משנה: מִי שֶׁחֶצְיוֹ עֶבֶד וְחֶצְיוֹ בֶּן חוֹרִין עוֹבֵד אֶת רַבּוֹ יוֹם אֶחָד וְאֶת עַצְמוֹ יוֹם אֶחָד דִּבְרֵי בֵית הִלֵּל. בֵּית שַׁמַּאי אוֹמְרִים תִּיקַּנְתֶּם אֶת רַבּוֹ וְאֶת עַצְמוֹ לֹא תִקַּנְתֶּם. לִישָּׂא שִׁיפְחָה אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל בַּת חוֹרִין אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל יִבָּטֵל. וַהֲלֹא לֹא נִבְרָא הָעוֹלָם אֶלָּא לְפִירְייָה וְרִבְייָה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר לֹא תוֹהוּ בְּרָאָהּ לָשֶׁבֶת יְצָרָהּ. אֶלָּא מִפְּנֵי תִיקּוּן הָעוֹלָם כּוֹפִין אֶת רַבּוֹ וְעוֹשֶׂה אוֹתוֹ בֶּן חוֹרִין וְכוֹתֵב שְׁטָר עַל חֲצִי דָמָיו. חָֽזְרוּ בֵית הִלֵּל לְהוֹרוֹת כְּדִבְרֵי בֵית שַׁמַּאי. MISHNAH: A person who is half slave and half free works for his master one day and for himself one day, the words of the House of Hillel. The House of Shammai say, you provided for his master but you did not provide for him. He can marry neither a slave woman131The free part in him is forbidden any sexual relation with a slave. nor a free woman132The free woman is forbidden any sexual relation with the slave part in him.: shall he be alone? But the world was created only for procreation and increase, as it is said133Is. 45:18.: “He did not create it to be empty, He formed it to be settled.” For the public good one forces his master to manumit him and he writes a bond for half his value134This entered Roman law by a decree of Justinian, c. 1. C. 7,7. Most earlier jurists rejected the idea of partial manumission; cf. R. Taubenschlag (Note 104), p. 75.. The House of Hillel changed and instructed following the House of Shammai.
הלכה: מִי שֶׁחֶצְיוֹ עֶבֶד וְחֶצְיוֹ בֶּן חוֹרִין כול׳. הֵיאַךְ אֶפְשָׁר חֶצְיוֹ עֶבֶד וְחֶצְיוֹ בֶּן חוֹרִין. תִּיפְתָּר אוֹ כְרִבִּי. דְּרִבִּי אוֹמֵר. אָדָם מְשַׁחְרֵר חֲצִי עַבְדּוֹ. אוֹ דִבְרֵי הַכֹּל בְּעֶבֶד שֶׁלִּשְׁנֵי שׁוּתָפִין וְעָמַד אֶחָד מֵהֶן וְשִׁיחְרֵר חֶלְקוֹ. מָצָא מְצִיאָה. בְּיוֹם שֶׁל רַבּוֹ שֶׁל רַבּוֹ. בְּיוֹם שֶׁלְּעַצְמוֹ שֶׁלְּעַצְמוֹ. וְלֵית מָחָר בְּעֵי יְעַבְדָּהּ לֵיהּ לְמָרֵיהּ. קִידֵּשׁ אִשָּׁה. בְּיוֹם שֶׁל מָרֵיהּ אֵין חוֹשְׁשִׁין לְקִידּוּשָׁיו. בְּיוֹם שֶׁלְּעַצְמוֹ חוֹשְׁשִׁין לְקִידּוּשָׁיו. וְלֹא כֵן אָמַר רִבִּי חִייָה בְשֵׁם רִבִּי יוֹחָנָן. מִי שֶׁחֶצְיוֹ עֶבֶד וְחֶצְיוֹ בֶּן חוֹרִין קִידֵּשׁ אִשָּׁה אֵין חוֹשְׁשִׁין לְקִידּוּשָׁיו. דִּכְװָתָא גֵּירַשׁ אֵין חוֹשְׁשִׁין לְגֵירוּשָׁיו. HALAKHAH: “A person who is half slave and half free,” etc. How is it possible that anyone be half slave and half free? Explain it either following Rebbi, since Rebbi said that a person can free half of his slave135In the Babli (41b, 23b, Temurah 25b) one holds that in the opinion of the rabbis opposed to Rebbi a person cannot free half of his slave but the freedom of a slave can be bought in installments., or following everybody in the case of a slave belonging to two partners, when one of them manumitted his part. If he found anything of value, on his master’s day it belongs to his master136Since at least for R. Meїr a slave’s hand is his master’s hand (Ketubot 6:1, Note 10; Nedarim 11:8, Note 70), what he finds belongs to his master., on his own day it belongs to him. But would he not on the next day turn it over137Reading יעברה for יעבדה. Since a slave cannot own property, all he has would be intermittently his owner’s. This is legally an impossible situation; even without the argument of the House of Shammai it would