משנה: נִכְתַּב בַּיּוֹם וְנֶחְתַּם בַּיּוֹם בַּלַּיְלָה וְנֶחְתַּם בַּלַּיְלָה בַּלַּיְלָה וְנֶחְתַּם בַּיּוֹם כָּשֵׁר. בַּיּוֹם וְנֶחְתַּם בַּלַּיְלָה פָסוּל רִבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן מַכְשִׁיר שֶׁהָיָה רִבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר כָּל הַגִּיטִּין שֶׁנִּכְתְּבְוּ בַיּוֹם וְנֶחְתְּמוּ בַלַּיְלָה פְּסוּלִין חוּץ מִגִּיטֵּי נָשִׁים. MISHNAH: If it was written during daytime and signed during daytime, in the night and signed in the night, in the night and signed during daytime, it is valid29Since the Jewish calendar day starts at nightfall, all these documents are signed on the day indicated as date in it.. During daytime and signed in the night it is invalid30Since every night belongs to the next day in the calendar, the document is predated.. Rebbi Simeon declares it valid since Rebbi Simeon says that all documents which were written during daytime and signed at night are invalid except for women’s bills of divorce31He holds that the date of the writing of a divorce document has no monetary consequences; the duty of the husband to pay the ketubah and to return the dowry to his wife starts with the date of delivery of the bill..
הלכה: נִכְתַּב בַּיּוֹם וְנֶחְתַּם בַּיּוֹם כוּל׳. אָמַר רִבִּי יוֹחָנָן. פָּסוּל מִפְּנֵי אֲכִילַת פֵּירוֹת. אָמַר לֵיהּ רֵישׁ לָקִישׁ. מֵעַתָּה תָחוּשׁ לַגִיטִּין הַבָּאִין מִמְּדִינַת הַיָּם שֶׁמָּא נִכְתְּבוּ בַיּוֹם וְנֶחְתְּמוֹ בַלַּיְלָה. אָמַר לֵיהּ. זֶה זִיּוּפוֹ מִתּוֹכוֹ וְזֶה זִיּוּפוֹ מִדָּבָר אַחֵר. HALAKHAH: “If it was written during daytime and signed during daytime,” etc. Rebbi Joḥanan said, it is invalid because of the usufruct32He holds that the husband’s right to the yield of his wife’s property ends with the signing of the bill of divorce, not with its delivery. A predated bill of divorce is a predated document about money and, therefore, invalid automatically.
The Babylonian theory, given in Halakhah 4:3, requires a date as a matter of criminal law. In the Babli, 17a/b, both opinions are attributed either to R. Joḥanan or to R. Simeon ben Laqish; cf. Sefer Haʻiṭṭur 1, 6d, Note 26.. Rebbi Simeon ben Laqish told him, then you should also be suspicious of the bills of divorce brought from overseas; maybe they were written during daytime and signed in the night33The messenger has to testify that he was present at the writing and signing of the bill, so he can be asked whether the document was written and signed specifically for the woman to be divorced. Why does he not have to testify that it was signed on the date of writing?! He answered him, there the forgery is intrinsic34If the bill was not written specifically for the woman for whom it is intended, it is worthless., here it is extrinsic35If the writing and the signing are done for the correct purpose, the document is executed correctly. It becomes unenforceable by an outside circumstance..
אָמַר רִבִּי יוֹחָנָן. לֹא אָמַר רִבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אֶלָּא בַלַּיְלָה. אֲבָל לְמָחָר אוֹף רִבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן מוֹדֶה. רֵישׁ לָקִישׁ אָמַר. לֹא שַׁנְייָא. הוּא לַיְלָה הוּא מָחָר הוּא לְאַחַר כַּמָּה. הֵיי דֵין הוּא לְמָחָר. רִבִּי חֲנַנְיָה וְרִבִּי מָנָא. חַד אָמַר. לְמָחָר. וְחָרָנָא אָמַר. מָחֳרָא דְמָחָר. וְקַשְׁיָא דְּרִבִּי יוֹחָנָן עַל דְּרֵישׁ (לָקִישׁ). כֵּן אָמַר רִבִּי בָּא בְשֵׁם רִבִּי זְעִירָא. אַתְיָא דְּרִבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן (בֶּן לָקִישׁ) כְּרִבִּי אֶלְעָזָר. כְּמַה דְּרִבִּי אֶלְעָזָר אָמַר. אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין עָלָיו עֵדִים כָּשֵר. כֵּן רִבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר. אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין עָלָיו עֵדִים כָּשֵׁר. אָמַר רִבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל אַחֲוֵי דְרִבִי בְּרֶכְיָה. כָּאן בְּרוֹצֶה לְחַתְּמוֹ וְכָאן בְּשֶׁאֵינָהּ רוֹצָה לְחַתְּמוֹ. אָמַר לָעֲשָׂרָה. חִתְמוּ בַגֵּט זֶה. וְחָֽתְמוּ מִקְצָתָן הַיּוֹם וּלְמָחָר מִקְצָתָן. רִבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן לָקִישׁ אָמַר. כָּשֵׁר. וְהַשְּׁאָר עַל