משנה: נִתַּיי אִישׁ תְּקוֹעַ הֵבִיא חַלּוֹת מִבַּייְתוּר וְלֹא קִיבְּלוּ מִמֶּנּוּ. אַנְשֵׁי אֲלֶכְסַנְדְּרִיאָה הֵבִיאוּ חַלּוֹתֵיהֶן מֵאֲלֶכְסַנְדְּרִיאָה וְלֹא קִיבְּלוּ מֵהֶן. אַנְשֵׁי הַר צְבוֹעִים הֵבִיאוּ בִּיכּוּרֵיהֶם קוֹדֶם לָעֲצֶרֶת וְלֹא קִיבְּלוּ מֵהֶן. מִפְּנֵי הַכָּתוּב שֶׁבַּתּוֹרָה וְחַג הַקָּצִיר בִּיכּוּרֵי מַעֲשֶׂיךָ אֲשֶׁר תִּזְרַע בַּשָּׂדֶה. בֶּן אֲטִיטַס הֶעֱלָה בְּכוֹרוֹת מִבָּבֶל וְלֹא קִבְּלוּ מִמֶּנּוּ. יוֹסֵף הַכֹּהֵן הֵבִיא בִּיכּוּרָיו יַיִן וְשֶׁמֶן וְלֹא קִבְּלוּ מִמֶּנּוּ. אַף הוּא הֶעֱלָה אֶת בָּנָיו וְאֶת בְּנֵי בֵיתוֹ לַעֲשׂוֹת פֶּסַח קָטָן בִּירוּשָׁלֵם וְהֶחֱזִירוּהוּ שֶׁלֹּא יִקְבַּע הַדָּבָר לְדוֹרוֹת. אֲרִסְטוֹן הֵבִיא בִּיכּוּרָיו מֵאַפָּמֵיָא וְקִבְּלוּ מִמֶּנּוּ. מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאָֽמְרוּ הַקּוֹנֶה בְסוּרִיָּא כְקוֹנֶה בְּפַרְװָר יְרוּשָׁלֵם. MISHNAH: Nittai from Tekoa brought ḥallot from Baithur172This place has not been convincingly identified. Possibly it is the place of origin of the family Ben Bathyra, the leading rabbinical authorities in the region of Nisibis on the upper Tigris during the centuries of the Mishnaic period. but they did not accept from him173Since it is impure by coming from outside the Land, the rabbinic authorities of the day forbade any Cohen to accept it.. The people of Alexandria brought their ḥallot from Alexandria but they did not accept from them174Probably near the place צבעים (Neh. 11:34, 1S. 13:18), West of Jerusalem.. The people from Hyena Mountain175Pentecost. brought their First Fruits before Pentecost but they did not accept from them because of the verse in the Torah: (Ex. 23:16) “The pilgrimage holiday of harvest176In the quote Babli Temura 21a Ben Antigonos (Venice print), Ben Eutitas (Responsa R. Salomon ben Adrat vol. 1, #331)., the First Fruits of your work from sowing the field.”
Ben-Atitas176In the quote Babli Temura 21a Ben Antigonos (Venice print), Ben Eutitas (Responsa R. Salomon ben Adrat vol. 1, #331). brought firstlings from Babylonia and they did not accept them177In the Temple, since firstlings can only be brought from places from which heave and tithes are obligatory [Sifry on Deut. 14:23 (#106); Babli Bekhorot 53a].. Joseph the Cohen178A Tanna of the Temple period, mentioned in Mishnah Miqwa’ot 10:1 and several baraitot in the Babli. brought his First Fruits as wine and oil and they did not accept them. He also brought his children and members of his household179Women, slaves, and minor children who are exempt from bringing the Pesaḥ sacrifice on the 14th of Iyar if they were unable to bring it on the 14th of Nisan, since it is a positive obligation due at a fixed time. It seems that Joseph the Cohen was sufficiently known for the Temple authorities to be afraid that his example would be imitated and in the end create a baseless obligation. to make the second Passover in Jerusalem but they turned him back so as not to create a precedent for the future. Ariston brought his First Fruits from Apamea and they accepted them for they said, he who buys in Syria is like him who buys in the suburbs of Jerusalem180Cf. Mishnah Demay 6:11..