be necessary to totally free the partially manumitted person or to declare the partial manumission as void. to his master? If he entered a preliminary marriage. On his master’s day, one would not consider his marriage138As a slave, he cannot marry. A woman who receives valuables from a slave for a preliminary marriage is free to marry any other man without a divorce; she is not considered married., on his own day one would consider his marriage139While the marriage could not be consummated (Note 132), there seems to be no reason why the preliminary marriage should not be valid according to the House of Hillel, who hold that on alternate days he is a free person.. But did not Rebbi Ḥiyya say in Rebbi Joḥanan’s name: If a person who is half slave and half free entered a preliminary marriage, one does not consider his marriage140By a rabbinic decree, the half-free person is disqualified from entering a preliminary marriage.. In parallel, if he divorced one does not consider his divorce141If a half-free person entered a preliminary marriage and then, upon being informed that his act was invalid, gave the woman a bill of divorce; the recipient was never either married or divorced and is free to marry a Cohen..
תַּמָּן תַּנִּינָן. אֵין נוֹשְׂאִין נָשִׁים בְּמוֹעֵד. שִׁמְעוֹן בַּר אַבָּא בְשֵׁם רִבִּי יוֹחָנָן. מִשּׁוּם בִּיטּוּל פִּרְייָה וְרִבְייָה. בְּעוֹן קוֹמֵי רִבִּי יוֹסֵי. עֵבֵד מָהוּ שֶׁיִּשָּׂא אִשָּׁה בְמוֹעֵד. אָמַר לֵיהּ. נִישְׁמְעִינָהּ מִן הָדָא. לִיבְטִיל. וַהֲלֹא לֹא נִבְרָא הָעוֹלָם אֶלָּא לְפִרְייָה וְרִבְייָה. וְאָמַר רִבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בַּר אַבָּא בְשֵׁם רִבִּי יוֹחָנָן. כָּל־שֶׁהוּא מְצוּוֶּה עַל פִּרְייָה וְרִבְייָה אָסוּר לוֹ לִישָּׂא אִשָּׁה בְּמוֹעֵד. There142Mishnah Mo‘ed Qaṭan 1:7., we have stated: “One does not marry women on a holiday143The intermediate days of the Passover and Tabernacles holidays when acquisitions are permitted and in biblical law the man could acquire a wife and the woman the ketubah rights..” Simeon bar Abba in the name of Rebbi Joḥanan: Because of refraining from being fruitful and increase144The prohibition to organize weddings on the intermediate days of a holiday is purely rabbinical, so that people should not refrain from marrying during the rest of the year in order to save money.
In Mo‘ed Qaṭan 1:7 1. 26ff. and the Babli, 8b/9a, the reason for the prohibition is a matter of disagreement among several authors.. They asked before Rebbi Yose: May a slave marry a woman on a holiday145The question is difficult to understand since the slave cannot marry as long as he is a slave but is a full Jew subject to all Jewish laws the moment he is manumitted. Maybe the question is about a slave manumitted on the holiday.? He told them, let us hear from the following: “Shall he be alone? But the world was created only for procreation and increase!” And Rebbi Simeon bar Abba said in the name of Rebbi Joḥanan: Anybody commanded to be fruitful and increase is forbidden to marry on a holiday146Even if in this case the marriage has to be postponed for a few days. A slightly different version of this paragraph is in Mo‘ed Qaṭan 1:7 80d l. 30, quoted by Tosaphot Ḥagiga 2b, Giṭṭin 41b, s. v. לא. Tosaphot point out that in a certain sense a male slave cannot fulfill the commandment to be fruitful because he cannot have any family relationship with his biological children..