משנה: כּוּסְבָּר שֶׁזְּרָעָהּ לְזֶרַע יַרְקָהּ פָּטוּר. זְרָעָהּ לְיָרָק מִתְעַשֵּׂר זֶרַע וְיָרָק. רִבִּי לִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר הַשֶּׁבֶת מִתְעַשֶּׂרֶת זֶרַע וְיָרָק וְזֵירִים. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים אֵינוֹ מִתְעַשֶּׂר זֶרַע וְיָרָק אֶלָּא הַשִּׁחָלַיִים וְהַגַּרְגִּר בַּלְבָד. רַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל אוֹמֵר תִּמְרוֹת שֶׁל תִּלְתָּן וְשֶׁל חַרְדָּל וְשֶׁל פּוּל הַלָּבָן חַייָבוֹת בְּמַעֲשֵׂר. רִבִּי לִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר הַצְּלָף מִתְאַשֵּׂר תִּמְרוֹת וְקַפָּרִס. רִבִּי עֲקִיבָה אוֹמֵר אֵינוֹ מִתְעַשֵּׂר אֶלָּא אֲבִיּוֹנוֹת מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֵן פֶּרִי. MISHNAH: Rabban Gamliel says, the budding fruits77In Ševiїt and Ma’serot Arukh and Maimonides define תמדות as budding fruits; this is accepted by I. Löw. In his Commentary to Parah 11:7, Maimonides explains as pods. of fenugreek, mustard, and white beans are subject to tithes. Rebbi Eliezer says, the caper tree is subject to tithes for its budding fruits and capers78Flower buds of the caper bush.. Rebbi Aqiba says, only the berries79They contain seeds which can be substituted for mustard seeds. are subject because they are fruit.
הלכה: חִזְקִיָּה אָמַר כֵּיוָן שֶׁלָּקַט מִמֶּנּוּ שְׁתַּיִם שָׁלֹשׁ מוֹדִייוֹת בָּאָה בְּמַחֲשֶׁבֶת יָרָק. אַף לְעִנְייַן הַזֶּרַע כֵּן כֵּיוָן שֶׁמָּנַע מִמֶּנּוּ שְׁתַּיִם שָׁלֹשׁ מוֹדִייוֹת בָּאָה לְמַחֲשֶׁבֶת הַזֶּרַע. זְרָעוֹ לִזֶרַע מִתְעַשֶּׂרֶת לְשֶׁעָבַר. זְרָעָהּ לְיָרָק מִתְעַשֶּׂרֶת לָבֹא. זָרַע לְזֶרַע וּלְיָרָק אוֹ שֶׁזְּרָעָהּ לְזֶרַע וְאַחַר כָּךְ חִישֵּׁב עָלֶיהָ לְיָרָק מְעַשֵּׂר מִיזַּרְעָהּ עַל יַרְקָא וּמִיַּרְקָא עַל זַרְעָא. וְשֶׁלָּקַט מִמֶּנָּהּ לִפְנֵי רֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה אֲבָל אִם לָקַט מִמֶּנָּהּ לְאַחַר רֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה זַרְעָהּ מִתְעַשֵּׂר לְשֶׁעָבַר. וְיַרְקָא מִתְעַשֵּׂר בִּשְׁעַת לְקִיטָתוֹ עִישּׂוּרוֹ. וּכְשֶׁהֵבִיא שְׁלִישׁ לִפְנֵי רֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה. אֲבָל אִם הֵבִיא שְׁלִישׁ לְאַחַר רֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה בֵּין זַרְעָהּ בֵּין יַרְקָהּ מִתְעַשֵּׂר לָבֹא. HALAKHAH: 74Here starts the discussion of the second part of the Mishnah, about the tithing of coriander. The two paragraphs refer to Ševiїt2:8. The second paragraph is practically identical (except for the order of subjects) with a paragraph there; Notes 80–81.Ḥizqiah said, if he collected two or three modii75This is the reading here in both mss. and the Venice print. A Roman modius is a dry measure, corresponding to the seah. Because of the parallel with Ševiït, the commentators change מודייות into מורביות morbiot, a word that seems to indicate watering periods, cf. Ševiït 2:8, Note 83. This must be the intended meaning in the next sentence: If the farmer stops watering in order to hasten the ripening of the seeds, he cannot be interested in the vegetable. Also, one cannot withhold bushels from