הלכה: תַּנֵּי רִבִּי חִייָה גָּֽזְרוּ עֲלֵיהֶן וְהֶחֱזִירוּם לִמְקוֹמָן. אָמַר רִבִּי בָּא בַּר זַבְדָּא אֵיפשַׁר לְאוֹכְלָהּ אֵין אַתְּ יָכוֹל שֶׁלֹּא יֹאמְרוּ רָאִינוּ תְרוּמָה טְמֵאָה שֶׁנֶּאֱכֶלֶת. לְשׂוֹרְפָהּ אֵין אַתְּ יָכוֹל שֶׁלֹּא יְהוּ אוֹמְרִים רָאִינוּ תְרוּמָה טְהוֹרָה נִשְׂרֶפֶת. לְהַחֲזִירָהּ לִמְקוֹמָהּ אֵין אַתְּ יָכוֹל שֶׁלֹּא יְהוּ אוֹמְרִים רָאִינוּ תְרוּמָה יוֹצֵא מִן הָאָרֶץ לְחוּץ לָאָרֶץ. הָא כֵיצַד מַנִּיחָהּ עַד עֶרֶב פֶּסַח וְשׂוֹרְפָהּ. HALAKHAH: Rebbi Ḥiyya182This is R. Ḥiyya the elder. The discussion is about the foreign ḥallah which was rejected by the authorities advising the Cohanim. stated: They decided about these and turned them back to their places of origin. Rebbi Abba bar Zavda said, this is impossible. One may not eat it lest people say we saw impure heave being eaten. One may not burn it lest people say we saw pure heave183While the heave/ḥallah is impure as foreign produce, it did not become impure in the Land and people will not know that it was imported. being burned. One may not return it to its place of origin lest people say we saw heave being exported from the Land. What to do? He lets it lie until Passover eve184When all leavened matter, including heave, must be burned. Nobody will notice the special status of this ḥallah. and burns it.
אָמַר רַבָּן שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל אֲנִי רָאִיתִי אֶת שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן כַּהֲנָא שׁוֹתֶה יַיִן שֶׁלְתְּרוּמָה בְּעַכּוֹ שֶׁאָמַר זֶה הוּבָא מִקִּילִיקִיָּה וְגָֽזְרוּ עָלָיו וּשְׁתָייוֹ בִּסְפִינָה. וְאֵין בְּנֵי אָדָם טוֹעִין לוֹמַר שֶׁמְּבִיאִין תְּרוּמָה מֵחוּצָה לָאָרֶן לָאָרֶץ. נֹאמַר לֹא יָרַד לְעַכּוֹ אֵיכָן שְׁתָייוֹ מִן הַחוּט וּלְחוּץ מִן הַחוּט וְלִפְנִים נֹאמַר מִן הַחוּט וּלְחוּץ. אָמַר רִבִּי יוֹנָה אֲפִילוּ תֵימַר מִן הַחוּט וְלִפְנִים לֹא חָשׁוּ לְמַרְאִית הָעַיִן בִּסְפִינָּה. Rabban Simeon ben Gamliel said, I saw Simeon ben Cahana drinking heave wine in Acco185This in itself is problematic since part of Acco belongs to the Land, part to Syria (cf. Ševi‘it 6:1, Note 30).. When he said, this was brought from Cilicia, they decided about him and he drank it on a ship. Would not people say that one imports heave from outside into the Land? Let us say, he did not go into Acco186Since “they decided”, the rabbinical authorities of Acco must have been asked about the situation. It is reasonable to assume that the question was asked before the wine was unloaded.. Where did he drink it? Outside the string187The imaginary line defining the territorial waters of the Land; cf. above, Note 99. or inside? Let us say, outside the string188This is unlikely since the ship would have had to leave port and go far out to sea.. Rebbi Jonah said, even if you say inside the string, they did not worry about bad appearances on a ship.
