קוֹרִין אֶת הַמְּגִילָּה עַד שֶׁתָּנֵץ הַחַמָּה. דְּכְתִיב בַּיּ֗וֹם אֲשֶׁ֨ר סִבְּרוּ אֹיְבֵ֤י הַיְּהוּדִים֙ לִשְׁל֣וֹט בָּהֶ֔ם. “One does nor read the scroll before sunrise.” For it is written91Esth.9:1., on the day the enemies of the Jews thought they would rule over them.
וְלֹא מוֹלִים. דִּכְתִיב וּבַיּ֖וֹם הַשְּׁמִינִ֑י יִמּ֖וֹל בְּשַׂ֥ר עָרְלָתֽוֹ. “Nor circumcises,” for it is written92Lev. 12:3., on the eighth day one circumcises the prepuce of his flesh.
וְלֹא טוֹבְלִין. דִּכְתִיב וְהִזָּה וְטָבַל. מַה הַזָּייָה בַיּוֹם. אַף טְבִילָה בַיּוֹם. מְנַיִין שֶׁהַהַזָּיָה בַיּוֹם. דִּכְתִיב וְהִזָּ֤ה הַטָּהֹר֙ עַל־הַטָּמֵ֔א בַּיּ֥וֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁ֖י. כָּל־מְחוּייָבֵי טְבִילוֹת טוֹבְלִין כְּדַרְכָּן בַּיּוֹם חוּץ מִן הַנִּידָּה וְיוֹלֶדֶת שֶׁאֵינָהּ טוֹבֶלֶת אֶלָּא בַלַּיְלָה. נִידָּה שֶׁעִיבֵּר זְמַנָּהּ טוֹבֶלֶת בֵּין בַּיּוֹם וּבֵין בַּלַּיְלָה. דְּרָשָׁהּ רִבִּי חִייָה בַּר בָּא לְצוֹרָאֵי. נִידָּה שְׁעִיבֵּר זְמַנָּהּ טוֹבֶלֶת בֵּין בַּיּוֹם בֵּין בַּלַּיְלָה. תַּמָּן אָֽמְרִין. אֲפִילוּ עִיבֵּר זְמַנָּהּ לֹא. מִפְּנֵי חָמוֹתָהּ וּמִפְּנֵי כַלָּתָהּ. אִשָׁה אַחַת מִשֶׁלְּבֵּית רַבּוֹתֵינוּ רָאוּ אוֹתָהּ טוֹבֶלֶת כְּדַרְכָּהּ בַּיּוֹם. נֹאמַר. מְעוֹבֶרֶת זְמַן הֲווָת. “Nor immerses,” for it is written, he sprinkles, he immerses93Num. 19:18.. Since sprinkling is during daytime, also immersion is during daytime. From where that sprinkling is during daytime? For it is written94Num. 19:19., the pure one sprinkles on the impure one on the third day. 95From here on this paragraph and the next are from Šabbat2, Notes 63–71. This paragraph is connected with the Mishnah here since it states only that immersion of males has to be during daytime. The next paragraph has no connection, it simply is copied from Šabbat. All who require immersion immerse themselves normally during daytime except for the woman after her period and one who gave birth who only immerses herself during the night96Babli Šabbat121a, Pesaḥim90b, Yoma6a, 87a.. A woman after her period whose time has passed97After the first evening she could have immersed herself after her period; cf. Niddah4:1 Note 3. Babli Niddah67b. immerses herself either during the day or during the night. Rebbi Ḥiyya bar Abba preached this to the people of Tyre98As practice to be followed., a woman after her period whose time has passed immerses herself either during the day or during the night. There99In Babylonia, where the statement was attributed to R. Joḥanan; Niddah67b. There, the reason is given “because of the discipline of her daughter”, that she should learn the rules clearly. they say, even one whose time has passed not, because of her mother-in-law and her daughter-in-law. They saw a woman of the family of our rabbis100The household of R. Jehudah Nesia. The deviation of Galilean from Babylonian practice is confirmed. immersing herself normally during daytime. We shall say that her time had passed.
נִדָּה שֶׁנֶּאֶנְסָה וְטָֽבְלָה. רִבִּי שַׁמַּי בְשֵׁם רַב. טְהוֹרָה לְבֵיתָהּ וּטְמֵיאָה לְטַהֲרוֹת. רִבִּי לָֽעְזָר בְּשֵׁם רִבִּי חֲנִינָה. טְמֵיאָה בֵין לְבֵיתָהּ בֵּין לְטַהֲרוֹת. מַה טַעֲם. וְכוּבַּס שֵׁנִי֭ת וְטָהֵֽר. מַה הָרִאשׁוֹנָה לַדַּעַת אַף הַשְּׁנִייָה לַדַּעַת. מְנַיִין שֶׁהָרִאשׁוֹנָה לַדַּעַת. וְצִוָּה֙ הַכֹּהֵ֔ן וְכִ֨בְּס֔וּ. לַדַּעַת. וַאֲנָן חַמְייָן רַבָּנִן מְקַדְּמִין לְעִיבּוּרָה. רִבִּי נַחְמָן בְּשֵׁם רִבִּי מָנָא. מִצְוָה לְהַקְדִּים כְּדֵי לְזָרֵז בַּמִּצְוֹת. A woman after her period who was immersed by accident, Rebbi Shammai in the name of Rav: she is pure for her house but impure for purities101She unintentionally fell into water which qualifies as a miqweh. In this opinion, an intent to become pure by immersion is needed only to be able to prepare pure food (“purities”) whereas to be permitted to her husband (“pure for her house”) she only has to be immersed since in the relevant biblical paragraph (Lev. 15:19–24) immersion is explicitly required only of people coming in contact with movables on which she sat during her period of impurity. The opposing opinion requires intent for any purification. Babli Ḥulin31a.. Rebbi Eleazar in the name of Rebbi Ḥanina, she is impure both for her house and purities. What is the reason? It should be washed a second time and will be pure102Lev. 15:59, about impurity of textiles. The remark “a second time” is taken as indication that the second washing has to follow the rules of the first; Babli Ḥulin31b. A different interpretation in Sifra Tazria` Pereq 16(11). Since the first time it was intentionally, also the second time it must be intentionally. And from where that the first time it was intentionally? The Cohen has to order that they should wash103Lev. 13:54.. Intentionally. And we see that rabbis are early for intercalations. Rav Naḥman in the name of Rebbi Mana: It is an obligation to be early, to hasten in commandments104This refers to something completely different in the rules of Sabbath observation. Rebbi Naḥman requires the husband to direct his household to light Sabbath lights, and therefore begin the observance of the Sabbath, somewhat before the time of sundown since in the fulfilling of divine commandments one has to show eagerness. As an example it is noted that the rabbis who form the court which decrees intercalations always arrive early for the deliberations. This is a commentary on the last statement of the last Mishnah in Chapter Šabbat2..