vegetables. But it does not make much sense to change the reading in the first sentence which speaks of harvesting vegetables. In the second sentence, the expression “two or three” must have slipped in as parallel to the first sentence since the discussion in Ševiїt 2:8 shows clearly that only the withholding of three waterings determines the crop as seeds. from it, it comes under the category of vegetable. Also for seeds it is so: If he withheld from it two or three morbiot75This is the reading here in both mss. and the Venice print. A Roman modius is a dry measure, corresponding to the seah. Because of the parallel with Ševiït, the commentators change מודייות into מורביות morbiot, a word that seems to indicate watering periods, cf. Ševiït 2:8, Note 83. This must be the intended meaning in the next sentence: If the farmer stops watering in order to hasten the ripening of the seeds, he cannot be interested in the vegetable. Also, one cannot withhold bushels from vegetables. But it does not make much sense to change the reading in the first sentence which speaks of harvesting vegetables. In the second sentence, the expression “two or three” must have slipped in as parallel to the first sentence since the discussion in Ševiїt 2:8 shows clearly that only the withholding of three waterings determines the crop as seeds., it comes under the category of seeds. If one sowed it for seeds it is tithed for the past; if he sowed it as vegetable it is tithed for the future. If he sowed it for both seeds and vegetable, or if he sowed for seeds and then wanted it as vegetable, one may tithe from its seed on vegetable and from vegetable on seeds, on condition that it was collected before the New Year; but if some of it was collected after the New Year, its seed is tithed for the past and its vegetable is tithed at the moment of its being harvested if it was one-third ripe before the New Year. But if it was only ripe one-third after the New Year, both seed and vegetable are tithed for the future.
תַּנֵּי שֶׁבֶת שֶׁזְּרָעָהּ לְזֶרַע מִתְעַשֶּׂרֶת זֶרַע וְאֵינָהּ מִתְעַשֶּׂרֶת יָרָק. זָרַע לְיָרָק מִתְעַשֶּׂרֶת זֶרַע וְיָרָק וְאֵינָהּ מִתְעַשֶּׂרֶת זֵירִין. זְרָעָהּ לְזֵירִין מִתְעַשֶּׂרֶת זֶרַע וְיָרָק וְזֵירִין. וְתַנִּינָן אֵין לָךְ מִתְעַשֶּׂר זֶרַע וְיָרָק אֶלָּא שִׁחָלַיִים וְגַרְגִּר בַּלְבָד. כֵּינִי מַתְנִיתָא אֵין לָךְ דָּבָר שֶׁזְּרָעוֹ לְזֶרַע מִתְעַשֶּׂר זֶרַע וְיָרָק אֶלָּא שִׁחָלַיִים וְגַרְגִּר בַּלְבָד. It was stated76A similar text in Tosephta Ševiїt2:7. There, the text reads: “If he sowed it for perianths, it is tithed for seeds and perianths but the vegetable is free.”: “Dill sown for its seeds is tithed for seeds but not vegetable. If sown as vegetable, it is tithed for seeds and vegetable but not perianths. If sown it for periants, it is tithed for seeds, vegetable, and perianths.” But we have stated: “Only cress and wild rocket are tithed for seeds and vegetable!” So is the Mishnah: The only things sown for seeds which are tithed for seeds and vegetable are cress and wild rocket.
