משנה: חֵרֵשׁ רוֹמֵז וְנִרְמָז בֶּן בְּתֵירָה אוֹמֵר קוֹפֵץ וְנִקְפָּץ בִּמְטַלְטְלִין. הַפָּעוֹטוֹת מִקְחָן מֶקַח וּמִמְכָּרָן מִמְכָּר בִּמְטַלְטְלִין. MISHNAH: A deaf-mute communicates in sign language, and Ben Bathyra says, in pantomimes209This is Rashi’s explanation, based on Job 5:10. Maimonides’s explanation is based on a meaning “to jump” (Cant. 2:8) meaning that the deaf-mute has to bring and handle the object., referring to movables. Underage children: their buy is a buy and their sale is a sale, referring to movables.
הלכה: בֶּן בְּתֵירָה אוֹמֵר קוֹפֵץ וְנִקְפָּץ. שׂוֹכֵר וּמִשְׂתַּכֵּר. אַפֳּיוֹטוֹת פַּרִייָא. אָמַר רִבִּי יוֹחָנָן. מִפְּנֵי חַיֵּיהֶן. אָמַר רִבִּי מָנָא. אַף עַל גַּב דְּרִבִּי יוֹסֵי רְבוּ גָּבֵי עִיצוּמִין. מוֹדֶה בְּאִילֵּין דִיהָבוּן בְּנֵיהוֹן לְאוּמְנוּתָא דְּאִינּוּן גָּבוֹי עִיצוּמִין מִפְּנֵי חַיֵּי הַבִּרְיוֹת. HALAKHAH: “Ben Bathyra says, in pantomimes210This is the quote from the Mishnah but it is not discussed..” He hires and is hired211The deaf-mute, by sign language.. The artless, small children212The uncommon Semitic word פָּעוּט is compared to Greek ἀποίητος “artless”, παιδία “childhood”. (Explanation of H. L. Fleischer.) S. Lieberman (Tosephta kiFshutah p. 847) explains אפיוטות, הפיוטות as Greek ἑπτέτης, ἑπταετής, adj., “seven years old”. There is no reason to single out that age.. Rebbi Joḥanan said, because of their livelihood. Rebbi Mana said, even though Rebbi Yose raises difficulties in collecting forfeits213He holds that nobody signs a contract that imposes a fine on himself with the idea that he really will have to pay the fine. Therefore, a contract which contains a forfeit clause for each party may be asmakhta and invalid (Ketubot 5:5, Note 117); the court is reluctant to enforce such a clause. (In modern Hebrew, עִיצוּמִים are labor union actions just short of a strike.), he agrees that those who give their children to artisans that they collect forfeits because of the livelihood of people214If an artisan bows out of a contract for an apprentice, he will have to pay a fine since the child needs to learn a trade to be able to make a living..