אֵימָתַי הָיָה שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן כַּהֲנָא בִּימֵי רִבִּי לִעֶזֶר. רִבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בַּר כַּהֲנָא הֲוָה מְסַמֵּךְ לְרִבִּי לִיעֶזֶר עָֽבְרוּן עַל חַד סְייָג. אָמַר לֵיהּ אַייְתִי חַד קִיסֵּם נֵיחֲצִי שִׁינָּיי. חָזַר וְאָמַר לֹא תֵּיתִי לִי כְּלוּם אָמַר דְּאִין אָתֵי כָּל־בַּר נַשׁ וּבַר נַשׁ מֵיעֲבַד כֵּן הֲוָה אָזִיל סְייָגָא דְּגוּבְרָא. רִבִּי חַגַּיי הֲוָה מְסַמֵּךְ לְרִבִּי זְעִירָא עָבַר חַד טָעִין חַד מוֹבָל דְּקִיסִּין. אָמַר לֵיהּ אַייְתִי לִי חַד קִיסֵּם נֵיחֲצִי שִׁינָּיי. חָזַר וְאָמַר לֵיהּ לֹא תֵּיתִי לִי כְּלוּם דְּאִין אָתֵי כָּל־בַּר נַשׁ וּבַר נַשׁ מֵתְעֲבַד כֵּן הָא אָֽזְלָא מוֹבְלָא דְּגַבְרָא. רִבִּי זְעִירָה כָשֵׁר כָּל־כָּךְ. אֶלָּא מִילִּין דְּיָצְרָן שָׁמַע לָן נָעַבְדִּינָן. When did Simeon ben Cahana live? In the days of Rebbi Eliezer. 189From Demay 3:2, Notes 52–56. Taking somebody else’s property is not a crime as long as the value of the thing taken is less than the smallest coin in circulation. Rebbi Simeon bar Cahana was supporting Rebbi Eliezer. They passed by a fence. He said to him, bring me a sliver as a toothpick. He changed his mind and told him, do not bring me anything; if everybody would do that, the fence of this man would be gone. Rebbi Ḥaggai was supporting Rebbi Zeïra. A person passed by who was carrying a load of chips. He said to him, bring me a chip as a toothpick. He changed his mind and told him, do not bring me anything; if everybody would do that, the load of this man would be gone. Is not Rebbi Zeïra particularly pious? No, he told us that we should observe the words of our Creator.
אַנְשֵׁי אֲלֶכְסַנְדְּרִיאָה הֵבִיאוּ חַלּוֹתֵיהֶן מֵאֲלֶכְסַנְדְּרִיאָה וְלֹא קִיבְּלוּ מֵהֶן. אָמַר רִבִּי בָּא מָרִי וְלֹא רִבִּי חִייָה רוֹבָא הִיא עוֹד הוּא אִית לֵיהּ וְגָֽזְרוּ עֲלֵיהֶן וְהֶחֱזִירוּם. “The people of Alexandria brought their ḥallot from Alexandria but they did not accept from them.” Rebbi Abba Mari said, is that not also from Rebbi Ḥiyya the elder190Does R. Ḥiyya (Note 182) simply state a ruling of the Sages of the day in the case of Nittai or does he express a generally valid halakhic statement?? He holds that they decided about these and ordered them to be returned.