מַה פְלִיגִין בְּשֶׁזְּרָעוֹ לְזֶרַע אֲבָל אִם זְרָעוֹ לְיָרָק אַף רַבָּנִין מוֹדֵיי. וְתַנֵּי כֵן נְהִיגִין בְּבֵיתַנִּייָן בְּיַרְקוֹ בְּהֵיתֵר דִּבְרֵי רִבִּי לִיעֶזֶר. לֹא אָמַר אֶלָּא דִּבְרֵי רִבִּי לִיעֶזֶר הָא דִּבְרֵי הַכֹּל חַייָב. Where do they disagree80The majority who cannot agree with Rabban Gamliel; if they agreed, his statement would have been stated as anonymous. Since he obligates the pods of mustard seed for tithes, they must free them.? When he sowed it for its seeds. But if he sowed it as vegetable, even the rabbis agree. It was stated so81Tosephta 3:7: They used to permit the vegetables, the words of Rebbi Eliezer.: “In Bethany82In the Erfurt ms. of the Tosephta, כמותכם “like you”, which S. Klein reads as במותנם “in Batanaia”, a name of the Bashan region; cf. Tosefta ki-Fshutah p. 698. they used to permit its vegetable, the words of Rebbi Eliezer.” He said only “the words of Rebbi Eliezer;” therefore, everybody else says it is obligated.
תַּנִּי הַפּוּל וְהַשְּׂעוֹרִין וְהַתִּלְתָּן שֶׁזְּרָעָן לְיָרָק בָּֽטְלָה דַעְתּוֹ זַרְעָן חַייָב וְיַרְקָן פָּטוּר. אָמַר רִבִּי יִרְמְיָה עוֹד הִיא דְּרִבִּי לִיעֶזֶר. It was stated83Tosephta Ševiït 2:8.: “If one sowed Lima beans, barley, or fenugreek as vegetables84To eat the green stalks., his intention is disregarded; the seeds are obligated but the greenery is free.” Rebbi Jeremiah said, that also is from the words of Rebbi Eliezer85We could understand that Lima beans and barley are excluded as vegetables, but fenugreek was stated in the preceding paragraph to be freed only by R. Eliezer. Therefore, the entire statement must be attributed to R. Eliezer. The Babli, Eruvin 28a, accepts the statement as majority opinion..
שְׁמוּאֵל אָמַר קַפָּרִס אָסוּר מִשּׁוּם קְּלִיפִּין. וְתַנֵּי כֵן וַעֲרַלְתֶּם עָרְלָתוֹ אֶת פִּרְיוֹ דָּבָר שֶׁהוּא עוֹרֵל אֶת פִּרְיוֹ. רַב מְפַקֵּד לְאִילֵּין דְּבֵי רַב אָתִי. רַב הַמְנוּנָא מְפַקֵּד לַחֲבֵרַייָא הֲווֹן מְפַקְּדִין לִנְשֵׁיכוֹן כַּד הִינּוּן כְּבָשִׁין קַפָּרִיס דִּיהֲווֹן מְרִימִין אִילֵּין בִּיטִיתָא. אָמַר רִבִּי בָּא אַסְבְּרִי רִבִּי זְעִירָא כָּל־הַקְּלִיפִּין גְּדֵילוֹת עִם הַפֶּרִי וְזֶה פֶּרִי מִלְּמַעֲלָן וּקְלִיפִּין מִלְּמַטָּן. Samuel said, capers are forbidden because of skins88If the caper bush is not yet in its fourth year, the fruits are forbidden for any use. Samuel and Rav hold that the calix which remains attached to the fruit will become forbidden with the fruit.. It was stated so: (Lev. 19:23) “You shall treat as foreskin the foreskin of its fruit;” anything which envelopes the fruit. Rav commanded those of the House of Ati, Rav Hamnuna commanded the colleagues: Tell your wives that when they come to preserve capers to throw away the calix. Rebbi Abba said, Rebbi Zeїra explained to me that all skins grow with the fruit but there, the fruit is on top and the skins below89The opinion of the Galilean academies is that the atrophied remainder of the calix is not a shell in the legal sense, or a part of the fruit, and therefore not forbidden the first three years. In the Babli, Berakhot 37b, the same conclusion is reached..
