משנה: הַמְגָרֵשׁ אֶת אִשְׁתּוֹ וְלָנָה עִמּוֹ בְּפוּנְדָקֵי בֵּית שַׁמַּאי אוֹמְרִים אֵינָהּ צְרִיכָה מִמֶּנּוּ גֵּט שֵׁנִי וּבֵית הִלֵּל אוֹמְרִים צְרִיכָה הֵימֶנּוּ גֵּט שֵׁנִי. אֵימָתַי בִּזְמַן שֶׁנִּתְגָּֽרְשָׁה מִן הַנִּישּׂוּאִין. וּמוֹדִין בְּנִתְגָּֽרְשָׁה מִן הָאֵירוּסִין שֶׁאֵינָהּ צְרִיכָה מִמֶּנּוּ גֵּט שֵׁנִי מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵין לִבּוֹ גַּס בָּהּ. כְּנָסָהּ בְּגֵט קֵרֵחַ תֵּצֵא מִזֶּה וּמִזֶּה וְכָל הַדְּרָכִים הָאֵילּוּ בָהּ. MISHNAH: If somebody divorced his wife but she stayed with him in a hostelry91Greek πανδοκεῖον., the House of Shammai say that she does not need a second bill of divorce from him, but the House of Hillel say that she needs a second bill of divorce from him92The reasons are explained in Note 59.. When? If she was divorced after definitive marriage. But they agree that if she was divorced after preliminary marriage, she does not need a second bill of divorce from him since he was not intimate with her93They will not sleep with one another as a matter of course.. If somebody married her based on a bald bill of divorce94A “bald” document is an irregular “knotted” document. In a usual, “simple” document, the witnesses sign on the document after the text. In a “knotted” document, the scribe will write a few lines, then these are folded, sewn together, fixed with a knot, and a witness signs on the verso. The document is valid if the number of ties equals the number of witnesses on the verso. A “bald” document has less witnesses than ties and is invalid. A woman who remarries on the basis of an invalid bill of divorce commits adultery. The rules of “knotted” documents are discussed in Halakhah 12., she shall be divorced from both of them and all the indicated consequences apply to her.
הלכה: הַמְגָרֵשׁ אֶת אִשְׁתּוֹ וְלָנָה עִמּוֹ כול׳. אָמַר רִבִּי מָנָא. בֵּית שַׁמַּי כְדַעְתְּהוֹן וּבֵית הִלֵּל כְּדַעְתְּהוֹן .בֵּית שַׁמַּי דְּאִינּוּן אָֽמְרִין. פּוֹטֵר אָדָם אֶת אִשְׁתּוֹ בְּגֵט יָשָׁן. אִינּוּן אִינּוּן דְּאָֽמְרִין. אֵינָהּ צְרִיכָה מִמֶּנּוּ גֵּט שֵׁנִי. אָמַר רִבִּי יוֹסֵי בַּר בּוּן. בֵּית שַׁמַּי כְדַעְתְּהוֹן וּבֵית הִלֵּל כְּדַעְתְּהוֹן. בֵּית שַׁמַּי דְּאִינּוּן אָֽמְרִין. לֹא יְגָרֵשׁ אָדָם אֶת אִשְׁתּוֹ אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן מָצָא בָהּ עֶרְוָה אִינּוּן אִינּוּן דְּאָֽמְרִין. מְזוֹהֶמֶת הִיא מִלְּפָנָיו וְאֵינוֹ חָשׁוּד עָלֶיהָ. לְפִיכָךְ אֵינָהּ צְרִיכָה מִמֶּנּוּ גֵּט שֵׁינִי. בֵּית הִלֵּל דְּאִינּוּן אָֽמְרִין. אֲפִילוּ הִקְדִּיחָה תַבְשִילוֹ. אִינּוּן אִינּוּן דְּאָֽמְרִין. אֵינָהּ מְזוֹהֶמֶת מִלְּפָנָיו וְהוּא חָשׁוּד עָלֶיהָ. לְפִיכָךְ צְרִיכָה מִמֶּנּוּ גֵּט שֵׁינִי. HALAKHAH: “If somebody divorced his wife but she stayed with him,” etc. Rebbi Mana said, the House of Shammai are consistent and the House of Hillel are consistent. Since the House of Shammai say that “a man may send away his wife with an old bill of divorce,” they say that she does not need a second bill of divorce from him. Rebbi Yose ben Rebbi Abun said, the House of Shammai are consistent and the House of Hillel are consistent. Since the House of Shammai say that “a man shall not divorce his wife unless he found in her a matter of immorality95Mishnah 9:11.,” thy say that she is dirty in his eyes and he is not suspected of having relations with her, therefore she does not need a second bill of divorce from him.. Since the House of Hillel say, “even if she spoiled his food95Mishnah 9:11.”, they say that she is not dirty in his eyes, he is suspected of having relations with her, and she needs a second bill of divorce from him59In Mishnah 9:11, the House of Shammai forbid divorce except for adultery (whether or not it is provable in court). Therefore, the House of Shammai can assume that the parties hate one another and will not sleep together. But the House of Hillel, who permit divorce for any (or no) reason, must be afraid that the wife could become pregnant after the bill was written and this would put her child in an untenable position. In any case, everybody agrees that the bill of divorce is valid in biblical law.’96Babylonian sources (Babli 81b, Tosephta 6:9) hold that the House of Hillel require a second bill of divorce only if it was known that the divorced couple shared a bedroom in the hotel. This is not the position of the Yerushalmi..