אַנְשֵׁי הַר צְבוֹעִים הֵבִיאוּ בִּיכּוּרֵיהֶם קוֹדֶם לָעֲצֶרֶת וְלֹא קִיבְּלוּ מֵהֶן. תַּנִּינָן תַּמָּן אֵין מְבִיאִין בִּכּוּרִים מַשְׁקִין. רִבִּי הִילָא בְשֵׁם רִבִּי לָֽעְזָר כֵּינִי מַתְנִיתָא אֵין עוֹשִין בִּכּוּרִים מַשְׁקִין אֲפִילוּ מִשֶׁזָּכוּ בָהֶן בְּעָלִים. וְהָתַנֵּי דָּרַךְ בִּיכּוּרִים מַשְׁקֶה לַהֲבִיאָן מְנַיִין שֶׁיָּבִיא תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר תָּבִיא. תִּייפְתָּר שֶׁלְּקָטָן מִשָּׁעָה הָרִאשׁוֹנָה עַל מְנָת כֵּן. וְכָאן לֹא לְקָטָן מִשָּׁעָה רִאשׁוֹנָה עַל מְנָת כֵּן. “The people from Hyena Mountain brought their First Fruits before Pentecost but they did not accept from them.” 191The discussion is not about the quote from the Mishnah but about Joseph the Cohen who brought his First Fruits as wine and oil. There192Terumot 11:3. The text of the discussion is also from there, Notes 62–65. The Mishnah states: “One does not bring First Fruits as drinks except for grapes and olives.” This text is implied in the discussion here., we have stated: “One does not bring First Fruits as drinks.” Rebbi Hila in the name of Rebbi Eleazar: So says the Mishnah, “one does not turn First Fruits into drinks” even after they became property of the owners. But did we not state: “If he pressed First Fruits as a drink in order to bring them, from where that he should bring them? The verse says (Ex. 23:19, 34:26), ‘bring!’ ”. That is, if he harvested them from the start for this purpose. But here, if he did not harvest them from the start for this purpose193But fruits other than grapes and olives may not be made into juice under any circumstances..
וְאַתְייָא כְּמָאן דְּאָמַר פִּסְחָן שֶׁל נָשִׂים רְשׁוּת. תַּנֵּי הָאִשָּׁה עוֹשָׂה פֶסַח הָרִאשוֹן לְעַצְמָהּ וְהַשֵּׁינִי טְפֵילָה לָאֲחֵרִים דִּבְרֵי רִבִּי מֵאִיר. רִבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹמֵר הָאִשָּׁה עוֹשָׂה פֶסַח שֵׁינִי לְעַצְמָהּ אֲפִילוּ בְשַׁבָּת וְאֵין צְרִיכָה לוֹמַר הָרִאשׁוֹן. רִבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן אֶלְעָזָר אוֹמֵר הָאִשָּׁה עוֹשָׂה פֶסַח רִאשוֹן טְפֵילָה לָאֲחֵרִים וְאֵינָהּ עוֹשָׂה פֶּסַח שֵׁינִי. מַה טַעֲמָה דְּרִבִּי מֵאִיר אִישׁ שֶׂה לְבֵית אָבוֹת. אִם רָצוּ שֶׂה לַבָּיִת. מַה טַעֲמָה דְּרִבִּי יוֹסֵי אִישׁ שֶׂה לְבֵית אָבוֹת כָּל־שֶׁכֵּן לַבָּיִת. מַה טַעֲמָה דְּרִבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן אֶלְעָזָר אִישׁ וְלֹא אִשָּׁה. מַה מְקַייְמִין רַבָּנִין אִישׁ. פְּרָט לְקָטָן. אָמַר רִבִּי יוֹנָה וַאֲפִילוּ לְמָאן דְּאָמַר חוֹבָה שַׁנְייָא הִיא שֶׁהַדָּבָר מְסוּייָם שֶׁמָּא יִקָּבַע הַדָּבָר חוֹבָה. לֹא כֵן סָֽבְרִינָן מֵימַר קוֹדֶם לִשְׁתֵּי חַלּוֹת לֹא יָבִיא אִם הֵבִיא כָּשֵׁר. שַׁנְייָא הִיא שֶׁהַדָּבָר מְסוּייָם שֶׁמָּא יִקָּבַע הַדָּבָר חוֹבָה. וְלֹא כֵן תַּנִּינָן אִם בָּאוּ תְמִימִין יִקְרָבוּ. שַׁנְייָא הִיא שֶׁהַדָּבָר מְסוּייָם שֶׁמָּא יִקָּבַע הַדָּבָר חוֹבָה. Does it follow him who says the Pesaḥ of women is voluntary194That they refused to let Joseph the Cohen bring the Second Pesaḥ for his entire family. The same discussion in Pesaḥim 8:1 (fol. 35d), Qiddušin 1:8 (fol. 61c); cf. Babli Pesaḥim 93a, Mekhilta R. Ismael Ba 3, Mekhilta R. Simeon bar Ioḥai p. 10.? It was stated195Tosephta Pesaḥim 8:10. There, the opinion of R. Meïr is attributed to R. Jehudah.: “A woman may make the First Pesaḥ by herself and the Second joining others196Joining a group of men who are biblically obligated; cf. Note 177., the