הַקַּפָּרִס וְהַתִּמְרוֹת מִין אֶחָד הֵן. מְעַשֵּׂר מִקַּפָּרִס עַל הַתִּמְרוֹת וּמִן הַתִּמְרוֹת עַל הַקַּפָּרִס. אֲבָל לֹא מֵהֶן עַל הָאֲבִיּוֹנוֹת וּמִן הָאֲבִיּוֹנוֹת עֲלֵיהֶן. אֲבִיּוֹנוֹת נוֹתְנִין עֲלֵיהֶן חוֹמְרֵי אִילָּן וְחוֹמְרֵי זְרָעִין. וּלְיֵידֶה מִילָּה שֶׁאִים הָֽיְתָה שְׁנִיָּה נִכְנֶסֶת לִשְׁלִישִית שֶׁהוּא מַפְרִישׁ וּפוֹדֵהוּ וְנוֹתְנוֹ לֶעָנִי. Capers and budding fruits are one kind; one tithes from capers for budding fruit and from budding fruit for capers but not from both for ripe fruits or from ripe fruits for them. On the ripe fruits one applies the stringencies of both trees and vegetables. In which respect? If it is after the second year going into the third90Or the fifth year of the Sabbatical cycle going into the sixth. Trees are tithed according to the rules valid at the time of fertilization. This would be the 2nd or 5th year in which second tithe is due which has to be redeemed in the absence of a Temple. Vegetables are tithed by the rules of the day of harvest. In the 3rd and 6th years, tithe of the poor is due. Therefore, caper seeds are tithed as second tithe; the tithe is redeemed and then given to the poor as tithe of the poor., he separates, redeems, and gives it to the poor.
הַצְּלָף בֵּית שַׁמַּאי אוֹמְרִים כִּלְאַיִם בַּכֶּרֶם וְאֵינוֹ כִלְאַיִם בִּזְרָעִים. בֵּית הִלֵּל אוֹמְרִים אֵינוֹ כִלְאַיִם לֹא בְכֶרֶם וְלֹא בִזְרָעִים. הַכֹּל מוֹדִים שֶׁהוּא חַייָב בְּעָרְלָה. תַּנֵּי רִבִּי חֲנִינָא בַּר פַּפָּא אֶת שֶׁהוּא עוֹלֶה מִגִּזְעוֹ מִין אִילָן מִשָּׁרָשָׁיו מִן יֶרֶק. הָתִיבוּן הֲרֵי הַכְּרוּב הֲרֵי הוּא עוֹלֶה מִגִּזְעוֹ. כָּאן בְּוַדַּאי כָּאן בְּסָפֵק. The caper bush92This paragraph is also in Kilaim5:8. A shortened version, not mentioning grains, is in Tosephta Kilaim 3:17 and Babli Berakhot 36a.. The House of Shammai say, it is kilaim in a vineyard93The House of Shammai are unsure whether caper bushes are trees or vegetables and therefore apply the stringency of vegetables for kilaim and those of fruit trees for orlah, so that its fruit is forbidden the first three years after planting (Lev. 19:23). but not with grains. The House of Hillel say, it is never kilaim, neither in a vineyard nor with grains. Both agree that it is subject to orlah. Rebbi Ḥanina bar Papa93The House of Shammai are unsure whether caper bushes are trees or vegetables and therefore apply the stringency of vegetables for kilaim and those of fruit trees for orlah, so that its fruit is forbidden the first three years after planting (Lev. 19:23). stated: Any plant that branches out from its stem is a tree; from its roots it is a vegetable. They objected: But cabbage forms its leaves from its stem! Here94He is R. Ḥanina bar Pappai. His statement appears in another version (another redaction) in Baba Batra 5:5: “R. Ḥama bar ‘Uqba in the name of R. Yose. Anything that grows from both root and stem is a root (a vegetable); from its stem but not from its root it is a tree.” In that formulation, cabbage presents no problem since there is no piece of stem free of leaves. when it is sure, there when it is doubtful.