הַמְגָרֵשׁ אֶת אִשְׁתּוֹ לֹא תִדּוֹר עִמּוֹ לֹא בְאוֹתָהּ חָצֵר וְלֹא בְאוֹתוֹ מָקוֹם. אִם הָֽיְתָה חָצֵר שֶׁלָּאִשָּׁה הָאִישׁ מְפַנֶּה. וְשֶׁלָּאִישׁ אִשָּׁה מְפַנָּה. שֶׁלִּשְׁנֵיהֶן מִי מְפַנֶּה מִפְּנֵי מִי. אִשָּׁה מִפְּנֵי אִישׁ. וְאִם יְכוֹלִין הֵן זֶה פוֹתֵחַ לְכָאן וְזֶה פוֹתֵחַ לְכָאן. בַּמֶּה דְבָרִים אֲמוּרִים. בִּזְמַן שֶׁנִּשְּׂאוּ. הָא לֹא נִישְׂאוּ לֹא. וּבְכוֹהֶנֶת אֲפִילוּ לֹא נִישְׂאוּ. וְהָאֲרוּסָה שֶׁבִּיהוּדָה כִנְשׂוּאָה הִיא. הַחוֹלֵץ לִיבִמְתּוֹ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁעָשָׂה מַאֲמָר הֲרֵי זֶה לֹא יְפַנֶּה. שֶׁאֵין מַאֲמָר קוֹנֶה קִנְייָן גָּמוּר. 97A similar text is in Semaḥot 2:14, a different formulation is in the Babli (Ketubot 27b/28a). If somebody divorces his wife she should not live in the same courtyard or the same place98Or zarua‘ (Yibbum waḥalȋṣah #618) reads מבוי “dead-end-street” in place of מקום. This is the language of the Babli.. If the courtyard was the wife’s property, the husband has to move out, if the husband’s, the wife has to move out. If it was common property, who has to move because of whom? The woman because of the man, unless they can manage to have separate exits99In the interpretation of Or zarua‘, if they can build a wall dividing the property, each section having its own entrance door from the courtyard.. When has this been said? If they were definitively married, not if they were not definitively married100Preliminarily married couples are not supposed to have slept together; they are not suspected to do so after divorce.. But the wife of a Cohen if she was not definitively married101Since she is biblically prohibited to her preliminary ex-husband., as well as the status of a preliminarily married woman in Jehudah102She was unchaperoned together with her preliminary husband and presumed to have slept with him; Mishnah Ketubot 1:5., is that of one definitively married. Nobody has to move if a person gives ḥalȋṣah to his sister-in-law even if he had “bespoken103The imitation of preliminary marriage before levirate marriage; cf. Mishnah Yebamot 2:1, Note 6. This is a rabbinic formality; if the couple had relations, they would be biblically married and the marriage could only be terminated by a bill of divorce. The act of ḥalȋṣah guarantees that they never were intimate and the precautions enacted for divorced couples do not apply to them.” her since “bespeaking” does not fully acquire.