תְּנַאי. רִבִּי יוֹחָנָן אָמַר. פָּסוּל עַד שֶׁיַּחְתְּמוּ כּוּלָּן בוֹ בַיּוֹם. רִבִּי יַעֲקֹב בַּר אִידִי בְשֵׁם רִבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן לֵוִי. מַעֲשֶׂה בְּאֶחָד שֶׁאָמַר לָעֲשָׂרָה. חִתְמוּ בַגֵּט. וְחָֽתְמוּ מִקְצָתָן הַיּוֹם וּמִקְצָתָן לְמָחָר. אָתָא עוֹבְדָא קוֹמֵי רַבָּנִין וְכַשְּׁרוּן וְחָשׁוּן. הָדָא מְסַייְעָא לְרִבִּי יוֹחָנָן מִן דְּרַבָּנִין וּפְלִיגָא עֲלוֹי דְּרִבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן. הָדָא מְסַייְעָא לְרִבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן לָקִישׁ מִן דְּרִבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן וּפְלִיגָא עֲלוֹי מִן דְּרַבָּנִין. Rebbi Joḥanan said, Rebbi Simeon stated this only for the night; but on the next day even Rebbi Simeon will agree36Since R. Simeon accepts documents from a Gentile court (Mishnah 1:5), he must accept Gentile dating for which the night follows the day. But the next day is a different date even in the Gentile calendar.. But Rebbi Simeon ben Laqish said, there is no difference, whether night, or the next day, or after many days37He holds that for R. Simeon the date of a bill of divorce is irrelevant.. What is the next day? Rebbi Ḥanania and Rebbi Mana, one said the next day, the other said the day after the next38This opinion is difficult to understand.. The statement of Rebbi Joḥanan about Rebbi Simeon (ben Laqish)39Clearly, “ben Laqish” is a copyist’s error since the reference is to the Tanna, ben Ioḥai. Cf. Sefer Haʻiṭṭur 7c, Note 62. is difficult! 40This is a quote from Chapter 1:5, Note 132. So says Rebbi Abba in the name of Rebbi Ze‘ira: It turns out that Rebbi Simeon (ben Laqish)39Clearly, “ben Laqish” is a copyist’s error since the reference is to the Tanna, ben Ioḥai. Cf. Sefer Haʻiṭṭur 7c, Note 62. agrees with Rebbi Eleazar. Just as Rebbi Eleazar said, even if there are no witnesses signed on it, it is valid, so Rebbi Simeon said, even if there are no witnesses signed on it, it is valid. Rebbi Samuel, the brother of Rebbi Berekhiah, said: Here, if he wants the document to be signed, there if she does not want the document to be signed. If he said to ten people, sign the bill of divorce, and some signed today and some the next day. Rebbi Simeon ben Laqish said, it is valid for the remainder [are signing] only because of the condition15The first two witnesses validate the document as a bill of divorce The others only sign because he made a condition that the bill be valid only with ten signatures, to make a public statement that he would no longer be responsible for his wife’s debts.. Rebbi Joḥanan said it is invalid unless all sign on the same day16One cannot split the conditions; all ten signatures are needed to validate and, therefore, must be affixed on the date specified in the document. Otherwise the document would be invalid as predated.
In the Babli, 18b, the attributions are switched. This means that the Babli, which always prefers R. Joḥanan to R. Simeon ben Laqish, follows what is declared here to be R. Simeon ben Laqish’s opinion. The Yerushalmi does not decide between the opinions.. Rebbi Jacob bar Idi in the name of Rebbi Joshua ben Levi: There was a case that one said to ten people, sign the bill of divorce, and some signed on that day and some the next day. The case came before the rabbis who reluctantly declared it valid42,The case is mentioned in the Babli, 18b, as coming before R. Joshua ben Levi's court where the latter declared that "R. Simeon is important enough that one may follow him in an emergency"; the husband had disappeared and it was impossible to obtain a replacement bill from him.43From here on there exists a Geniza fragment whose readings are given by ג. This supports Rebbi Joḥanan from the position of the rabbis44Since they permitted a bill signed on two different dates only in order to save the wife from being married to a husband who had disappeared, they agree with him that his rule represents the normal case. and disagrees with Rebbi Simeon. This supports Rebbi Simeon ben Laqish from the position of Rebbi Simeon and disagrees with the rabbis.