words of Rebbi Meïr. Rebbi Yose says, a woman may make the Second Pesaḥ by herself, even on the Sabbath197If the 14th of Iyar is a Sabbath, the sacrifice has precedence over the Sabbath., and certainly the First. Rebbi Simeon ben Eleazar says, a woman may make the First Pesaḥ joining others but does not make the Second.” What is the reason of Rebbi Meïr? (Ex. 12:3) “Every man a sheep for the family,” if they want “a sheep for the house198Everywhere in rabbinic Hebrew, “house” of a family is the wife..” What is the reason of Rebbi Yose, “Every man a sheep for the family,” a fortiori “a sheep for the house.” What is the reason of Rebbi Simeon ben Eleazar? “Every man”, not woman. How do the rabbis uphold “man”? A man, not a minor199In the Tosephta (Note 195) the reason they turned back Joseph the Cohen was not that he brought his wife and children but his minor grandson. In that version, there is no place for disagreement or special situation.. Rebbi Jonah said, even according to him who says it is an obligation, it is different here since the occasion was news, that it should not become an obligation200If a renowned authority does something, everybody will rush to emulate him and in the next generation it will already be a common standard and acquire the status of “practice of the forefathers from time immemorial”. Even R. Yose will agree that in such a situation one should not allow a public display of special devotion. The Babli Pesaḥim 93a quotes a Tosephta which includes women impure because of childbirth in the list of persons obligated to observe the Second Pesaḥ.. Did we not hold201Mishnah Menaḥot 10:6, Babli Menaḥot 69a, speaking of First Fruits. There seems to be no reason why the people from Hyena Mountain should not be permitted to bring their first fruits early. The answer is, they would have been permitted had some of them come as individuals. But that the people from an entire region should come publicly to do what is only tolerated is unacceptable.: “Before the Two Breads one should not bring but if somebody brought it is acceptable?” It is different here since the occasion was news, that it should not become an obligation. Did we not state202Mishnah Temurah 3:5. Why should Ben-Atitas not be permitted to bring his firstlings?: “If they were without blemish they should be sacrificed”? It is different here since the occasion was news, that it should not become an obligation.
אֲרִסְטוֹן הֵבִיא בִּיכּוּרָיו מֵאַפָּמֵיָא וְקִבְּלוּ מִמֶּנּוּ. תַּמָּן תַּנִּינָן אֵין מְבִיאִין תְּרוּמָה מֵחוּץ לָאָרֶץ לָאָרֶץ. וְיָבוֹאוּ בִּיכּוּרִין. אָמַר רִבִּי הוֹשַׁעְיָה בִּיכּוּרִים בַּאֲחֵרַיּוּת הַבְּעָלִים. תְּרוּמָה אֵינָה בַּאֲחֵרַיּוּת בְּעָלִים. אִם אָמַר אַתְּ כֵּן אַף הֵן מְרַדְּפִין לְאַחֲרֶיהָ לְשָׁם. “Ariston brought his First Fruits from Apamea and they accepted them.” There203Ševi‘it 6:6. The discussion is there, Note 152., we have stated: “One does not bring heave from outside the Land into the Land.” Should they be brought as First Fruits? Rebbi Hoshaia said, First Fruits are the responsibility of the owners, heave is not the responsibility of the owners. If you would say so, they would run after it there204Therefore, the rabbinic prohibition for heave from Syria is reasonable; there is no reason to prohibit First Fruits from Syria which must personally be delivered to the Temple..